Extension and determinants for adoption of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems in smallholder agriculture, LAO PDR. Frédéric Jullien
Extension and determinants for adoption of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems in smallholder agriculture, LAO PDRFrédéric Jullien1, Guillaume Lestrelin2, Hoa Tran Quoc3, BounmyRattanatray4, Chantasone Khamxaykhay5 and Florent Tivet3 PCADR PASS
Context • Southern Sayaboury province went to semi-intensify maize monocroping; • Ploughing on very steep soil induce erosion and soil fertility reduction; • Yields fastly reduce; • Production cost increase;
Context Land preparation, based on burning residues and ploughing on steep slopes, has allowed for cultivation of large upland areas every year. Cash crops cultivated surfaces evolution in southern Evolution of cash crops cultivated areas in southern Xayaburi Xayaburi) (Kenthao, Paklay and Botene districts) 25000 20000 15000 (ha) 10000 5000 0 95 96 97 98 Area (ha) 19 99 19 00 19 01 19 02 19 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 20 20 (source:Xayaburi PAFO) 20
General objective for CAdevelopment Stop soil fertility and yields decrease in order to maintain a sustainable maize industry (production and export)
Dissemination approach A farmer-group based approachlinking research and development
Dissemination approach Research side: • Long term implementation to adapt cropping systems to local conditions and to generate a large range of technologies, • Characterization for biological and physicochemical processes • Training site : field practices intended for extension agents & field days intended for local and national stakeholders; Development side: • Enabling a favorable environment to upscaling CA diffusion: Farmers group organisation, involving traders in credit issue, mecanisation, etc.
F M A M J J A S O N D J F Conventional tillage
“Maize Monoculture” No-Tillage Dry season Rainy season (6 months) Maize direct seeded on maize residues Maize cycle duration 4 monthsMaize residues(DM 5 t.ha-1)
“Maize – Vigna umbellata (rice-bean)” rotation No-Tillage Rainy season Dry season Rainy season maize direct seeded on rice-bean residues Rice-bean Rice-bean residues (DM < 5 t.ha-1)Rice-bean direct seeded on Maize residues maize residues (DM 5 t.ha-1)
Monitoring of CA adoption • Annual monitoring on more than 2000 families from 2005 to 2008 for basic farm characteristics; • On farm monitoring data; • Details questionnaires on more than 400 families in 2006 and 2008;
Agro – economics resultsAgro-economic productivity of DMC maize monocropping and tillage-based maize monocropping systems (2007)Note: A Mann-Whitney test highlights significantly lower production costs for DMC systems (at the 0.01 level) DMC Tillage Boten district Maize yield (kg/ha) 5 237 4 729 7 villages Production costs (USD/ha) 115 101 29 plots w/ DMC Net incomes (USD/ha) 633 575 17 plots w/ tillage Labour input (man/day/ha) 37 39 Labour productivity (USD/day) 19 16 Kenthao district Maize yield (kg/ha) 4 697 4 191 11 villages Production costs (USD/ha) 123 152 46 plots w/ DMC Net incomes (USD/ha) 548 447 46 plots w/ tillage Labour input (man/day/ha) 41 42 Labour productivity (USD/day) 15 11 Paklay district Maize yield (kg/ha) 6 242 6 392 10 villages Production costs (USD/ha) 122 188 46 plots w/ DMC Net incomes (USD/ha) 769 725 47 plots w/ tillage Labour input (man/day/ha) 45 50 Labour productivity (USD/day) 19 16 DMC presents clear benefits in terms of reduced production costs (-18% in average), increased net incomes (+12% in average) and enhanced labour productivity (+23% in average)
Adoption results Adoption of DMC systems (% of households, 2005-2008) 2005 2006 2007 2008 Boten 8% 33% 35% 46% Kenthao 13% 26% 22% 28% Paklay 0% 4% 6% 8% Thongmixay 0% 14% 16% 22% Total 6% 19% 18% 24%
Relative distribution of the main cropping systems (2008) Significant inter-village variations Highest levels of adoption in: • Nongphakbong, Thanang (Boten D) • Houaylod, Houayped (Kenthao D) • Dane (Thongmixay D) Lowest levels in: • Paklay district • Paktom-Houaybouha axis (Kenthao D) The expansion of DMC occurs through different processes
Determinants for adoptionSocial determinants Correlation coefficient matrix (Pearson): household capital assets, age and education level of the household head and relative extent of DMC in household rainfed land (2006, n=456). Note: Underlined values represent significant correlations (at the 0.01 level). Household capital assets were derived from household property in transportation and agricultural equipments. % DMC Capital assets Age Education % DMC 1 -0,078 0,004 -0,088 Capital assets -0,078 1 0,047 0,090 Age 0,004 0,047 1 -0,373 Education -0,088 0,090 -0,373 1
Determinants for adoptionLand tenure and labourCorrelation coefficient matrix (Pearson): household labour, rainfed land tenure and relativeextent of DMC in rainfed land (2008, n=2032).Note: Underlined values represent significant correlations (at the 0.01 level) % DMC Land tenure Labour % DMC 1 0,072 0,031 Land tenure 0,072 1 0,182 Labour 0,031 0,182 1
Determinants for adoptionWhy farmers did experimented CA
Determinants for adoptionWhy farmers did not experimented CA
Determinants for adoptionWhy farmers expanded their surfaces in CA
Constraints for adoptionAgronomist point of view… • Access to credit • Mechanisation and service provision • Residue management (Livestock and burning) • Markets for associated/secondary crops • Low biomass production systems did not involves fertility improvement or good weed control
ConclusionsCA can become, within a few years of research and extension, a viable and acceptedalternative to well-established tillage practices – and this, even in a context of small-scale farmingFarmers confronted with important agroecological constraints and experiencingsignificant land degradation issues are more inclined to trial and adopt CA.Thus, environmental sensitization appears as a key aspect of disseminationThe engagement of farmers with CA is not contingent upon farm-level variableslike capital, labour, age and education.Finally, the question of the integration of CA with the broader agricultural industryappears also essential.
THANK YOUReference:Lestrelin G, Tran Quoc H, Jullien F, Rattanatray B, Khamxaykhay C, Tivet F. (Forthcoming).“Conservation agriculture in Laos: Diffusion and determinants for adoption of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems in smallholder agriculture”. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems.