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I Want to Become a Marine Biologist
My goals in life are to get a first enlist in the Navy, hope to get a job as a diver in the special operations program. After my first enlistment is up, I
want to be a diver at an aquarium where I can feed the animals; Meanwhile, I would like to attend Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric
Science at The University of Miami and earn a doctorate degree in Marine Biology to become a Marine Biologist. I've always been fascinated with
animals, especially aquatic life. Although, I wasn't dead–set on becoming one at first, over spring break I made my final decision. We went to an
aquarium and I just loved every bit of it; the animal's interactions, the knowledge behind all of it, and the joy I saw between the employees and the
animals. I'm very interested in not just the study of organisms in the ocean or other marine bodies of water, but also marine conservation and ecology.
Thinking about the studies of protecting and preserving of the ecosystems in oceans and seas and interactions among organisms and their environment
just gets my full attention. I could sit for hours and hours and listen to anybody talk about these subjects and they would have my full attention,
one–hundred percent. This subject has never, and never will lose my interest.
As I've researched, marine biologists must achieve at certain skills, such as: public speaking, science, critical thinking, reading comprehension and
active listening. I succeed very well in all of those skills, yes, some more than
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Endangered Species Of Marine Ecosystems
be put in place. These practices are to be put in place to ensure control of overfishing (Eilperon, 2006). Another practice is the introduction of
fishing quotas (Costello et al. 2008). These are put in place to ensure a limit in fishing and that the catch of the day is distributed according to the
shares each person holds in a fishery. This policy will enable controlled fishing (Solliman, 2014). Endangered species of marine ecosystems can also
be restored in an artificial way. This is a practice that ensures all species will coexist in many years to come. Through this practice different species
are introduced in a new habitat. Here they are mingled with native species. This enables a specific ecosystem to have variety of different species. It is
this practice that ensures predators do not run out of food. Another policy that should be put in place is the reiteration of fisheries law. This law has
been neglected over the years and is rarely taught in law schools. It is the duty of a new international marine convention to make the public aware of
the new laws in place to protect marine conservations. It could also introduce new laws to deal with upcoming problems such as overfishing due to
population increase. Education is a key practice that has been overlooked. Many times tourists and locals get to have fun in the oceans with absolutely
zero knowledge on what damage they could cause sea life. Education on marine conservation needs to start with anyone and most
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Kathy Conlan's 'Under The Ice'
Kathy Conlan is an expert in understanding the weird and wonderful world of marine creatures that live deep under the Arctic ice. She specializes in
marine benthic biology and amphipod systematics. Kathy studies how human and natural changes affect marine life in the Arctic and Antarctic, the
effects of pollution on marine life as well as global warming. She is past chief officer for Life Sciences in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic
Research (SCAR) and is a judge for SCAR's Martha T. Muse Prize for Science and policy in Antarctica, represents Canada for the Canadian Committee
on Antarctic Research, taught at Huntsman Marine Science Centre and Students On Ice, mentors university students and gives speaches and "Show
and tells" at the museum.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Her awards include; US Department of the Navy and the National Science Foundation. Antarctic Service Medal (1992) Nominated, YMCA–YWCA
Women of Distinction Awards, Technology Category (1999 and 2001). Winner of the 2002 Science in Society Children's Book Award for "Under the
Ice". R. W. Brock Award for best Canadian Museum of Nature research paper of 2003 (co
–authored with Ed Hendrycks).Kathy Conlan began working
with marine biologist Steve Blasco in the Eastern Arctic looking at the effects of ice scours. When icebergs float around, they are so large that
they often scrape and gouge the sea floor disturbing everything in its wake. Conlan and Blasco sampled the species in areas that had been recently
disturbed, and compared them to undisturbed sea floor. They discovered that the iceberg's effects were positive. The icebergs had created spaces for
weedy species. They found a greater increase of diversity of marine life, as long as the ice scouring was not so repetitive that animals couldn't get
settled in to live. In the 1970's, oil companies drilled for oil and gas in the
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Sylvia Earle's Sea Change: A Message Of The Oceans
Revolutionary marine biologist Sylvia Earle voiced the need for long–term environmental protection in her book Sea Change: A Message of the
Oceans. "I had come to believe that healthy ecosystems are the most important legacy we have from the past, above the ocean or below, and their
protection is the single most important legacy we can bequeath to those who follow" (Earle, 307). This motivation, ensued by policy makers alike,
gave rise to today's marine sanctuaries, commonly known in legislature as marine protected areas (MPAs) or marine reserves. MPAs consist of critical
ecosystems set aside for management or restriction from consequences of human activity and exploitation (NOAA, 2016). Closer examination of the
background marine reserves, past and present research, and policy implications provides a better... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
However, industrial progression of catch technology and global fishing expansion have increased the need for resource protection. Post–World War II
study of fish repopulation in the North Sea indicated seclusion of marine zones from human exploitation as a viable fishery management tactic
(Beverton & Holt, 1957). Since the 1950s, fisheries have expanded in the developing world to attain larger catches (Pauly et al., 2002). Declining
fishing rates spurred the first MPA conference in 1975 to report anthropogenic influences on the marine realm and recommended guidelines for
establishment of international MPAs (IUCN, 1976). In 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) agreed on the Law of
the Sea treaty to provide fisheries jurisdiction and protection of natural resources. The treaty was ratified by 160 countries, yet its implementation today
is still difficult since the ocean is a public resource (Sanchirico, 2016). With increased data collection and monitoring over time, the world continues to
rework guidelines based on successful
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Overfishing the World Big Fish Population
Over Fishing the World Big Fish Population
Insert your Name Here
SCI275
Axia College of University of Phoenix
The overfishing of our world's oceans is causing a depletion of some prize fish, such as tuna and swordfish, to the point that some scientists believe
that 90% of these big fish populations have been fished out. Jeremy Jackson of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography published a study in 2001 in
which he asserts that overfishing is more destructive than toxic pollution or degrading water quality (University of Phoenix, 2007). Dr. Daniel Pauly,
Professor and Director of the University of British Columbia's Fisheries Centre, describes it as follow on The Overfishing.org (2007) website: "The
big fish, the bill ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
By putting this plan into practice, we will also resolve the other problems created by over fishing, as it effects not only the depleted fish population, but
also the animals for which those fish are food of choice. Whales are turning to sea otters for food, rather than the sea lions and seals on which they
normally feed, as those populations also decline. Over fishing has also caused the use, as stated earlier, of smaller mesh nets, increasing the amount of
by catch that is caught in the nets. By catch is the seabirds, dolphins, sea turtles, and even whales that are also caught in the net as they drag it in, and
are usually dumped back into the ocean, dead or dying. A drastic reduction in the amount of by catch will subsequently occur with the reinstating of the
larger mesh nets.
