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Ch. 31


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Ch. 31

  1. 1. Southeast Asia Ch. 31, Sec. 1
  2. 2.  Includes the nations of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar , the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam
  3. 3. Early History China ruled Vietnam from 111 B.C. to A.D. 939  Chinese art, technology, political ideas, and ethical beliefs shaped Vietnam’s culture Hinduism and Buddhism spread from India, but have kept some traditions such as more equal roles for women
  4. 4. Early History Didn’t have set borders. Instead they had mandalas – states organized as rings of power around a central court Mandala’s regions might overlap so rulers made alliances to survive Khmer Empire lasted from about the 9th to 15th centuries in present-day Cambodia
  5. 5. Powerful States Between 1300 and 1800, 5 powerful states existed They were similar to mandalas but larger and more complex The Burmese, Vietnamese, Thai, and Javanese began to define their national identities Urbanization began to take place
  6. 6. European Control Europeans began arriving in 1509 Only the Spanish were interested in setting up a colony in the Philippines Other nations were there to obtain wealth Used business methods to take over trade Control of SE Asia’s wealth eventually lead to the colonization of all countries accept Siam (now Thailand)
  7. 7. European Control Colonial rulers set up centralized governments Forced the colonies to produce goods that would help Europe’s economy Unintended affect of sparking nationalism Gaining a western education taught them about self-rule
  8. 8. Independence Japan occupied SE Asia during WWII claiming to take back “Asia for Asians” Japan was exploiting SE Asia like the Europeans, but put SE Asians in leadership roles After the war, many countries gained their independence peacefully Indonesia fought for 4 years to gain independence from the Dutch
  9. 9. Independence Indochina – French colony made up of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam Vietnamese defeated the French in 1954 gaining freedom for all the countries U.S. became involved to keep Communist North Vietnam from invading South Vietnam leading to the Vietnam War The U.S. withdrew in 1973 and South Vietnam surrendered in 1975 creating one Vietnamese country
  10. 10. Vietnam
  11. 11. Traditional Economies Depend mostly on agriculture for income Their main crop is rice
  12. 12. Traditional economies Myanmar produces much of the world’s teak – a yellowish-brown wood that is very durable
  13. 13. Traditional Economies Causes of a lack of industry  Vietnam war destroyed factories and roads  Refugees fled the countries reducing the workforce  Political turmoil
  14. 14. Industry and Finance In general, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand have more highly developed economies Members of ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, an alliance that promotes peace and economic growth Manufacturing has grown quickly since the 1960s
  15. 15. Industry and Finance Chief industry is processing of agricultural products Produce textiles, clothing, and electronic products Singapore = center of finance Brunei = petroleum and natural gas Tin is found in mostly in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand
  16. 16. Religious Diversity Buddhism is widespread Philippines = mostly Catholic Indonesia and Brunei = mostly Muslim Hinduism and local beliefs are also followed
  17. 17.  Buddhism and Hinduism have influenced their sculpture and architectureAnkor Watin Cambodia
  18. 18. Buddhist templein Thailand
  19. 19. The villages People live in wooden houses on stilts with a thatched roof Some have a Buddhist temple that serves as a center for social life Some still wear longyi – a long, tightly wrapped skirt
  20. 20. The Cities Most people live in apartments Shortage of housing for everyone looking for jobs so they live in shacks or slums
  21. 21. OceaniaChapter 31, Section 2
  22. 22.  Includes Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvala, and Vanatu
  23. 23. First Islanders Prehistoric people traveled to this area using small rafts and land bridges Their descendents traveled as far east as Hawaii, south as New Zealand, and west as Madagascar
  24. 24. First Islanders Had little contact with other people so they developed their own ways of life Divided into 3 regions by geography and culture 1. Micronesia – “tiny islands” 2. Melanesia – “black islands” 3. Polynesia – “many islands”
  25. 25. Navigation Islanders used stars and navigation charts Charts made of sticks and shells  Sticks = wave patterns  Shells = island positions
  26. 26. Voyaging Canoe
  27. 27. Outrigger Canoe
  28. 28. Contact with the West Europeans began exploring the area in the 1500s James Cook, a British captain, was the first to visit many of the islands
  29. 29. Contact with the West In the 1800s, missionaries tried to convert the islanders to Christianity Traders came for goods Sailors hunted whales Settlers started plantations of coconuts, coffee, pineapples and sugar European contact brought disease and replaced many traditional customs
  30. 30. Recent History During WWII, the Allies and the Japanese fought many battle to gain control of the Pacific 12 nations have gained independence since 1962 while the others still remain under foreign control
  31. 31. Nuclear Testing After the war, some islands were used as nuclear testing sites 1940s – 1950s = U.S. conducted 66 tests 1946 – U.S. moved 167 people from Bikini Atoll 1951 – 1958 = 60 tests done on B.A. Bravo – hydrogen bomb that vaporized several islands and left high levels of radiation
