Solid Biofuel - Overview


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Solid Biofuel - Overview

  1. 1. EVE Research and EVE Innovations Inc.December 15, 2011 E X E C U T I V E S U M M A RY The patent pending catalytic thermo-chemical process described herein converts almost every organic waste material efficiently and cost-effectively into a solid biofuel that has an energy density equal to metallurgical coal. Moreover, unlike coal, this patent pending biofuel is environmentally friendly as it burns clean and does not generate sulfur, nitrous oxides, creosols or heavy metals.
  2. 2. EVE Innovations Inc.OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY AND TECHNOLOGYEve Innovations Inc. is a company incorporated in British Columbia, Canada (“EveInnovations”). Eve Innovations is the primary licensee of Eve Research Inc. for a patentpending process that converts most forms of organic waste into a stable solid biofuel (the“Patented Process” and “Patented Biofuel” respectively).The Patented Biofuel has an energy density equivalent to high quality coal (27-30 GJ/tonne)and can be produced from a wide variety of feedstock. Some of the organic waste materialsalready converted into the Patented Biofuel include:  agricultural wastes such as straw from rice, wheat, corn, plant cuttings, animal manure, bagasse, cassava, water hyacinth, milfoil, palm oil waste, and rice husks;  wood waste such as bark, forest cuttings, construction and demolition waste;  municipal waste such as construction material, food waste, yard waste, paper, and cardboard packaging; and  fast food packaging, coated drinking cups and coffee grounds.By converting the organic waste to a commercially viable energy source, the process removesthe need to dispose of the cellulose waste. This will often reduce the costs, liabilities andlogistics involved with waste disposal and any ongoing management. Our diversity offeedstock also avoids competition with alternative uses such as food and feed grainsexperience with ethanol and lumber with wood pellets.The end products from the Patented Process are water and the Patented Biofuel. There is nowaste product such as sludge that requires disposal or handling.Burning the Patented Biofuel produces heat/energy, carbon dioxide, and less than 0.5% ash..Burning coal may produce comparable heat/energy (if high quality coal), similar amounts ofcarbon dioxide and anywhere from 6 to 15% ash. The major difference between the two fuels isthat coal gives off heavy metals, sulfur, creosol and tar deposits; the Patented Biofuel does not.The solid fuel markets are already established and large. Given the Patented Biofuel iseffectively a green coking coal, a key niche market is the steel industry. Alternative uses areelectrical power plants, industrial thermal plants and the retail market (pellet stoves).The uniqueness of the technology and the broad scope of the technology’s applicationprovides for a wide variety of applications – globally. Eve Innovations Converts Waste Problems into Profitable Green Energy Solutions Confidential Page 1
  3. 3. EVE Innovations Inc.MANUFACTURING PROCESSThe process for making the Patented Biofuel uses existing technology centered around acatalytic1 thermo-chemical reaction in a water-based solution at elevated temperatures andpressure. This process is similar to that used in pulp and paper digesters. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Pre-processing feedstock Patented Process Pelletizing/TransportThe Patented Biofuel product is filtered out of the solution, and then easily compressed intopucks, pellets or blocks for transport. If the end user prefers to burn the fuel in a powder form,simple mechanical crushing can be performed prior to burning.The feedstock gathering and preparation processes, bioreactor process and biofuel handlingprocesses all utilize existing technologies which minimizes the risk profile typically associatedwith a breakthrough technology. The only unique aspect of the technology is the proprietaryreagents invented by Alexis Fosse Mackintosh who has assigned all patent applications for thePatented Process and the Patented Biofuel product to Eve Research Inc. In turn, Eve Researchlicensed the technology to Eve Innovations. PCT patent applications are pending.A summary of detailed applications is found in the last section – Competitive Advantages.ENERGY DENSITY / NET ENERGY GAINThe energy density of cellulose feedstock is approximately 14 GJ/tonne. In comparison, theenergy density of the Patented Biofuel is typically 27 – 30 GJ/tonne. Through the PatentedProcess, approximately 1.4 tonnes of cellulose are converted to 1 tonne of the Patented Biofuel.In other words, 21 GJ/tonne of cellulose is converted to 27 – 30 GJ/tonne of the Patented1 The identity of the catalyst is confidential and steps have been taken to prevent reverse engineering of the catalyst.Page 2 Confidential
