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Catering Diverse Learners through Multigrade Teaching


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Celia D. Andas, Ph.D.
Janet C. Parpa, Ph.D.
Kathleen M. Morales, M.A.
Laura V. Cespon, Ed.D.
Leonardo B. Dorado, Ph.D.
Sylvia J. Pidor, Ph.D.
Marilou T. Lozarita, Ed.D.
Maria Nancy Q. Cadosales, Ph.D.
Thelma O. Alderite, Ed.D.
Romeo M. Daligdig, Ed.D.

Published in: Education
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Catering Diverse Learners through Multigrade Teaching

  2. 2. If your school is one of two schools in the district of Marilog, Davao City, you are assigned to teach six to nine years old. The other school has a class for children in grades IV to VI. The nearest school with a complete elementary school is located three barangays away from where you are. If the situation is similar to that of your school, then yours could be one of the estimated thousands of public elementary schools in the Philippines which are incomplete elementary schools.
  3. 3. Incomplete elementary schools can provide multigrade classes to respond to the needs of Filipino children who have the right to quality education at all levels. Then secretary of Education culture and Sports, Armand Fabella, in 1992, launched the multi-grade program,, to meet this need. Much is to be desired in finding out the quality of instruction in these multi-grade and combination of classes and whether teachers, parents, and other community volunteers, under the leadership of a teacher-in-charge and the district supervisors, perform their respective functions to protect and fulfil a very basic right of every child: the right to education as provided for in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the child. Every child has a right to education.
  4. 4. Through multi-grade classes and single-teacher schools, the possibility of teaching the young ones came to existence. These two kinds of classes are both present in developed and developing countries around the globe. On the contrary, developing countries often lack educational tools, effective trained teachers and effective supervision and management. Teachers are receiving rarely in regard with training in dealing with a large number of diverse learners at different ages and levels of learning.
  5. 5. There are certain situations in remote areas in the Philippines where it is not possible or viable to open and maintain a complete elementary school or high school in a particular barangay where enrolment per grade is less, multi-grade classroom is a viable alternative to fulfilling this important responsibility of the government to give everyone access to education –the EFA or Education For All.
  6. 6. Discussion
  7. 7. I. The Multi-grade (MG) Classroom as Learning Environment
  8. 8. 1. Basic information about the multi-grade classroom in several (two or three) grade levels with one teacher for an entire school year. Simply put, multi-grade schools are those which have classes that combine students of different ages and different abilities in one classroom. There may also be other adults who assist the teacher to mobilize parent or community involvement.
  9. 9. In the Philippines public school system, classes with two grade levels within one classroom with one teacher are referred to as combination classes. Those with three grade levels are called multi-grade classes. Multigrade classes can also be multi-level classes.
  10. 10. This means that a multi-grade classroom clearly involves children with different skills and abilities, different developmental levels and needs, learning and working together with the guidance and supervision of one
  11. 11. 2. Where did the idea of MG schools came from?
  12. 12. Multi-grade schools were actually the first kind of schools in North America. The one-room school house was the most common model of formal educational programs for elementary children before the 1800‟s until the Industrial Revolution brought about large scale urbanization and other changes in the countries of North America.
  13. 13. Multi-grade classes tend to be associated with the developing countries, but they are also found in other countries across the world. Some place in which they are found are Peru, Sri Lanka, Norway, Vietnam, England, France, the Caribbean. India, the United States, New Zealand, Columbia and Samoa. These classes exist for a wide variety of reasons.
  14. 14. 3.Rationale in organizing multi-grade classes in both public and private schools when most of the classrooms are single grade classes.
  15. 15.  Two-third of the classroom in public school system are single-grade classrooms. MG classes were organized as a matter of necessity for remote Barangays’ where the number of children to be enrolled could not meet the required number to organize a single class and assigned the necessary teacher for each class. Estimated number of barangays without school is 9, 240.
  16. 16. In 1990, the department of Education Culture and Sports considered the continuing operation of MG classrooms all over the country within the framework of the efforts to provide Education for All Filipino children. The policy is important considering that of the 32, 630 public schools in the country, 11, 800 are incomplete schools.
  17. 17. The Department of Education viewed MG as viable means to reaching as many children as possible, especially for the elementary grade levels in order to provide primary education for as many Filipino children as possible. Thus, efforts to address the special needs of MG classes and to improve quality of instruction have begun in the form of investments in training programs, curriculum development, and development of learning materials.
  18. 18. MG classrooms have been organized in some private schools in the Philippines as a matter of choice because of the advantages of interaged grouping or multi-level classes. MG classes are considered equally effective in the industrialized countries where they are part of the educational system, especially in sparsely populated areas.