The management plan may cause fishermen to have to look into a second source of income for the first five to ten years, as the most severe
restrictions are put into place, giving the fish populations can breed and repopulate, and a reassessment to be done by the scientific community
charged with monitoring the big fish groups. Governments might be forced to subsidize the industry for this initial period, to help prevent illegal
poaching by some fishermen who saw poaching as their only economic alternative. Consumers would have to reduce their use of fish, and would have
to pay more for the fish they did purchase at the market during this period of
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Environmental History Of The Oceans And Seas
Environmental history of the oceans and seas are daunting topics, either because of the vastness of the oceans and seas, the artificial boundaries, or
their seemingly changelessness. Until about 1990, with Arthur McEvoy's The Fisherman's Problem: Ecology and the Law in California Fisheries,
1850–1980, historians largely ignored marine ecosystems as areas of research. Focusing instead on inland fisheries, environmental historians have still
had to be "exhorted... to embrace this opportunity" of expanding the discourse of human impacts on marine environments. Scientists, anthropologists,
archeologists, and historical ecologists have thus far dominated the production of knowledge concerning historical and current marine ecosystems. In ...
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Through a compilation of scholars, Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems attempts to show how human disturbance of marine ecosystems in
ancient populations. Ranging from Caribbean, North American Pacific, North Atlantic, and Mediterranean, Human Impacts examines archeological
and historical ecological data and case studies from "around the world to summarize the history of human coastal occupation, environmental change,
and human impacts in their area." Similarly, in Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems, Jeremy Jackson et al. highlights
through paleoecological, archeological, and historical data that aboriginals extensively fished coastal ecosystems, resulting in damaged ecosystems.
Through the use of archeological and historical data, these scholars challenge the "supposedly superior ecological wisdom of non–Western and
precolonial societies." These scholars highlight the damages and exploitation of early human societies on marine ecosystems. However, the data
surrounding aboriginal impacts on early marine ecosystems is scarce resulting in fewer scholarly articles on the subject.
Beginning in
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The Human Perceptions Of Biological Systems
The ocean in its vast mystique contains millions of species and covers most of our planet. Unfortunately, many people do not truly grasp the gravity of
the depletion of biodiversity that has occurred over the years. This is due to shifting baseline syndrome and its prevalence in today's society. What is
shifting baseline syndrome, how does the exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History teach visitors the concept of "shifting baselines" and "
shifting baseline syndrome" as it relates to conservation, and how does the museum as a whole communicate a conservationist message and promote
conservationist values?
Shifting baselines syndrome "is a cautionary tale referring to changing human perceptions of biological systems due to loss of experience about past
conditions" (Papworth). There are two forms of shifting baselines: there is "generational amnesia" where the younger generation is unaware of what
happened in previous generations and the other is "personal amnesia" where the person forgets or remembers incorrectly what has happened to them.
Jon Mooallem defines shifting baselines, as well as the different types, in his book, Wild Ones, by writing, "The phenomenon that Powell stumbled onto
has a name: shifting baselines syndrome... Every generation of scientist accepts the oceans as it inherits them... when the next generation of scientists
start their careers, they don 't see the oceans as depleted; that depleted condition becomes their baseline, against which they
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The Evolution of the World: Industrial-Based, Less...
The evolution of the world toward a more industrial–based society has threatened fisheries, reefs, and maritime systems around the world. To combat
the problems, various measures of legislation and government intervention have been implemented to protect living and nonliving marine entities and
ensure that resources aren't fully depleted.
This paper will look at a number of 'solutions' to the problems that industrial–based, less natural, societies have created for marine life. These 'solutions'
have come in a number of forms, from varying levels of government and agencies. The crees of protections have included legislation. We will look at
formalized legislation from the state level, national level, and supranational level (European ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
And stock assessments for all marine mammal stocks in waters under U.S. jurisdiction were beefed up. (Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA),
2013). Implementation of the legislation is currently overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Essential to the
success of the MMPA, a newly founded Marine Mammal Commission was tasked with ensuring the protection of sea otters and marine otters, walruses,
polar bears, manatees, and dugongs. NOAA was given responsibility to conserve and manage pinnipeds including seals and sea lions and cetaceans
such as whales and dolphins. In their conclusion of their findings, NOAA presented congress with data that showed: "all species and population stocks
of marine mammals are, or may be, in danger of extinction or depletion due to human activities; these mammals should not be permitted to diminish
below their optimum sustainable population", and argued that: "measures should be taken immediately to replenish any of these mammals that have
diminished below that level, and efforts should be made to protect essential habitats; there is inadequate knowledge of the ecology and population
dynamics of these mammals; negotiations should be undertaken immediately to encourage international arrangements for research and conservation of
these mammals" (H.R. Res 10420, 1972). Under the overarching wings of national legislation, California adopted its own Marine Life legislation in
1999 to
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The Issue of Overfishing
In contemporary society, human society is progressing rapidly on various fronts. Nevertheless at the same time, the problem of overfishing is becoming
increasingly worrisome and attract extensive attention of the society. In this essay, I will address overfishing and propose some possible causes of this
phenomenon which can give contribution to some solutions. Introduction
This issue of overfishing covers vast fields, such as science, humanity, economy, society and nature. The term "optimum", in regard to the yield from a
fishery, is difficult to be defined, precisely and fixedly. Generally speaking, we can describe it as follows: (Niles E. Stople, January 2009, FishNet USA)
Will provide maximum effectiveness benefit to the Nation, particularly in relation to food production and recreational opportunities, and giving
consideration to the protection of marine ecosystems
In case of an overfished fishery, provides for reconstructing to a level consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such fishery
Overfishing's status as the focus of public concern mainly results from its negligible but harmful influence on individuals, collective, and even the
whole world. One of the world's significant fishery in the East China Sea is damage by overfishing and growing levels of contamination, recent
research has shown, confirming the fear of fishermen and environmentalists. (Xinhua on GOV, Lu Hui, ed. 16
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Fishing in the North Atlantic Essay example
Fishing in the North Atlantic
Abstract Ocean fishes have been consumed by humans beyond their maximum sustainable yields for years and the Atlantic cod and squid are two
examples. Cods were primarily overfished to commercial extinction. Other variables were also examined to see if they contribute to the declining
population. Water temperature was the natural phenomenon that may be responsible for poor egg hatching. Human causes such as increased UV
radiation from depleted ozone and bottom trawling disturbance were considered. Trawling disturbance had the worst effect while the other factors were
questionable. As the cod vanished, the commercial fisher turned to squid to continue their way of life. Government policy and ... Show more content on
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As a first world country, we consume a first class quantity of seafood as well. Overfishing of marine resources jeopardizes not just our existence, but
they are also vital in supporting various ecosystems. In this paper, a number of research articles and other review articles were examined to compose
a picture of the overfishing crisis. The recent developments of Atlantic cod and squid are discussed in more detail to provide a pattern that may lead to
empty oceans in the future.
