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‚Lignocellulosic Ethanol:
Competitors in the Market and Technologies to
        Convert Biomass into Sugar‘




                             Dipl.-Bw. Dirk Volkmann
                 17th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition
                       Hamburg, July 2, 2009, Session OD8.1



Volkmann Consult – Corporate Advisors, Joachimstrasse 24, D-40545 Duesseldorf, dirk@volkmann-consult.de
Lignocellulosic feedstock
       Wood
          primary (native)
          plantation
          primary forest waste
          secondary processing waste
       Agricultural residues
           straws (wheat, barley, rice)
           bagasse (sugarcane, sweet sorghum)
           stover (corn, milo)
       Municipal waste
       Waste paper

your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
- complexity of the raw material -


 composition:
                                                          target:
      cellulose
      (35 – 50%)                                          to separate the lignin
                                                          and the hemicellulose
hemicellulose                                             from the cellulose and to
(20 - 35%)                                                break up the protective
                                                          skin of the cellulose to
   lignin                                                 make it predisposed for
   (10 – 25 %)                                            enzymes


 your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
cellulosic technologies



acid hydrolysis                                                         enzymatic
concentrated acid
                                                                        processes
 hydrolysis
dilute acid hydrolysis                         lignocellusic         removal (pretreatment)
                                                   ethanol             of the lignin present in
new acid hydrolysis
                                                                       lignocellulosic
                                                                       feedstocks



                                                                     biomass
                                                                     synthesis gas
                                                                production of ethanol from
                                                                 biomass synthesis gas


    your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
acid hydrolysis: technologies
                             Sulfuric
                                 concentrated: one stage
                                 dilute: one stage
                                 dilute/concentrated: two stage
                                 dilute/dilute: two stage
                             Hydrochloric
                                 concentrated: liquid phase
                                 concentrated: vapor phase
                                 dilute
                             Organic (autohydrolysis)
                                 steam pressure
                                 steam and mechanical pressure




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
acid hydrolysis: market players
                               Agresti Biofuels, US
                               Arkenol, US
                               Blue Fire, US
                               Chempolis OY, FIN
                               Green Star Energy, US
                               Green Sugar, Germany
                               Lignol Energy, CAN
                               Pure Energy Corporation, US
                               St. Petersburg State Forest-Technical Academy, RUS
                               TNO, NL
                               …..




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
concentrated acid hydrolysis
                             sulfuric acid :
                     Arkenol Technology (USA)




                                                         source: www.arkenol.com
your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
concentrated acid hydrolysis
                                  hydrochloric acid :
biomass
                          Green Sugar Technology (GER)

                                                              Pre-sugar solution ( salts, amino acids, sugar [xyl, glc, ara, gal])
  module 1
                                          module 2                                         Main sugar solution (glc)
  biomass
                                          Hydrolysis                                             wash water (glc)
pretreatment
                              HCl 32%ig

                                          HCl 41%ig



                                                      Water




                   L ign in
                                                                    HCl


                                                                                                                             module 3
                                      module 4b                             module 4a
                                                                                                                           acid/sugar-           water
                                     acid recovery                        Acid absorbtion
                                                                                                                            Separation



           w at er,
           acet ic acid



                                                                                                             sugar syrup               sugar syrup
                                                                                                               C5-rich                   C6-rich
                                                                                                           (mainly xylose)           (mainly Glucose)


                                                                                                                    source: www.green-sugar.eu
   your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
dilute hydrolysis:
                         Pure Energy Corp. (USA)




       technology used for Green Star Products projects
       www.greenstarusa.com

                                                          source: www.pure-energy.com
your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
enzymatic processes: technologies
                             pretreatment options
                                  autohydrolysis
                                       steam pressure
                                       steam and mechanical pressure
                                       steam explosion
                                  acid pre-hydrolysis
                                       dilute sulfuric acid
                                       dilute hydrochloric acid
                                       acetic acid
                                       concentrated sulfuric acid (cold)
                                       concentrated hydrochloric acid (cold)
                                  Alkali (Sodium hydroxide, Ammonia)
                                  Organolsolv (Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol, Phenol etc.)
                                  Mechanical
                                       attrition mill, roller mill, vibratory rod mill, extruder




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
enzymatic processes: market players
                               Abengoa, ES/US
                               AE Biofuels, US
                               BioGasol, DK
                               Citrus Energy, US
                               Dupont Danisco, US
                               Ecofin, US
                               Gevo, US
                               IOGEN, CAN
                               Mascoma, US
                               Old Town Fuel and Fibre, US
                               Pacific Ethanol, US
                               Qteros, US
                               Sekab, SWE
                               ST1, FIN
                               SunOpta, US
                               Verenium, US       …..........



your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
enzymatic hydrolysis:
                    Abengoa Bioenergy (ES/USA)




                                                         source: www.abengoabioenergy.com
your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
biomass synthesis gas: technologies
                             production of synthesis gas
                                  steam reforming
                                  partial oxidation

                             conversion processes
                                 methanol synthesis and homologation
                                 fermentation

                             distillation




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
biomass synthesis gas: market players
                               BRI Energy, US
                               Coskata, US
                               Enerkem, CAN
                               Flambeau River, US
                               Guld Coast Energy, US
                               IneosBIO, US
                               Liberty Industries, US
                               New Planet Energy, US
                               Nova Fuels, US
                               Range Fuels, US
                               ......