  19. 19.  One of the most frequently-cited reasons for the cost of effectiveness of MG classes is the cost-effectiveness of the scheme in terms of being able to meet the needs of a community‟s children, as far as education is concerned. One of the obvious reasons for this is the savings in terms of staffing patterns with only one teacher responsible for several grade levels in one class, compared to one teacher for each grade level with an erratic or small number of students enrolled per class.
  20. 20. II.Crucial Elements in a Multi-grade Classroom
  21. 21. 1.Modified Curriculum and Instruction 2.Teacher‟s Role 3.Classroom Physical Arrangement 4.Classroom Management and Discipline 5.Planning a Lesson and Evaluation 6.Community Participation
  22. 22. 1. Modified Curriculum and Instruction A. Subject Staggering OptionSubjects requiring more teacher pupil interaction are grouped with those requiring less.
  23. 23. B. Subject Integration Option-Subjects are integrated through a theme. A thematic lesson for Araling Panlipunan can be developed by integrating concepts in Music, PE and Health, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao.
  24. 24. C. Common Time Table – A subject is presented in all grades by the teacher in a given schedule with each grade having prescribed work program by age-level or ability.
  25. 25. Time 7:00-7:30 7:30-8:30 8:30-9:10 9:10-9:30 9:30-10:30 Grade I GMRC Mother Tongue Art Math Grade II GMRC Mother Tongue Art RECESS Math Grade III GMRC Mother Tongue Art Math
  26. 26. D. Integrated Day Option No fixed time table • Integrated Day Option Pupils are free to choose what subject to study and when Children are allowed to choose an activity based from the weeks theme
  27. 27. E.Subject Grouping Option Subjects using Filipino as medium of instruction are taught Monday, Wednesday, and Friday while subjects using English are taught Tuesday and Thursday.
  28. 28. Monday, Wednesday, Friday Tuesday and Thursday Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Araling Panlipunan Araling Panlipunan Mother Tounge Mother Tounge Filipino Filipino
  29. 29. 2. TEACHER’S ROLE Facilitator Manager Observer Instructor Planner Evaluator
  30. 30. The Teacher as: Facilitator
  31. 31. No, Comment Ganda ko no<3 Hi, im Glored Ako c Mechelle and bagong dugong, sa Dyesebel Ahaha sino yang kasama mo The word “facilitator” is based on the Latin word “facilis” which means easy. Facilitating learning means making academic and social learning as easy as possible for children. Teacher should try to remove the obstacles or roadblock to children‟s learning so that it will be possible for them to learn. The teacher designs instructional strategies that make learning processes interesting. A facilitative teacher should be aware of the multiple intelligences of learners. He/she allows and encourages children to learn in different ways about different topics depending on their own needs, interest and learning styles.
  32. 32. The Teacher as: Manager
  33. 33. Managing a child-centered classroom which is an effective MG classroom is more complex than a single-grade classroom. One single movement strategy cannot be applied throughout all activities throughout the school year. Flexibility is the most important ingredient for a teachers success as manager of a learning environment.
  34. 34. Freedom and independent decision should be introduced gradually. Involve the children to develop rules for the classroom day to day. Choose children’s work because it matters to them. Manager provides rich and wide variety of activities available to teach concepts and skills that are age-proportionate that meets children’s needs and cater to their interest.
  35. 35. Observer
  36. 36. In an effective MG classroom which is learner-centered, a teacher should make the most of every opportunity to observe children at work, at play and other activities. The information gained from observation is then essential to evaluation as well as curriculum planning. Furthermore teachers who are keen and careful observers are able to anticipate the needs of the children and achieve a more complete understanding of the development of the whole child.
  37. 37. The role of a teacher as instructor still involves transmitting knowledge, but the teacher chooses means and moments that are appropriate, demonstrating the use of new materials, reading a story aloud to the class, sharing important information that is given more effectively when done directly.
  38. 38. The Teacher as: Planner
  39. 39. In order to fulfill the roles of facilitator, instructor, manager and supervisor of independent learning and evaluator the teacher must invest in planning that is knowledgeable, efficient, comprehensive and wellorchestrated. A good planner is also flexible enough to make the necessary changes depending upon the feedback from observation of the children at work within a day or from day to day and based on more formal means of evaluations.
  40. 40. The Teacher as:  Evaluator
  41. 41. A conscientious and effective teacher always wants to know of the goals of the curriculum are being achieved and how well learning is being achieved. So, a plan for evaluation is very important. Evaluation is necessary to find out if and how children have learned what they are supposed to learn.