Accounting for fish in the ocean.
There are many methods to account for the number of fish in the ocean. However, there are many uncertainties within any models of assessment. The
reliability of instruments and the weather condition during survey have great influence over the results (Smith and Gavaris, 1993). The mathematics
involved and the interpretation of the numbers is very difficult to comprehend and are beyond the scope of this paper. However, in one 1997 journal
article, C. J. Corkett criticized the commonly used Graham–Schaeder model of fish accounting. In general, he discredited the interpretation of the data
because of the instrumentalist approach used by many fishery managements. Instrumentalism is defined in the American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language as a pragmatic theory that ideas are instruments that function as guides of action, their validity being determined by the success of
the action. The raw data that
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The And Estuaries During The Gulf Coast Essay
The marshlands and estuaries located throughout the Gulf Coast provide important breeding grounds and nurseries for the fishing and shrimping
industries. In 2008, according to the National Marine Fisheries Service, the commercial fish and shellfish harvest from the five U.S. Gulf states was
estimated to be 1.3 billion pounds valued at $661 million. "Oil spills are extremely harmful to marine life when they occur and often for years or
even decades later," said Jacqueline Savitz, a marine scientist and climate campaign director at Oceana, an environmental group. She said spills could
coat sea birds and limit their flying ability and damage fisheries by injuring marine organism 's systems related to respiration, vision and reproduction.
Savitz said that the Gulf of Mexico is host to four species of endangered sea turtles and bluefin tuna, snapper and grouper. "Each of these can be
affected," she said. "Turtles have to come to the surface to breathe and can be coated with oil or may swallow it." And, she added, the Gulf is one of
only two nurseries for bluefin tuna, more than 90 percent of which return to their place of birth to spawn.
BP being the responsible party had the liability to bear all the costs and organizational duties associated with the cleanup effort while the Coast guard
monitored and approved the things. Part of BPs liability depended on how much oil has been leaked. Therefore, it was in the financial interest of the
company to do everything it could do to:
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The Effect Of Salmon Kills On The Klamath
1.Salmon is everything was written about the 2002 fish kill on the Klamath river. There were several factors that lead to the writing of salmon is
everything. The most important of which was that there was a lack of awareness in the community. The play was written so that people outside of the
native communities could better understand how the fish kill had effected those communities. The second objective was to help and bring together the
different viewpoints on the Klamath. I think that this play was necessary because it helped to educate the local communities as well as bring the
various viewpoint together on to one stage.
2.Salmon is everything include the perspective of most of the parties involved on the Klamath. it shows the viewpoints
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Plastic Pollution On The Marine Environment
Effects of Plastic Pollution on the Marine Environment Concern over increasing quantities of marine microplastic pollution has increased substantially
in the last decade, becoming a focus for many local and national governments, intergovernmental organizations, environmental advocacy groups, and the
private sector. In financial terms, conservative estimates place the harm to marine ecosystems at $13 billion annually. While the available literature on
microplastic pollution impacts has grown due to this increased interest, research into the subject is at an early stage relative to other areas of inquiry.
Further, research into the effects and sources of microplastic uptake in marine environments have been largely dependent on laboratory experimental
studies, due the technical difficulties in analyzing microplastics in the field. This paper sets out to describe the ecological impacts of marine
microplastic pollution as they are currently known: the various types of microplastics and their distinct potentials for environmental harm; the sources
of and vectors for microplastic contamination; known effects on marine organisms; and concludes with a discussion of legislative/regulatory solutions
to date and potential next steps. Overall, neither the direct nor long–term effects of microplastic pollution in the field are thoroughly understood. The
quantity of microplastics in the ocean is set to continue to increase, largely due to three factors; 1) the large volume of
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The Invasive Catfish Population
The Maryland rivers and bays have seen a rise in the invasive catfish population, more specifically the blue and flathead species. They are native to the
Midwest, making up up 75% of fish in the Virginia and Maryland tributaries. These fish are damaging the local ecosystems because of their size and no
natural predators. State and local governments have been researching possible solutions to resolve the issues but the populations of these fish spread
very quickly. Though it is sorely needed some of the solutions are experimental and could possibly hurt the native species in the process.