  4. 4. EVE Innovations Inc.Biofuel. The energy density increase is due to the proprietary reagents in the process thatcause a fundamental change of the molecular structure of the feedstock. As a result, for everytonne of the Patented Biofuel produced, an extra 6 – 9 GJ of energy is made3 available. Withproper heat recycling in place, the typical energy cost to produce a tonne of the PatentedBiofuel product is approximately 2 - 3 GJ/tonne. As a result, the net energy balance is anincrease of up to 6 GJ/tonne of Patented Biofuel.BURN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATENTED BIOFUELThe characterization of the Patented Biofuel was conducted in two ways: (i) total heat content;and (ii) thermogravimetric analysis.Total Heat ContentThe energy density of the Patented Biofuel was analyzed by an independent laboratory inBritish Columbia (Powertech Labs, a division of BC Hydro). A copy of the test report isprovided below. Their results confirmed energy density up to 13,100 Btu per pound, theequivalent of 30 GJ/tonne. Confidential Page 3
  5. 5. EVE Innovations Inc.Thermogravimetric analysis (“TGA”)A second aspect of testing uses TGA which measures the burn characteristics of the PatentedBiofuel. The process measures the weight loss of a sample as it is heated in either an oxidizingor non-oxidizing atmosphere. The non-oxidizing atmosphere determines the volatilecomponents of the Patented Biofuel while the oxidizing atmosphere determines the burncharacteristics of the fuel. The general characteristics of the Patented Biofuel are shown inGraphs 1 and 2 below, while Graph 3 shows the detailed burn characteristics.Graph 1: TGA analysis of four fuels Graph 1 compares hemlock, cellulose, anthracite coal and the Patented Biofuel. Three items are important to note:  The Patented Biofuel is completely volatilized by 450oC while the coal requires at least 900oC.  Burning of the Patented Biofuel produces almost no ash (typically less than 0.5% whereas coal produces a typical ash volume of 6-15%).  The cellulose and wood materials show the typical response of cellulosic materials. It is important to note that the hemlock was fresh cut and had significant moisture as evidenced by the initial steep decline on the left side of the graph. In the burning process, water has to be boiled andPage 4 Confidential
  6. 6. EVE Innovations Inc. evaporated before energy is created. With the Patented Biofuel’s low moisture content, more net energy is made available.Graph 2: Comparison of Mountain Beetle killed pine raw material and the Patented Biofuelmade from the same pine. Graph 2 illustrates the difference in burn characteristics between Mountain Beetle killed pine and the Patented Biofuel made from similar pine material. The raw pine graph (green Line – lower line) shows several zones of weight decrease which indicates that several molecular species are volatizing as the temperature increases. The first zone is where the water is removed between 0oC and 250oC. The moisture content is significantly lower in the Patented Biofuel (2.2%) compared to the unprocessed Pine material (5.5%). As mentioned above, this difference is extremely important as less heat is required to evaporate the moisture in the fuel which results in more energy available in the burn of the biofuel. The second and third weight loss Confidential Page 5
  7. 7. EVE Innovations Inc. zones of the pine represent the hemicellulose and the cellulose volatizing respectively. The tail is due to the lignin content in the fuel. The Patented Biofuel curve (blue line – upper line) shows a more continuous decline because it is a polymeric compound that is volatilizing more proportionately over the temperature range of 350oC and 650oC.Graph 3: Detailed TGA analysis of the Patented Biofuel.Graph 3 is a detailed analysis of the Patented Biofuel made from Mountain Beetle killed pineshowing the two major components of the Patented Biofuel. The first sharp trough at 300 oC(red line) represents the combustion of the remaining lignin while the second peak at 354oC(black line) represents the Patented Biofuel burning off. From this analysis, it is apparent thatthe lignins are modified and retained to contribute to the total heat content. The ash residue of0.18% which is low due to the purity of the wood used this analysis. The ash content istypically less than 0.5%. The burn characteristics of the Patented Process also destroy allbiological contaminants from the organic material used in the process. None of thecontaminants will remain in the final product making shipping and handling safe. ThePatented Process can therefore be used to convert diseased waste (for example, animalPage 6 Confidential
