Russian Revolution Part 1


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Part 1of 3 of the Revolution in Russia

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Russian Revolution Part 1

  1. 1. Quick Write 2-1-10 <ul><li>When is a good time for a Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>This starts a new semester… </li></ul><ul><li>This starts a new opportunity for this class… </li></ul><ul><li>Also this is the start of your new packet…  </li></ul>
  2. 2. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 1 The Fall & Rise
  3. 3. Setting the Stage <ul><li>The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse… </li></ul><ul><li>… the explosion would come in 1917… </li></ul><ul><li>… The cruel, oppresive rule of the Russian czars in the 19th Century had caused unrest for decades… </li></ul><ul><li>… Russia was heading for a full-scale revolution </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Russia had a tradition of oppressive rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized violence against Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict censorship (including on private letters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Russian language was to be spoken, except by the nobility who also spoke French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only worship the Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret Police </li></ul></ul>Oppressive Rulers in Russia
  5. 5. Continuing autocratic rule… <ul><li>CENSORSHIP- to examine material in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable on moral, political, military, or other grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Total censorship-schools, papers, letters </li></ul><ul><li>Secret Police watched high schools and college students </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1894, the last Russian Czar, Nicholas II came to power. </li></ul><ul><li>He was committed to keeping total control over Russia. </li></ul>The Last Czar
  7. 7. <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncharismatic, quiet, disliked large crowds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lives the life of a private wealthy monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Czar’s usual nickname: the people’s “little father” – Nicholas doesn’t act the part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left most state affairs to his ministers </li></ul></ul>Who was Nicholas II?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Eastern (Russian) Orthodox faith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandra (czarina): wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexi: son; heir to the throne, weak and sickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anastasia: famous “missing” daughter </li></ul></ul>Who was Nicholas II?
  9. 9. Russia Industrializes <ul><li>Rapid industrialization changed the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Factories doubled between 1863-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth leading steel leader due to higher taxes on citizens and foreign investors </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian Railway links western and eastern Russia (longest in the world) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conditions Lead to Revolution <ul><li>Rapid industrialization stirs up discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Bad working conditions, low wages, child labor, and no labor unions led to strikes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conditions lead to Revolution <ul><li>Marxism- radical form of socialism where all aspects of industry are owned by the government </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas of Karl Marx establish Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Proletariat- working class </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist believed proletariat would overthrow czar </li></ul><ul><li>… this meant the working class would rule the country </li></ul>
  12. 12. You say Socialism, I say Communism… <ul><li>Socialism: Everyone owns/shares and is equal VOLUNTARILY </li></ul><ul><li>Communism: The government owns everything and decides level of equality </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conditions lead to Revolution <ul><li>Marxists split into two groups over revolutionary tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Mensheviks= moderates wanting popular support of revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks=radical revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for change </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vladimir Lenin <ul><li>Leader of the Bolsheviks </li></ul><ul><li>Very organized </li></ul><ul><li>Ruthless </li></ul><ul><li>Fled to western Europe to avoid arrest by the czarist regime </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained contact with the Bolsheviks </li></ul>Father of the revolution
  15. 15. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 2 Troubles a Brewin’
  16. 16. <ul><li>Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin pushed for revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin continued to build his influence until it was safe to return to Russia </li></ul><ul><li>… meanwhile… </li></ul>Workers were Growing Angry
  17. 17. <ul><li>Russo-Japanese defeat looked very bad. </li></ul>Problems Nicholas Faced <ul><li>-Jan 1905, 200,000 workers and their families protested the czars winter palace </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Wanted job reforms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Nicholas ordered soldiers to fire in the crowd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-1,000+ wounded several hundred killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Event provoked riots </li></ul></ul>Bloody Sunday
  18. 18. <ul><li>Suffering caused by WWI was the final blow against the czar’s rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million Russian soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Czar lost control of Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers refused to fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People were starving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia had withdrawn from the war… </li></ul></ul>WWI causes more problems
  19. 19. <ul><li>1915 Nicholas moved his headquarters to the war front- hoped to rally troops </li></ul><ul><li>His wife, Alexandra was left in charge of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Put all her trust and power in Rasputin- a self proclaimed “holy man” </li></ul><ul><li>1916 a group of nobles murdered Rasputin </li></ul><ul><li>Neither Nicholas or Alexandra proved capable of tackling these enormous problems. </li></ul>The monarchy loses control
  20. 20. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 3 Losing Control
  21. 21. <ul><li>Nicholas soon lost control. </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes, revolts and protests led to the March Revolution of 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>Czar Nicholas stepped down. </li></ul>Nicholas Loses Control!
  22. 22. <ul><li>Women who worked in factories in Petrograd(St. Petersburg) stood in line after a 12 hour shift to purchase insanely priced bread. </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 women marched withthe slogan “ Peace and Bread ” </li></ul><ul><li>The women were joined by other workers creating a general strike. </li></ul><ul><li>Czar’s solution was to fire upon the crowds but the soldiers joined the movement instead! </li></ul>THE MARCH REVOLUTION &
  23. 23. <ul><li>1917- Czar Nicholas is forced to abdicate his throne </li></ul><ul><li>The three century czarist rule of the Romanov’s finally collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Year later revolutionaries executed Nicholas and his family </li></ul><ul><li>March Revolution succeeded in bringing down the Czar yet it failed to set up a strong government to replace it </li></ul>Nic has to step down...
  24. 24. <ul><li>Someone needed to rule… </li></ul><ul><li>Provisional government was established, </li></ul><ul><li>(Provisional= temporary) </li></ul><ul><li>headed by Alexander Kerensky. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued fighting WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BAD idea  lost support </li></ul></ul>Provisional Government
  25. 25. <ul><li>Demanded land </li></ul><ul><li>City workers grew more radical </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets were formed  local city councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>A political challenge erupted from local “ Soviets ” </li></ul><ul><li>Later, this group became stronger and were labeled as “ Bolsheviks .” </li></ul>Angry Peasants
  26. 26. Revolutions in Russia Chapter 4 Bolshevik Revolution
  27. 27. <ul><li>German military leaders shipped Lenin to Russia from Switzerland by rail to “create disorder” within Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany arranged Lenin’s return to Russia after many years in exile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 1917: Traveled in a sealed railroad boxcar </li></ul></ul>Lenin Returns to Russia
  28. 28. <ul><li>Lenin revitalized slogans from the mad mother’s march to influence Russians </li></ul><ul><li>“ Peace, Land, Bread” </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1917- armed workers took control of government offices. </li></ul><ul><li>Kerensky’s reign had ended </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>BOLSHEVIKS REFLECT THE PEOPLES’ NEEDS AND DISCONTENT
  29. 29. <ul><li>A COUP WITHOUT BLOODSHED - Lenin takes over the provisional government at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg on </li></ul><ul><li>November 6, 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists after Marxist ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin had promised peace so he signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which took Russia out of WWI </li></ul>BOLSHEVIKS SEIZE POWER
  30. 30. Execution of the Romanov’s