There is a growing problem regarding the blue and flathead catfish in the Maryland rivers and bays. "These catfish are native ... Show more content on
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Establishing and maintaining Freshwater Protected Areas (FPAs) is a great tool that is used by manyfisheries. "They should be used in High–Risk,
High–Value locations so that it may make the biggest ecological impact" (Garman et al. 2013). Another way to mitigate the issue, although it is still
in the experimental phase, would be Electrofishing. This technique electrocutes fish in a stretch of water using and electrical field, it has not been
widely used because of its chances of killing non target fish in the areas. "Experimental electrofishing for commercial applications would require a
significant financial investment (20K per vessel) and strict oversight by agencies but might be fundable through fishery resources grant (FRG) or
similar programs" (Garmin et al. 2003). Local awareness of the issue is another way to mitigate the problem. The Maryland Department of Natural
Resources launched a statewide campaign to educate its citizen about the invasive fish and its impact on native species and what anglers can do to
help. For instance, it started the DNR program which stands for "Do Not Release". This asks anglers to remove and kill any blue or flathead catfish
that are caught. It also implemented a fine on anyone who is caught transporting these fish to different bodies of water, which can be between $1000
to $2500. There is also a group called the Sustainable Fisheries Goal Implementation Team (SFGIT) that is made up of jurisdictional managers and
fishery stakeholders who are trying to put policies into place to help reduce the problem
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Ocean Overfishing Effects
Ocean overfishing is the process of removing wildlife from the ocean (or any other water sources) at unsustainable rates that lower their replication
rates. Overfishing began around the mid–20th century. At this time, there were many attempts to increase the pricings and variety of protein–rich
foods; this led to the government trying to increase the fish capacity. While the fishing operations advanced, the fish populations deteriorated. These
operations ended up turning into profit–hoggers and started to steal the ocean's wildlife. Considering that this was just the onset of overfishing, the
buyers became adapted to having a variety of fish at reasonable prices. In 1989, after about 90 million tons of fish were taken from the ocean, the
products ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Simply put, fish do not stand a chance against the most intelligent and dangerous hunters: humans. If people carry on at this pace, it can build a
biodiversity crisis larger and more severe than humanity has ever experienced. That is why specialists have formed organizations and societies
against overfishing to help decrease the number of fish that vanish every day. Greenpeace East Asia helps to advise people that we depend on
earth's oceans or life cannot exist without them (Defending Our Oceans 1). Greenpeace East Asia makes certain that God's creations are indefinitely
defended by humans. From reducing air pollution to conserving food and agriculture, Greenpeace, along with companies and establishments aside
from it, help maintain a neutral balance between life on land and in water. There are many ways to prevent overfishing from becoming even more of
an issue in the world. For instance, normal everyday people can spread the word about how overfishing is a huge crisis that needs to be dealt with
appropriately. Also, when people shop for fish they should choose the one's that are not endangered or harmed by overfishing. Besides everyday
people, fisheries need to start pitching in. They need to enact safe catch limits, which is a limit on the number of fish caught by a fishery. In addition,
they need to take control on bycatch. Another thing they can do is monitor fishermen when they
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Health And Sustainability Of Marine Ecosystem Degradation
Goal 14 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seeks to "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for
sustainable development." Targets 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5 and 14.a, aim to improve the health and sustainability of marine ecosystems by a
specified date, and avoid adverse impacts to the environment by addressing specific kinds of marine pollution. These are measurable in so far that it is
scientifically possible to quantify nutrient pollution, ocean acidity, marine debris, biodiversity etc., across space and time, as well as the impacts of
such indicators on other areas of the environment. In principle the lack of analysis of certain aspects of marine ecosystem degradation makes it
somewhat difficult to identify causal mechanisms in changes to the environment. Targets to improve scientific cooperation and knowledge relating to
marine ecosystems, 14.3, 14.5 and 14.a, can be measured in relation to increased international and cross–sector cooperation and improved research
outcomes. Observable sustainable socio–economic development of SIDs and LDCs can be used to measure the achievement of targets 14.7, 14.a and
14.b. Improvements to the regulation of destructive fishing practises, enforcement of international law and reduction of perverse subsidies (14.4, 14.6
and 14.c) can only be partially measured given the size of the ocean and that much illegal activity goes undetected. It is also important to note that an
assessment of these
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Overfishing And Degradation Of Our Marine Ecosystems
Research Paper Society has had a major impact on the depletion and degradation of our marine ecosystems. Overfishing has played a large role in the
depletion aspect. If we can learn how overfishing hurts marine ecosystems, then we can find ways to protect and prevent the depletion of this
resource. This paper will explain the history of overfishing, causes of overfishing, its affect on marine life and our society, and some possible solutions
for prevention and protection. Overfishing of marine life began to occur in the mid–20th century when there was a need for new sources of affordable
and easily accessed protein–rich foods. The solution was fish, which lead to a burst in the commercial fishing industry with many large ... Show more
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(2) This collapse occurred in 1992, and caused one of the worlds most productive fishing grounds to be extremely over fished. Technology and industry
allowed the fishermen to increase the amount of fish they were able to collect from this area. This increase in the amount of fish they could obtain
eventually bottomed out when they had depleted the resource to excessively without allowing time for the fish to replace their populations. Because
many of the government officials held shares in the cod industry, they refused to see that the resource was in need of preservation and protection. The
fishery eventually had to be shut down because it was so unsustainable. The creation of large trawlers (fishing nets created to drag along the bottom
of the sea) was a major aspect in the depletion of the Canadian Newfoundland fishery. These trawlers were brought in by big industries and were able
to catch fish at all times both day and night, collecting extreme amounts. Today studies show that 25% of U.S. fish stocks are depleted, which has
caused many important fisheries to fall apart. (3) Bottoming trawling is one of the most harmful fishing methods out there. Most bottom trawlers are
used to catch fish species like cod, shrimp, and flounder, which live on the ocean floors. Bottom trawling can also result in other fish and marine life
being collected that were not intended. This process also leads to severe
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Alaskan Salmon Lead The Most Interesting Life From Life
Alaskan salmon lead the most interesting life from birth to death, spending time in both fresh and salt water. Eggs are laid by a female fish in a
stream. She actually buries up to thousands of eggs, or ova, in a nest called a Redd. The male fertilizes these eggs, once placed. The eggs develop in
the winter and hatch in the spring. Once the eggs hatch, now called Alevin, they stay in the nest for approximately one month feeding on the yolk sac
of the egg. Once the baby salmon leave the Redd, known as Fry, they are on their own for survival, like finding food and mastering the challenges of
the downhill journey downstream. A Parr is a young salmon approximately six inches in length that is growing as it continues downstream. If the young
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According to the Department of Alaska fish and game, Alaska has over 15,000 salmon streams.