  8. 8. EVE Innovations Inc.carcasses with blue tongue or mad cow disease, or trees infected with the Mountain PineBeetle), into a safe biofuel. At the same time, the process eliminates the difficult and expensivedisposal of infected waste.“HYBRID” PATENTED BIOFUELThe Patented Biofuel can also be combined with other materials, such as coal fines, in order tocapture the energy within those materials for further use.Coal fines cannot be used in metallurgical process or otherwise burnt because of their smallsize and the risks of spontaneous fire and explosion. As such, they are worthless and need tobe properly managed, typically in an aqueous waste slurry. The Patented Biofuel can becombined with the coal fines to create a pellet that is a mixture of both. The mixed pellet canthen be burnt in lieu of pure coal. In this way:  the costs and environmental issues associated with slurries are replaced with a revenue stream  in a 50/50 mix of Patented Biofuel and coal fines, emissions of sulfur, nitrous oxides and heavy metals are reduced by 50%, results that far exceed other solutions that are typically capex intensive;  two streams of waste products (cellulose and coal fines) can be converted into one high energy solid fuel, each providing a new energy source and new revenue stream. Confidential Page 7
  9. 9. EVE Innovations Inc.COMPETING SOLID FUELSThe primary solid fuels are coal, wood pellets and char. The Patented Biofuel is animprovement over these fuels in several ways, as per the following table and text that follows. Torrification / Parameter Coal Wood Pellets Patented Biofuel Char Energy 18-30 18.5 20 - 25 27-302 (Gigajoule/tonne) Energy (Btu/lb) 7,700 – 13,000 7,900 8,500 – 11,000 12,000 – 13,100Yield during production* 99% 15 – 40% 65 - 70% Moisture content (%) 6-15 8-10 2–3 4 Ash (%) 6-15 0.3 – 0.7 <1 <0.5 Heavy metals Yes No No No Sulfur Yes No No No Tar and creosol Yes Yes No No Fire & explosion risk Yes Yes No No with fines Bulk handling Yes No Yes Yes * Yield = weight of dry biofuel output / weight of dry feedstock inputCoalThe coal industry is a critical, global solid energy source worth approximately $400 billion peryear. Over 7 billion tonnes of coal were mined in 2010. Annual growth is approximately 350million tonnes a year.Because of the massive use of coal, its growth and concerns over global warming and otherenvironmental issues, two major issues have arisen: (i) a need to find alternative sources of2 Independent testing by Power Tech Labs (BC Hydro)Page 8 Confidential
  10. 10. EVE Innovations Inc.fuel with comparable energy densities; and (ii) the desire to reduce the high carbon dioxideand other emissions and pollutions from burning coal.The Patented Biofuel is carbon neutral, has the energy density of high quality coal and burnscleanly. From a replacement standpoint, the Patented Biofuel is ideal. However, the reality isthat coal demand far outstrips the potential biofuel production due to feedstock limitations. Forexample, 175 million tonnes of Patented Biofuel would be produced from 1,000 plants with 500tonne per day capacity, working 350 days per year. That level of production only represents50% of the global increase in coal consumption for one year. Production per % of 7 billion coal % of 1 Year’s year of the # 500 tonne per market Growth Patented Biofuel day plants 8,750,000 50 0.13% 2.5% 17,500,000 100 0.25% 5.0% 175,000,000 1,000 2.5% 50%Our the Patented Biofuel is thus a key albeit partial solution to the environmental issuesassociated with burning of coal by either burning it in place of coal, or in conjunction withcoal.The Patented Biofuel can be produced in a wide variety of locations. Coupled with the abilityto have smaller cogeneration facilities integrated with biofuel plants, the potential also exists toreduce overall costs and emissions associated with transportation of solid fuels.Further, as outlined previously, the Patented Biofuel enables it to be blended with coal fines tocreate a hybrid fuel. The environmental issues associated with coal fines can thus also beaddressed in part through usage with our Patented Biofuel.Overall, the Patented Biofuel as a very key piece of all the initiatives to be taken to reduce theemissions associated with coal.Wood Pellets - Generation 1 of Solid BiofuelsThe global wood pellet market is approximately 12 million tonnes annually, and growingapproximately 1-2 million tonnes per year. Europe is the leading consumer of wood pellets, agrowing market largely fueled through subsidies. Wood pellets face various challenges that Confidential Page 9