  32. 32. Long-term Effects Bikini Islanders moved to Kili  island could not support agriculture or fishing Islanders allowed to return in 1960s 1978 – doctors discovered radiation in islanders so they had to leave 1988 – clean up began but has not been completed to this day
  33. 33. Traditional Economy Most people work at subsistence activities – a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they need Nauru is the exception due to its large phosphate mining
  34. 34. Agriculture Agriculture is the region’s main economic activity Main crops are bananas, sugar, cocoa, coffee and copra – dried coconut meat Fishing also provide a source of income
  35. 35. Other Economic Activities Tourism – brings in money but threatens the environment Mining – Papua New Guinea mines copper Larger towns have factories which are drawing more people looking for jobs
  36. 36. Culture About 1,100 languages are spoken Many Pacific Islanders speak European languages with English being the most common Christianity is the most widely spread religion Arts include baskets and mats woven from palm trees or carved wooden masks
  37. 37. Island Life Varied throughout the islands In Polynesia, people lived in villages of wooden houses  A chief led each village  Farming and fishing were main economies  Warlike Micronesians lived in extended family groups and were more peaceful Melanesians mostly lived along the coast while others were hunter-gatherers
  38. 38. Recent Change Few cities exist but they have been growing Causing living and sanitation problems City dwellers are giving up their traditional ways of life New communication has helped link the islands together
  39. 39. Australia, NewZealand, and Antarctica Chapter 31, Section 3
  40. 40. History: Distant European Outposts The Aboriginal people migrated to Australia from Asia at least 40,000 years ago  There were about 500 groups speaking 200 different languages  Lived as hunters and gatherers Maori first settled New Zealand  Lived by fishing, hunting, and farming
  41. 41. Early Explorers James Cook first explored New Zealand in 1769 and the east coast of Australia in 1770. Antarctica was first discovered in 1820 Britain Australia New Zealand
  42. 42. European Settlement Britain began colonizing Australia (called New South Whales until 1820) as a penal colony – a place to send prisoners Gave them more Pacific naval bases Hunters and whalers colonized New Zealand Blue Whale Fin Whale
  43. 43. European Settlement British colonists had violent conflicts with the Aboriginal people Many natives died from the fighting and from disease Gold was discovered in 1851 in Australia and in 1861 in New Zealand bringing hundreds of thousands to the 2 countries
  44. 44. European Settlement In 1840, the British and several Maori tribes signed the Treaty of Waitangi giving Britain control over New Zealand British translated the treaty as having complete control The Maori translated as them having “governorship” Mistranslation led to the Land Wars from 1845 to 1847 and from 1860 to 1872
  45. 45. Rabbits! 1859 – Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits for hunting 2 rabbits  184 babies in 18 months 1900 – more than 1 billion rabbits
  46. 46. Rabbit Problems Few natural predators Destroy natural vegetation Ranchers unable to feed sheep
  47. 47. Rabbit Solutions Imported foxes 2,000 mile fence to contain rabbits Infected rabbits with myxomatosis Poison Destroying burroughs
  48. 48. Modern Nations In 1901, the colonies within Australia combined to form one nation New Zealand became self- governing in 1907 Both remained with the British Commonwealth
  49. 49. Rights and Land Claims In 1893, New Zealand became the first nation to grant women the right to vote Also one of the first nations to grant pensions for its senior citizens In both Australia and New Zealand, the natives have lower education and high poverty rates Attempting to improve their lives, they have made claims for the return of their former lands
  50. 50. Agriculture Australia and New Zealand are major exporters of farm products New Zealand = butter, cheese, meat and wool  Ranching is so wide spread that the # of animals is 15 times greater than the # of people  World’s largest exporter of kiwi fruit
  51. 51. Agriculture Australia = sheep ranching  #1 exporter of wool  Less than 10% of the land is used for crops
  52. 52. Mining Australia is the world’s top producer of diamonds, lead, zinc, and opals Also a major producer of bauxite, coal, copper, gold and iron ore Most of the resources lie in the outback so it is expensive to build roads and buildings that are needed Most of the mining industry is controlled by foreign investors
  53. 53. Australia’s Culture Most Australians are of British descent 20% are foreign born and 1% are Aboriginal Christianity is the major religion Drive on the left side of the road Most speak English
  54. 54. New Zealand’s Culture Majority are of European, mostly British, descent and called pakehas = Maori for white people 15% are Maori descent English and Maori are official languages Christianity is the main religion but some churches combine it with Maori teachings
  55. 55. Modern Life 70% of Australians and New Zealanders own their own home About 85% of their populations live in cities or towns Ranchers live far away from settlements  New Zealand has a good road system in the rural areas  Australia has many wealthy ranchers with private jets to take them across the large distances