According to the Marine Stewardship Council, the world's top seafood "ecolabel" authority, states that Alaska, by weight, provides over 2/3 of the
world's seafood (marineconservationalliance.org/wp–content/uploads/2010/061359_MCA_Report_for_download1.pdf). However, the Alaskan
environment, wildlife and stocks of fish remain abundant year after year. Alaska's beauty and fisheries are frequent topics of the Nature Channel
programs, and Alaska remains a top tourist attraction for nature enthusiasts. Why, with all the commercial and sport fishing, haven't fishing stocks
depleted? Groundfish, scientists say, are abundant in the North Pacific, salmon returns have grown in the last 30 years, and shellfish production is also
successful. Even the sea lion population has steadily grown (marineconservationalliance.org/wp–content/uploads/2010
/061359_MCA_Report_for_download1.pdf p.5). This amazing nature preserve and economic way of life are sustainable due to fishing managers
following scientific guidelines very conservatively, making rules and regulations based on scientific research: research that is open to the public, and
discussed with the public on a regular basis.
Alaska became a state in 1959 under President Eisenhower, after Alaskans and the
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Sea World Gold Coast Australia
Sea World Gold Coast Australia is a marine animal theme park. The park includes rides, shows and marine attractions. Sea World founded Sea World
Research & Rescue Foundation Inc. (SWRRFI) which committed to promote a number of marine research projects and rescue marine organisms'
activities.
Sea World 's goals are to strengthen knowledge for youth about the ocean habitat and ecology of the marine lives, encourage the public about the
marine biodiversity conservation and promote youth education and public awareness. Positioning Sea World as "teach through lively activities" is also
a priority.
Past media coverage of Sea World has been largely marine mammal topics based, with little substantial discussion around animal conservation or Sea
World information. Although the media port of Sea World provides several marine animal contents, it leads to the media relations problem: Sea World
's media releases tend to using marketing strategies that have resulted in an increasing lack of credibility in marine mammal conservation. This does not
align with Sea World goals of youth education and strengthened public awareness.
An opportunity therefore exists for Sea World to improve awareness of marine conservation, ecological populations and research to marine animals in
the short term via media coverage in connection with SWRRF in Queensland.
1.2 Target publics
There are main audiences and publics will be targeted in order to push the opportunity as follows:
Queensland youths
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Artificial Reefs Used as Fisheries
The main objective of our study is to determine if artificial reefs can be used as a fisheries enhancement or conservation tool in Narragansett Bay.
Using a variety of research techniques, we will attempt to answer the following questions: (1) do artificial reefs increase the abundance (and biomass)
of important species of demersal sport fish? Or (2) do reefs attract existing numbers of fish to the reef and increase the rate of exploitation, thus
potentially decreasing localized populations (or communities)? By building a carefully replicated network of artificial reefs, we will advance research
on the impact of artificial reefs. In–order to address our study questions, we propose the construction of 0.25 acre artificial reefs (0.5 acre area) using
pre–fabricated reef modules in three locations of Narragansett Bay. The creation of small–scale experimental reefs will not only provide long–term
research stations but will also improve benthic habitat conditions in an area of soft sediments.
The performance of artificial reefs varies considerably, depending on materials used as well as location of deployment and intended results. Breakup,
movement, and burial have been reported to occur in reef programs. The location and design of reef complexes must be carefully chosen to balance
the goals and objectives of a project with environmental and social constraints (Table 1).
We used geospatial andfisheries data to ensure that our reef locations are placed in the most suitable
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Royal Chinook Salmon
With the influx of human population immigrating to Pacific Northwest Region of the United States at the end of the 19th century, extracting the
natural goods of the environment quickly became an issue of sustainability and preservation. In the State of Washington Ninth Annual Report of the
State Fish Commissioner of 1898, author A.C. Little illustrates how the extractive actions along many of Washington's river systems are resulting in a
major depletion of salmon species unique to the Northwest. Little's Report aimed to bring attention to over consumption of this finite resource that was
not only intrinsically valuable to many people within the region but was also a very successful economic engine too value to deplete. The booming
fishing industry, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Little's Ninth Annual Report of the State Fish Commissioner of 1898, may not have immediately propagated change in the region toward salmon fish
restoration, but the argument laid out in the report provides that the recommendations provided were only to benefit all parties. From the transnational
fishing industry, to the individual livelihood of the local fishermen, along with the improvement salmon spawning population, finally paired with
ultimate sustainable harvest practices, would piece together to support and improve all entities of the Pacific Northwest's salmon fishing economic
engine. Little's report sought took into account the diversity reaction that his recommendations may propagated, and worked to pair all parties to
illustrate that the ultimate outcome was to support a society at the brink of developing into a major economic center of the western United States. At
the end of the 19th century sustainable salmon practice held a significant share in the progress of Washington State, Little only sought to prove that
salmon restoration and sustainable practices could provide a prosperous future for the
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Effects Of Overfishing
Introduction
The main causes of overfishing are poor fishery management with a lack of regulation, unrestricted access to the ocean and illegal fishing. During the
last few decades the demand for edible seafood globally has skyrocketed and the high demand is causing us to overfish to keep up with the demand.