  43. 43. Elements that contribute to successful MG classroom:  Learning Centers These are semi-private, (partially enclosed by a low blackboard, shelf or easel) areas for small groups to work together. These are work situations that the children use with or without teachers guidance or supervision depending upon the nature of activity. For example, a Science experiments would require teacher supervision but mathematics or reading game or activity card that has been introduced earlier may not require constant teacher guidance. One advantage of learning centers or areas would be the fact that they allow and encourage children to work in a self-directed or independent way.
  44. 44. Learning Materials
  45. 45. Learning materials are among the most important part of the physical environment within which effective MG teaching can take place. These are textbooks, reference books, periodicals, digest magazines, teacher-made materials, board games, puzzles, activity cards and toys. Supplies and raw materials for children‟s project, such as colored paper, glue, Popsicle sticks, and recyclables like plastic straws, bottle caps, toilet paper spools, cardboard boxes, and plastic containers are considered learning materials.
  46. 46. Furniture and Equipment Ideally, furniture (desks, tables, chairs) in a multi grade classroom should be of the movable type so that there can be a greater flexibility in arranging and rearranging them and the classroom layout will be able to provide for the following activities:
  47. 47.  A whole group period, like, class schedule for the day, special projects, classroom rules, problems that must be dealt with as a group, introduction of new materials and topics.  Small group activities for working on tasks or activities for specific subject areas, including discussion, writing, reading, arts, crafts, experiments;  Individual or independent work so children can read, write, work on individual projects;  Indoor games, dramatization, and role play
  48. 48. 4. Classroom Management and Discipline Classroom management and discipline are two very closely related issues. Classroom management is concerned with structuring a classroom‟s life, including all the elements in the classroom as a learning environment that is conducive to teaching-learning. Discipline involves setting and defining clear expectations about student behavior and setting limits (e.g. rules, guidelines, instructions) that enable them to behave appropriately.
  49. 49. Classroom Management 1.Organizing physical environment Providing the necessary furniture, equipment and learning materials involve arranging these in such a way that they are neatly arranges to serve a purpose. The children will only learn how to use classroom equipment and materials if they are shown how and given the opportunities to use these.
  50. 50. Try out variety of classroom arrangement to adjust to the emerging needs; Arrange furniture to provide for convenient flow of traffic. Label areas in the classroom and container of materials clearly so that children will eagerly learn the functions and can return them easily. Involve children in classroom maintenance by using ‘’Job Chart’’. This helps develop a sense of responsibility and discipline in taking care of the physical environment.
  51. 51. 2. Organizing Time
  52. 52.  A predictable schedule that students feel is useful and clear to them, and takes into consideration a peace of working that they can handle is one of the important ways of helping children learn to manage themselves in the classroom. Discipline in the Classroom Discipline involves doing what is expected of you at a specific time whether there is someone watching over you or not.
  53. 53. Tips:
  54. 54.  Adopt a problem-solving approach to discipline issues, particularly those that involve breaking clearly stated classroom rules. Help children look at these instances as problems that can be solved rather than situations that mark them for life.  Involve the children in figuring out how to help other rather than putting them against one another.  When children break rules, it is better to walk to them privately. Public scolding only humiliates children and damages their selfconfidence.  The most effective approach to discipline is positive. Reinforce what children do correctly. Proper behaviors result if they are rewarded by recognition or praise.  The ultimate goal of classroom discipline is self-discipline.
  55. 55. 5. Planning a Lesson Evaluation One of the most important tasks for the MG classroom teacher is lesson preparation. There are three important resources available for the teacher to use in preparing a lesson. The K to 12 Curriculum Guide where the standards and competencies are stated. This is an organized list of objectives. They are organized in sequence according to the four grading periods within one school year.
  56. 56. Sample lesson Plans for Multi-grade Classes
  57. 57. Sample lesson Plans for Multi-grade Classes HEALTH Grade I Grade II Grade III Human Person Human and His Health I identify parts of one’s Infer that somebody Observe using one’s Body parts work together sense organs. When human does Activities.
  58. 58. II Subject Matter/Materials Concept: Some parts of the body (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands) Pictures of body parts III Procedure (With teacher) a. Present the pictures of each body part. b. Tell story about what each one does c. Sing „‟ I have Ten Little Fingers‟‟ Generalization: touch the parts of your body that we talked about and tell the use of each one. Application: Show different cut-out of faces with some parts missing, then ask: What parts are missing? Practice further naming of the body parts IV. Evaluation  Copy the name of the  Write the name of each  Body parts in picture  body part in the picture
  59. 59. Evaluation of the Student Learning Keeping track of how students are learning every moment is part of the teaching process. Knowledge of results and errors made is valuable to effective learning. Feedback is an informal evaluation. It helps learning because it focuses the learner‟s attention on certain important aspects of the learning process and raises the interest of the child. For this reason, a major task of the teacher is to find out whether the objective of the lesson had been carried out. Evaluation is bringing together form different sources all forms of information on pupil performance.