  11. 11. EVE Innovations Inc.have and will limit its growth. Three key limiting factors include its limited feedstock choices(white fibre), inability to be handled in bulk and low energy density.The Patented Biofuel is superior to wood pellets. The Patented Biofuel can be made from amuch wider variety of feedstocks which provides for lower feedstock costs and greaterproduction volumes. The energy density of the Patented Biofuel is 1.4 times that of woodpellets. Accordingly, an end user must buy, transport and handle 40% more wood pellets toget the same energy from the Patented Biofuel. The Patented Biofuel is water resistant andsuitable for bulk handling, unlike wood pellets which require bagging, thereby providingadditional transport cost advantages., Burning the Patented Biofuel has environmentaladvantages as well as it produces less smoke and ash content, and does not leave heavymetals, sulphur, creosol or tar deposits when burned.Torrification / char – Generation 2 of Solid BiofuelsTorrification includes a variety of alternative processes where feedstock is dried and thenheated to very high temperatures in the absence of oxygen in order to improve the energydensity. Torrification produces a char which, in household terms, is a powdery product (char,biochar, biocoal) that is bonded together to form barbecue briquettes. During themanufacturing process, various emissions are generated including carbon dioxide, carbonmonoxide, hydrogen, water, acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons..In addition to these toxins, a major drawback for torrification is the very low yield of 15% -40% (dry weight char / dry weight of feedstock = yield). In comparison, the Patented Biofuelyields of approximately 65 - 70%. Torrification has been around for a long time, but continuesto struggle in its deployment due to the above issues.Nuclear PowerNuclear power is a unique fuel. A major contributor to electricity generation, it has significantsafety issues and high capital costs. Future growth in nuclear power was limited prior to thetragedy in Japan. After this tragedy, future growth will be limited even more.SummaryIn summary, the Patented Biofuel’s diverse feedstock supply, high energydensity, suitability for bulk handling and clean burning makes it a very attractivefuel, and part of the global, green energy solution going forward.Page 10 Confidential
  12. 12. EVE Innovations Inc.EXAMPLE USES OF THE PATENTED PROCESS AND BIOFUELThe Patented Process can be used to convert most organic wastes into a solid, stable biofuelwhich has comparable energy density of metallurgical coal but burns much more cleanly. Thetechnology converts almost all organic waste into a profitable biofuel that can be sold toindustrial markets (electrical power plants, industrial thermal plants, etc) or to the retailmarket. At the same time, by converting the organic waste to a commercial product, theprocess removes the need to dispose of the waste thereby eliminating the costs and logisticsinvolved with disposal.Some potential applications of the Patented Process are briefly described below.Animal manureThe disposal of animal waste is a significant issue. Without proper disposal, animal waste cancontaminate land and water resources. For example, in The Netherlands, the dairy andpoultry industries have inadequate land over which to spread the waste, and face limitationsto growth, and in some cases, face the risk of being shut down. The same is happening withswine, cattle, and chicken operations in China, Canada, USA and other parts of the world.In North America, cattle produce manure at a rate of approximately 15 pounds of dry manureper day. For feedlots containing 30,000 cattle, that amounts to ~ 75,000 tonnes of dry manureevery year, enough to support a 100+ tonne/day plant. Converting the manure to biofuelcreates a profitable business in itself, in addition to which it eliminates environmental issuessurrounding storage and disposal of manure.A further benefit of the Patented Process is that the biofuel produced is sterile, and contains nopathogens or prions that could spread disease. This is an improvement over current methanegeneration systems that do not sterilize the material. The solids and liquids remaining fromthe fermentation process may still contain prions and diseases that could further infect theherds, the workers and the environment.Municipal wasteMany cities are running out of places to dump their garbage. For example, the waste from theLower Mainland of British Columbia is trucked 2 hours to remote landfills. Waste from partsof Europe is transported to Africa. Waste from some states is being shipped to other states inthe USA. Confidential Page 11
  13. 13. EVE Innovations Inc.It is estimated that up to 40% of a North American city’s waste is cellulosic. By converting thewaste into biofuel, the life of any landfill can be extended and costs associated with wastedisposal are reduced. With cogeneration on site, the municipality or city can generate greenpower, and thus convert a waste problem to a profitable, green energy solution.Rural applicationsMany communities around the world are surrounded by cellulose fiber but are unable toeffectively exploit its value. Rural biofuel plants integrated with cogen can convert theseresources into biofuel which can be used locally to generate heat and / or power for thebiofuel plant itself, as well as nearby industrial and /or residential users. Alternatively, thefuel can be used to generate power to the grid, or sold to domestic or export markets. Thecombination of heat, power, jobs and profits will help these communities become moreindependent, access more resources and generate wealth for current and future generations.