Unfortunately, fisherman are catching more fish than can be naturally reproduced. There are only limited regulations in place, which means that fishing
companies are basically fishing when and where they want to with out any oversite. Overfishing causes such serious effects such as the ocean life
getting knocked out of balance. Coastal communities rely on the benefits of the fishing for social and economic health. When we overfish it ... Show
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The Oceaneos Research Foundation stated that in the mid–1990 the Atlantic cod was caught to near extinction. "Newfoundland's fishing industry
collapsed due to overfishing and 40,000 jobs were lost and the ecosystem destroyed. Fifteen years after the loss of the cod industry they are still
waiting for a recovery." ("The Oceaneos Marine Research Foundation", 2017)
Another global effect of overfishing is fish farming or aquaculture. It was first started to help preserve the ocean and hoped to help people to obtain
a reliable fish source. Unfortunately, what many came to realize is the downside of fish farming. One example is water contamination, where
consequently waste products such as foods eaten, feces and other dead fish, are all dumped into our main water supply which contributes to water
pollution. Moreover, chemicals that are used to treat the fish farms like antibiotics and algaecides are all released into the ocean; which is a real
cause for concern for our oceans. Fish that come from the fish farms are pumped full of drugs, to prevent sickness in the fish but this is not healthy for
us to eat. There is also a great environmental impact which includes the fact that to sustain fish farms, portions of
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If You Are Interested in Marine Biology
Marine Biology If you are interested in adventuring the depths of the ocean, being a marine biologist is the job for you. As a marine biologist you will
need to have several years of schooling in order to have a successful career. Being a marine biologist can be an enjoyable and dangerous job, but the
journey is worth the ride. Several people ask what is a marine biologist? There are various answers to this question. The best answer shall be that a
marine biologist is someone who works in some way in studying, observing, protecting, or managing marine organisms, be they microbe, plant or
animal. Marine Biologists study the origins, behaviours, diseases, genetics and the life processes of animals and wildlife of the marine environment.
Some marine biologists specialize in wildlife research and management, including the collection and analysis of biological data to determine the
environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water areas (Marine Biology). Becoming a marine biologist can be pretty difficult.
Marine biologist will need to take several biology classes; but you will also need a fantastic understanding of science in general. You will need to
take classes such as chemistry and physics. Mathematics will also be required, at least up to calculus. Typing skills will also be necessary in the
career, computer, and technical/electrical skills would also be helpful for this field (Becoming a Marine Biologist). Being a marine biologist, does not
just
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How Does Overfishing Affect The Future
Nearly seventy–one percent of Earth is covered by oceans. This massive body of water provides homes to millions of species of marine life. Over
the years, the amount of fish has decreased rapidly due to the practice of overfishing. Overfishing has become such a massive problem that if there is
no stop put to it, it could destroy the ocean's and the Earth's future. Fortunately, an organization named Oceana was founded for the sole purpose of
saving the oceans. Due to the overuse of fishing, the population of sea life is decreasing rapidly and the organization, Oceana, is helping to put a stop to
overfishing to save world hunger, ecosystem destruction, and economic destruction. Oceana is an organization that was established in 2001. The ...
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One contribution made to help saving the oceans is how Oceana has protected over 1 million square miles that they have conserved (Oceana). This
will eliminate fishing space for fishermen to use while the fish are protected and can continue to reproduce (Oceana). Oceana is also dedicated to
restoring the oceans and creating science–based fishery management and by doing this, they can make a science–based catch limits and protect marine
life habitats to help oceans recover (Oceana). A catch limit will be very helpful in contributing to stop this issue. By campaigning for a catch limit, it
will help fishermen in their business while at the same time, help the fish keep safe and able to keep up with the reproduction
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Descriptive Essay On Fishing
My father and I have be going on an annual fishing trip since I was eight. Every summer, we would go out and sit for hours waiting for something
to bite. Last year my father made a poignant observation, he noted that in recent years there seemed to be less fish. He's been doing this trip since he
was my age and where he used to at least get some pull, he now has to wait nearly twice as long for anything. I've since come to realize that our ocean
is running out of fish. We are overexploiting a natural resource and doing nothing to stop it. The current large scalefishing operations are not
sustainable ecologically or economically.
large fish are disappearing from the ocean at alarmingly high rates. There has been a 90% decline in the top predator fish abundance in the world
between 1955 and 2000. Most industrial fishing techniques are overly aggressive to marine environments in that they attract an abundance of bycatch.
The three primary techniques are surface long–line Fishing where chains more than 100 kilometers long are floated in the ocean with thousands of
baited hooks, fish aggregating devices use long nets going down 300 meters that are left for days and just collect fish indiscriminately, finally and
perhaps the worst being bottom Trawling which involves a long heavily weighed net dragged across seafloor. Fish aggregating devices are too
indiscriminate in what kind of marine life they capture. They are often deployed with the intention of catching skipjack
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Importance of Oceans
The ocean is one of Earth's most valuable natural resources. It provides food in the form of fish and shellfish–about 200 billion pounds are caught each
year. It's used for transportation–both travel and shipping. It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals (salt, sand,
gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea) and drilled for crude oil.
The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. It regulates Earth's climate. The ocean is an
increasingly important source of biomedical organisms with enormous potential for fighting disease. These are just a few examples of the importance
of the ocean to life on land. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In Massachusetts alone, the cod, haddock and yellowtail flounder industries collapsed, causing an economic disaster for the area.
Due to the importance of fishing to the worldwide economy and the need for humans to understand human impacts on the environment, the academic
division of fisheries science was developed. Fisheries science includes all aspects of marine biology, in addition to economics and management skills
and information. Marine conservation issues like overfishing, sustainable fisheries and management of fisheries are also examined through fisheries
science.
In order for there to be plenty of fish in the years ahead, fisheries will have to develop sustainable fisheries and some will have to close. Due to the
constant increase in the human population, the oceans have been overfished with a resulting decline of fish crucial to the economy and communities of
the world. The control of the world's fisheries is a controversial subject, as they cannot produce enough to satisfy the demand, especially when there
aren't enough fish left to breed in healthy ecosystems. Scientists are often in the role of fisheries managers and must regulate the amount of fishing in
the oceans, a position not popular with those who have to make a living fishing ever decreasing populations.