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
biomass synthesis gas:
                             Coskata Technology




                                                         source: www.coskata.com
your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
biomass synthesis gas:
                                  Range Fuels Technology

                                                                                             Biofuels Storage
                                                           Syngas
                                                           Cleaning            Alcohols
                    Devolatilization                                           Separation
                    Gas Production
biomass feedstock                                                     Catalytic
                                       Steam Reforming
handling                                                              Conversion
                                       Syngas Production
                                                                      Alcohols
                                                                      Production




                                                                                      source: www.rangefuels.com
      your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
References and Links:

      The Cellulosic Ethanol Race,
      http://www.investincellulosicethanol.com/
      http://biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/tag/cellulosic-ethanol/
      http://www.ethanolrfa.org/resource/cellulosic/
      http://www.thecesite.com/index.html
      and the websites of all mentioned companies




your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de

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Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies

  • 1. ‚Lignocellulosic Ethanol: Competitors in the Market and Technologies to Convert Biomass into Sugar‘ Dipl.-Bw. Dirk Volkmann 17th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition Hamburg, July 2, 2009, Session OD8.1 Volkmann Consult – Corporate Advisors, Joachimstrasse 24, D-40545 Duesseldorf, dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 2. Lignocellulosic feedstock  Wood  primary (native)  plantation  primary forest waste  secondary processing waste  Agricultural residues  straws (wheat, barley, rice)  bagasse (sugarcane, sweet sorghum)  stover (corn, milo)  Municipal waste  Waste paper your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 3. - complexity of the raw material - composition: target: cellulose (35 – 50%) to separate the lignin and the hemicellulose hemicellulose from the cellulose and to (20 - 35%) break up the protective skin of the cellulose to lignin make it predisposed for (10 – 25 %) enzymes your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 4. cellulosic technologies acid hydrolysis enzymatic concentrated acid processes hydrolysis dilute acid hydrolysis lignocellusic removal (pretreatment) ethanol of the lignin present in new acid hydrolysis lignocellulosic feedstocks biomass synthesis gas production of ethanol from biomass synthesis gas your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 5. acid hydrolysis: technologies  Sulfuric  concentrated: one stage  dilute: one stage  dilute/concentrated: two stage  dilute/dilute: two stage  Hydrochloric  concentrated: liquid phase  concentrated: vapor phase  dilute  Organic (autohydrolysis)  steam pressure  steam and mechanical pressure your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 6. acid hydrolysis: market players  Agresti Biofuels, US  Arkenol, US  Blue Fire, US  Chempolis OY, FIN  Green Star Energy, US  Green Sugar, Germany  Lignol Energy, CAN  Pure Energy Corporation, US  St. Petersburg State Forest-Technical Academy, RUS  TNO, NL  ….. your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 7. concentrated acid hydrolysis sulfuric acid : Arkenol Technology (USA) source: www.arkenol.com your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 8. concentrated acid hydrolysis hydrochloric acid : biomass Green Sugar Technology (GER) Pre-sugar solution ( salts, amino acids, sugar [xyl, glc, ara, gal]) module 1 module 2 Main sugar solution (glc) biomass Hydrolysis wash water (glc) pretreatment HCl 32%ig HCl 41%ig Water L ign in HCl module 3 module 4b module 4a acid/sugar- water acid recovery Acid absorbtion Separation w at er, acet ic acid sugar syrup sugar syrup C5-rich C6-rich (mainly xylose) (mainly Glucose) source: www.green-sugar.eu your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 9. dilute hydrolysis: Pure Energy Corp. (USA) technology used for Green Star Products projects www.greenstarusa.com source: www.pure-energy.com your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 10. enzymatic processes: technologies  pretreatment options  autohydrolysis  steam pressure  steam and mechanical pressure  steam explosion  acid pre-hydrolysis  dilute sulfuric acid  dilute hydrochloric acid  acetic acid  concentrated sulfuric acid (cold)  concentrated hydrochloric acid (cold)  Alkali (Sodium hydroxide, Ammonia)  Organolsolv (Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol, Phenol etc.)  Mechanical  attrition mill, roller mill, vibratory rod mill, extruder your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 11. enzymatic processes: market players  Abengoa, ES/US  AE Biofuels, US  BioGasol, DK  Citrus Energy, US  Dupont Danisco, US  Ecofin, US  Gevo, US  IOGEN, CAN  Mascoma, US  Old Town Fuel and Fibre, US  Pacific Ethanol, US  Qteros, US  Sekab, SWE  ST1, FIN  SunOpta, US  Verenium, US ….......... your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 12. enzymatic hydrolysis: Abengoa Bioenergy (ES/USA) source: www.abengoabioenergy.com your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 13. biomass synthesis gas: technologies  production of synthesis gas  steam reforming  partial oxidation  conversion processes  methanol synthesis and homologation  fermentation  distillation your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 14. biomass synthesis gas: market players  BRI Energy, US  Coskata, US  Enerkem, CAN  Flambeau River, US  Guld Coast Energy, US  IneosBIO, US  Liberty Industries, US  New Planet Energy, US  Nova Fuels, US  Range Fuels, US  ...... your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 15. biomass synthesis gas: Coskata Technology source: www.coskata.com your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 16. biomass synthesis gas: Range Fuels Technology Biofuels Storage Syngas Cleaning Alcohols Devolatilization Separation Gas Production biomass feedstock Catalytic Steam Reforming handling Conversion Syngas Production Alcohols Production source: www.rangefuels.com your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 17. References and Links:  The Cellulosic Ethanol Race,  http://www.investincellulosicethanol.com/  http://biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/tag/cellulosic-ethanol/  http://www.ethanolrfa.org/resource/cellulosic/  http://www.thecesite.com/index.html  and the websites of all mentioned companies your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de
  • 18. your contact: Dirk Volkmann – dirk@volkmann-consult.de