Ch. 16, section 1


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Ch. 16, section 1

  1. 1. Russia and the Western Republics Chapter 16, section 1
  2. 2. Birth of an Empire <ul><li>Russian state began in the region between the Baltic and Black Seas </li></ul>
  3. 3. Birth of an Empire <ul><li>Vikings settled near present-day Kiev on the Dnieper River </li></ul>
  4. 4. Birth of an Empire <ul><li>Viking expansion was halted in the 13 th century by the arrival of Mongolian invaders, the Tartars </li></ul>
  5. 5. Birth of an Empire <ul><li>The fierceness of the Mongolian warriors is legendary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled the region until the 1500s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed out by Ivan the Great (Moscow prince) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 17 th century, the Russian Empire expanded to the Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  6. 6. Russia lags behind Western Europe <ul><li>Behind in science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Peter the Great tried to change Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved capitol to St. Petersburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idolized Europe and felt it was superior so he tried to mimic them </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Forced nobles to dress more European and cut off beards </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who wanted to keep their beard had to pay a tax </li></ul>
  8. 8. Russia lags behind <ul><li>Did not industrialize until the end of the 1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in harsh working conditions, low wages and other hardships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributed to the people’s anger against the czars </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rise of the Soviet Union <ul><li>1917 – Russian revolution resulted in the end of the rule of the czars </li></ul>Petrograd, 4 July 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns.
  10. 10. Rise of the Soviet Union <ul><li>Russian Communist Party took control of the government, led by V.I. Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>By 1922 they reorganized all the people absorbed by Russia’s expansion into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a – Soviet Union </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rise of the Soviet Union <ul><li>Moved capitol back to Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>By WWII, Joseph Stalin had taken control </li></ul><ul><li>Installed pro-Soviet governments in Eastern European countries they had gained control of during WWII </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stalin’s Kill List <ul><li>up to 14.5 million needlessly starved to death </li></ul><ul><li>At least one million executed for political &quot;offenses&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>At least 9.5 million more deported, exiled or imprisoned in work camps, with many of the estimated five million sent to the 'Gulag Archipelago' never returning alive </li></ul>
  13. 13. Building a Command Economy <ul><li>Inspired by the works of Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said capitalism was doomed and would be replaced with communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed if citizens would own property together, then everyone would share the wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adopted a command economy – central gov’t makes all important economic decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Building a Command Economy <ul><li>Took control of the major sources of state’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t decided what products factories would manufacture, what crops farms would grow, and what prices merchants would charge </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization became a major goal </li></ul>
  15. 15. Building a Command Economy <ul><li>Created collective farms – large teams of laborers were gathered to work together </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of citizens starved to death in famines caused by the creation of collective farms </li></ul><ul><li>Police quickly punished any form of protest </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cold War <ul><li>Stalin’s desire to spread communism led to tension between the USSR and the U.S. called the Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never grew into open warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued from the 1940s – 1991 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fall of the Soviet Union <ul><li>In the 1980’s, Mikhail Gorbachev stared giving people more freedom which led to the collapse of the Communist gov’t in 1991 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fall of the Soviet Union <ul><li>Divided into 15 independent republics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia is the largest and most powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularly elected president and the Federal Assembly – 2 chambers: Federation Council and the State Duma </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Rich Culture <ul><li>Rich variety of ethnic groups due to Russian expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 70 groups make up Russia’s diverse population </li></ul><ul><li>Most Russians are Eastern Orthodox Christian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other religions include Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A Rich Culture <ul><li>Art and religion are closely related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churches are among the region’s earliest artistic achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writers, composers, and artists have also given attention to the culture of this region </li></ul>
  21. 21. Russian Life <ul><li>Major Russian cities resemble major cities in the West </li></ul><ul><li>Rye bread and Kasha are traditional foods made from grain grown in the region’s steppe </li></ul>
  22. 22. Russian Life <ul><li>¼ of Russia’s population live in rural areas but nearly 30% own country homes (dachas) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Russian Life <ul><li>Banya – Bathhouse in which Russians perform a cleaning ritual </li></ul>