The two main questions facing fisheries management are:
1.What is the carrying capacity of the ocean? How many fish are there and how many of which type of fish
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The Miss En Scene Of National And International Fisheries
Now that we have deconstructed the basic premises and their place in the miss en scГЁne of national and international fisheries, let us move to a more
detailed analysis of the text's subpoints examining the chapters for any underlying perspectives or evidence that significantly contribute to the
arguments overall persuasiveness. The analysis that follows intends to capture each critical argument unfolding and developing itself, giving the reader
a means to then discuss the contributions in regard to the circulation of wider discourse. Chapters 2–4: International regulation, political economy of
regulation, and regulatory capture. We have already considered much of chapter 2 when regarding CPRs, the most important definition given by the...
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Environmental economics provides an appropriate set of analytical tools to understand CPRs even though most regulation draws largely on the logics
of population biology (Barkin p. 37). The discussion continues to recognise scientific based secretariat rule proposals being undermined by states final
decision making power, and how sovereign representatives avoid advice in favour of free rider benefits.
The central argument of chapter 3 is a tension in the approaches to resource management; biologist (or anthropocentric view) are put premium on the
value of ecosystems and biodiversity – sustainability perspective – while the econocentric view is focused on maximising present value of fishery
resources without regard for the 'unmonetised' ecological utility. In a sense, multilateral cooperation finds a midpoint between these differing
worldviews, but the former analysis of CPR enjoys privilege among stakeholders because it is more comfortably aligned with their interests – or
perhaps until it is too late in which case ecological value has finally attained equal or greater economic status than the present value of fisheries.
Applying these understandings to the overall argument that micro–regulation alone is insufficient, by considering the theoretical perspectives and
various co–author studies as evidence, one finds
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A New List Of Sustainable Development Goals
On September 25th, the UN officially announced a new list of Sustainable Development Goals(SDG's) that would replace the previous Millennium
Development Goals (MDG's) that would expire in 2015. Among the list of SDG's released by the UN, was one in particular, goal number 14, which
stated, in relation to Oceans, the aim to "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development." In
addition to setting the goal previously mentioned, the UN also set out a list of targets in order to evaluate the set goals. 14.1) According to a recent
article by Dong Chen, Paul Szostak, Zongsu Wei, and Ruiyang Xiao, there have been significant eutrophication issues as a result of nutrient runoffs
from farmlands into natural water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, streams, etc. The nutrients, such as Phosphorus, that runoff from the farmlands into the
water bodies act as a limiting agent for the growth of algae. In other words, they prevent the algae from growing, and as a result, affect the whole
ecosystem of that water body. In an article published in Sensors Journal, in June 2015, Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) were
announced as possible means of detecting and observing aquatic environments. According to this article, these sensors would be used in a variety of
ways, namely to monitor pollution, prevent disasters from occurring, or "assisted navigation and to send monitored data to the sink." However, we do
not need to wait until the
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Case Study: New England Fishery Management Council
New England Fishery Management Council established by federal legislation in 1976 and conserves fishery stocks from three to 200 miles off the
coasts from Maine to Connecticut. Our official website clearly explains our goal is,"Conserving and managing fishery resources by relying on sound
science, promoting public participation, and balancing competing interests." (NEFMC) As the representative of NEFMC, I believe that overfishing
problem should be valued. Overfishing and its recovering are essential issues around the world; people should consume resources in a sustainable way;
Better management of fishing is our responsibility. First of all, overfishing is a big issue all around the world. The demand of customers and the greed
of making ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Also, that ABC should remain relatively constant for 2016–2018, or perhaps be reduced modestly. The recommended ABC (Acceptable Biological
Catch)of 111,000 mt, compared with status quo estimate of 114,000 mt, achieves that outcome. Additionally, the SSC noted and the Council concurred
that the current high herring biomass, bolstered by two very large year classes, likely meets ecosystem goals by default and not design, as ecosystem
goals are not explicitly identified in the current ABC control rule. Thus, the Council concluded that it is not necessary to increase scientific uncertainty
above the SSC–recommended level at this time." (Atlantic Herring 2016–2018 Specifications) This specification gives a very specific and
comprehensive solution and recommendations. Every managements are based on real statistics and facts. Thus, our organization really cares about
everyone's ideas and we try to find the most stable and sustainable way to solve
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Overfishing, Crisis Or Overthought?
Overfishing, Crisis or Overthought?
In today's world we have a problem, a very big, yet very underestimated problem in which if not solved, could lead to the extinction of nearly all fresh
and saltwater aquatic life on our great earth. This problem is overfishing and it's against the law. In this time of great advancements and inventions, us
humans have made many tools to make our lives easier... at the cost of our environment. Deep sea fishermen have been using illegal fishing techniques
through loopholes in federal law. These loopholes allow said deep sea fishermen to take far more fish *and other life* than lawfully allowed. Professor
Eugene Buck explains."States generally have jurisdiction within 3 miles of the coast. Beyond state ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Expert Bill Fox explains the effects of fish leaving or being taken from the area "Targeted fishing of top predators (such as billfish, sharks and tuna)
eventually disrupts marine communities, causing increased abundance of smaller marine animals at the bottom of the food chain. This in turn has
impacts on the rest of the marine ecosystem, such as the increased growth of algae and threats to coral reef health. Overfishing is also closely tied to
bycatch, another serious marine threat that causes the needless loss of billions of fish, along with marine turtles and cetaceans."(Fox). If this shows
what will happen if the predators leave an area, what would happen if all of the small fish leave an area? For one, Coastal communities around the
world depend on fish as their primary source of protein. Overfishing threatens their long–term food security, particularly in developing countries.
Secondly the predators in an area will have to compete against each other for food, leading to a decline in the predator population. Overfishing is a
major crisis Overfishing is a problem that can be easily solved with added supervision by the law, yet some believe that overfishing is a problem that
should not be worried about, and those are the few that influence the government to be so lenient. Overfishing too much in an area can lead to the
endangerment
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Argumentative Essay On Overfishing
Abstract: Overfishing is the process of fishing to the point where more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction. It
may seem profitable to quickly grab as much fish as you can, but it is extremely harmful to the marine ecosystem. The results of this have lasting
impacts on the balance of life in the oceans, and the social and economic well–being of the coastal communities who depend on fish for their way of
life. Fortunately, there are efforts being done to help prevent this dangerous activity. New Zealand has noticeably led the charge to ending overfishing.