  60. 60. There are two kinds of Evaluation: a. Informal Evaluation b. Formal Evaluation Informal Evaluations rebuilt in or part of the learning activities, like formative test which is given after every lesson development.
  61. 61. Another example is when a teacher read a story. She immediately asks questions to find out if there was comprehension. Other useful activities for informal evaluation: Observer students while working; children react differently in situations.
  62. 62.  Engage the individual in information reaction with children as they work on some tasks.  Provide follow-up activities that encourage application of skills or concepts learned and observe how children are able to apply these skills.
  63. 63.  Let the children do some designs on varied games. This is to find out if they had retained what they learned.  Ask the children to write a diary about what they learned in school.  Inspect all works of a child to monitor whether he/she has learned something.  Always give assignments for children for enrichment of lessons learned.
  64. 64. Formal Evaluation This is an evaluation which is more objective and nit affected by bias or subjectivity. These are test like unit test, short quizzes, long exams, district test, and national tests, like the NAT.
  65. 65. Things to consider while preparing a test: Lesson objectives Nature of learners Type of test to prepare Number of items Level of difficulty Key to correction
  66. 66. Community Preparation
  67. 67. The multi-grade classroom, like any school in any community is an important part of life in a community. However, there can be more to the relationship between a multi-grade classroom and the community. Since it is usually located in a rural community with relatively small population, it can more integrated into community life and his integration will be benefit the school, as well. The quality of the relationship between the school and the community depends upon the ability of the MG teacher and the administration of the school system.
  68. 68. Parent Involvement
  69. 69. in the Multi-grade classroom Two ways by which parents can be involve: as parents of their children and as parents who are concerned about supporting the MG classroom. Both ways of involvement will result in improvement of the children‟s performance is school.
  70. 70.  Group meetings
  71. 71. Gathering parents as a group in a parents meeting, at least twice or thrice a year, will help strengthen a sense of community among them. Parents will be aware of the goals of the MG classrooms. They can also be organize as Parent Teachers‟ Association (PTA)
  72. 72. Individual Parent-Teacher Conference Parents are often called by the teacher if their child has a problem in school, typically, if there child misbehaved, but individual parentteacher conferences should be ideally held, not only when children have problems in school, but also to have an opportunity to discuss individual student‟s progress with their parents.
  73. 73. Parents as Classroom volunteers Parent volunteers provide valuable additional support in the classroom.
  74. 74. Appropriate activities for parent volunteers would be:  Reading a story to a small group of children  Playing a game with small group of children in one of the learning centers, e.g. a math game  Assisting during fieldtrip  Helping prepare instructional materials, e.g., cutting or pasting, gathering materials in the environment  Helping children with projects, like: gardening, woodworking caring for animals  arts and crafts.
  75. 75. Community Participation
  76. 76. Community life and school activities lead more easily to mutual integration since multi-grade schools are located in the communities with small population. The parents are involved in their children‟s education, the more they would likely to succeed in school. MG schools have lesser resources, thus, the need to involve the community as sources of information and in providing for services and materials to improve the school.
  77. 77. Educational Implications:
  78. 78. Like in all learning environment, students bring a great diversity to mono-grade classes or multi-grade classes. The following list reflects some of the diversities found among students which need to appreciated by the teacher: 1. Age 2. Ability 3. Development level 4. Background 5. Experience 6. Motivation 7. Interest
  79. 79. A teacher must be able to observe the children individually at certain times and as a group to learn more about their involvement in the classroom activities, to gain information about how they relate to other children, and to gain more insights into the quality of their work and their way of thinking.
  80. 80. Teachers who are keen and careful observers are able to anticipate the needs of the children and achieve a more complete understanding of the development of the whole child.
  81. 81. For evaluation to be comprehensive and relevant to the purposes of improving the quality of instruction, a combination of formal means of evaluation is highly recommended.
  82. 82. Read the budget of work and look at how the instructional objectives have been arranged in sequence according to the four grading periods.
  83. 83. In Collaboration with: Mrs. Cristina Barsanas & Ms. Jenelyn Dijapa
  84. 84. Mr. Jonathan Rey A. Del Castillo BSED-III Major in Science WESTERN PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY-QUEZON CAMPUS
  85. 85. To be continued….
  86. 86. Because it is once said “true love story doesn't have endings, its eternal….. Same principle is applied…. Reyshanne & Red Knight JRDC
  87. 87. thanks!