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGESThe Patented Process has many advantages, a partial recap of which is provided in theremainder of this Overview:  Non specificity of the Patented Process: Almost anything that contains cellulose can be converted to the Patented Biofuel using the Patented Process. Compare this with other biofuel products such as ethanol production which only utilizes the cellulose and some hemicellulose in organic waste. In contrast, the Patented Process utilizes the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from organic waste.  Moisture content in Patented Process: The moisture of feedstock is insignificant. Production of wood pellets and char requires boiling and vaporizing the moisture in feedstock before their transformation of the feedstock really begins; the higher the moisture content, the more energy is required. In our Patented Process which effectively involves cooking the feedstock in a water solution, feedstock with higher moisture content simply results in less water being added to the feedstock after its loading in the bioreactors.  Ease of operation and consistency of the Patented Process: The process is completed when the reactions go to completion and the stable solid Patented Biofuel is then extracted. The Patented Process can be performed under a wide variety of conditions (within, of course, a given set of parameters) and still produce a quality PatentedPage 12 Confidential
  14. 14. EVE Innovations Inc. Biofuel. The process can even be stopped halfway through, then re-started at a future time, and still produce the same quality Patented Biofuel that would have been produced had no interruption occurred. This has many advantages including ease of operation, reduced chance of failure, product consistency, high efficiency etc. A technical expert is not required to operate the process, another example of how the Patented Process reduces operating costs. Plant scalability and flexibility: The Patented Process utilizes a batch process that is virtually continuous. Plant capacity can be increased simply by adding additional bioreactors and support equipment. Plant capacity can also be temporarily or permanently reduced simply by shutting down one or more bioreactors. The reaction conditions of the Patented Process are not demanding: The catalyst used in the Patented Process reduces the required water temperature to the 200 – 250oC range, and at required pressures of 400 – 500 pounds per square inch (“PSI”). In contrast, the uncatalyzed reaction requires temperatures of 330 - 350°C and pressures in the range of 1,800 - 2,400 PSI. Tolerance: The Patented Process is tolerant to foreign materials such as grease and plastic in municipal solid waste and clay in animal manure. This waste material does not need to be separated or treated prior to utilization in the process. This further reduces time and costs compared to other more sensitive processes. Sterilization: The Patented Process destroys biological contaminants and other infectious matter such as pathogens and prions. Organic waste that is infected (mad cow disease, blue tongue, mountain beetle, etc) can be sterilized and converted to a safe product which can be burned with the energy density of coal. Zero physical waste: The Patented Process produces only water and the Patented Biofuel. There are no waste products such as sludge requiring disposal. Patented Biofuel is solid and stable: The Patented Biofuel is hydrophobic and remains stable on contact with water. Compare this with wood pellets that disintegrate quickly on contact with water. The Patented Biofuel is easier to store, transport and handle compared to wood pellets.Confidential Page 13
  15. 15. EVE Innovations Inc.  Patented Biofuel burns cleanly: The Patented Biofuel does not contain heavy metals, sulphur, tar or creosol in comparison to coal that contains all three elements. Expensive pollution abatement procedures and technology do not need to be used.  Carbon neutral: Burning one tonne of Patented Biofuel produces 2.4 tonnes of carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is carbon neutral and carbon tax credits may be available for users who burn the Patented Biofuel instead of fossil fuels. Credits for methane abatement may also be available.  Hybrid: The Patented Biofuel can be combined with other waste products (such as coal fines) to recapture them for use when otherwise they would need to be disposed of. This maximizes the amount of coal that can be used in metallurgical operations.Eve Innovation’s Patented Process Converts Waste Problems into Profitable Green Energy Solutions CONTACT INFORMATION Eve Innovations Inc. 8086 Alexander Road, Delta, BC. V4G 1G7 Peter Dodge, Director of Business Development Alexis Mackintosh, Director of Research Victor Tsao, Corporate Counsel Contact: (604) 649-1111 Page 14 Confidential