Some ways countries have been limiting fishing activities are: marine protected areas, and fishing quotas. These are more of the notable examples, ...
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If you think about how big that number is, it should tell you how much of a problem this is. The same study found that 32 percent are classified as
overexploited, depleted or recovering, meaning that they are reproducing far less than they are potentially able to. This percentage is the highest
that has been seen in the decades of studies, indicating that the problem of overfishing is becoming more and more severe. And at this point, it
seems the problem will only get worse, unless we make severe changes. However, this is much easier said than done, billions of people rely on fish
for protein, and fishing is the principal livelihood for millions of people around the world. For centuries, our seas and oceans have been considered a
limitless source of food. However, increasing fishing efforts over the last 50 years because of the depleting fish populations, has led to unsustainable
fishing practices that are pushing many fish stocks to the point of collapse. Many important commercial fish populations (like the Atlantic bluefin tuna)
have suffered a decline to the point where their survival as a species is extremely threatened. The more we hunt and kill these fish, the less likely the
fish will be able to reproduce and begin to thrive again. Target fishing of top
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Freidrich Heincke's Paper
Introduction
A paper published in 1898 by the Freidrich Heincke, a German fisheries biologist, influenced biologists to consider the population as the unit of study
instead of the species. Insights from the Heincke's paper helped to cultivate the influential quantitative methodology to distinguish marine fish
populations. The application of statistical methods and quantification techniques in marine biology contributed to the generation of an enormous
amount of knowledge related to fisheries. The shift of fishery biologists, Zoologists and wildlife agencies towards numbers and measurement in their
research methodology, shaped modern Fisheries Science and contributed to solving some of the critical problems associated with fisheries. In 1957, a
model published by Beverton and Holt enabled scientists to predict the future size and yields of fish stock. This quantitative bio–economic model
allowed governments to make decisions on the most optimal fishing levels to help reach biological and economic goals ( Bavington, D.L.Y. 2009).
Cod fishery management systems in Canada incorporated Heincken's population approach and bio–economic system models of the 1950's to calculate
the total allowable catch. An official report that was the basis for Canada's Cod fisheries management strategy, tremendously overestimated northern
Cod populations. To correct this error in 1990, the Harris report recommended the reduction of "Total allowable Catch" from 235, 000 to 190, 000
tonnes. In 1992,
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Essay On Atlantic Cod
This paper takes a closer look at spawning behavior of Atlantic cod, and explores a new way of monitoring presence or absence of spawning cod at a
particular site. Male cod are known to emit low–frequency grunts while spawning and courtship, and this study deployed a marine autonomous
recording unit capable of recording these grunts in a known cod spawning ground during the spring spawning season. The MAR unit was deployed in
Spring Cod Conservation Zone in Massachusetts from April through June Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto, and N. Scialabba. 1990. Gadiform fishes
of the world (Order Gadiformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125 (6): 44–47.
Put out by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States and part of a series of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Preceedings of the virtual symposium "Flagship species – Flagship problems". Canadian Journal of Zoology 89. 386–400.
In this publication, two Canadian biologists present their research that takes an in depth look at the crash of Atlantic cod populations in the north
Atlantic. Their research looks at historic catch, peaking between 1962 and 1992, and the subsequent decline in spawning stock biomass as a result of
this overfishing. Hutchings and Rangeley also look at some trends in abundance and life history, broken down by region, and find an overall drop in
age at which an individual reaches 50% maturity, suggesting lowered fecundity of the population. The paper concludes by outlining the many
importance's of cod, both commercially and from a biological standpoint, and most importantly outlining specific and robust management plans that
would allow Canadian Atlantic cod the conditions to recover. This paper will be immensity powerful in contributing to the conservation issues and
solutions section of my paper.
Jenson, A. C. 1972. The Cod. Fitzhenry and Whiteside Limited, Toronto.
For many years Albert Jenson was the director of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. In this book, he
chronicles Atlantic Cod, describing the life history and ecology of the fish, as well as how humans have drastically impacted cod populations through
commercial fishing. He ends the book by describing conservation efforts that should be in effect but
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The Impact of Hydropower Dams on California's Populations...
Running head: IMPACT OF DAMS ON ANADROMOUS FISH The Impact of Hydropower Dams on California's Populations of Anadromous Fish:
What Can be done to mitigate the Dams Effects and Restore California's Watersheds. Russell Cole Western Governors University The Impact of
Hydropower Dams on California's Populations of Anadromous Fish: What can be done to mitigate the Dams Effects and Restore California's
Watersheds. The indigenous people of California were completely dependent on the seemingly infinite quantities of salmon and steelhead that annually
returned to their coastal rivers. Upon their arrival, European settlers soon developed a commercial fishing industry, which supported them very well.
Today, however, that never–ending... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Importantly, let's not overlook the effects of salmon population declines on the indigenous peoples of California. Tribes such as the Karuk, Yurok,
Wiyot and the Hoopa, to name just a few, have depended on salmon as their main food source for centuries. Salmon was not just food, but central
to their religion, their diet, and their overall way of life. Salmon are the cornerstone of their culture (Harling, 2006). The loss of this abundant
natural resource must be seen not only as degrading the health of the river ecosystem, but also as severely impacting the health of the tribes. Until
the early 1850's California's rivers flowed freely to the Pacific Ocean. The emergence of dams started with small earthen dams used to divert water
for mining and irrigation purposes. The diverted water used for hydraulic mining would prove to be the beginning of a long era of environmental
degradation of California's river ecosystems. With the turn of the century came a population boom and the rapid development of urban centers and
an increased demand for water. With the end of the gold rush, agriculture quickly became the main player in California's economy. This too, raised
the demand for water and dams were being built at a staggering pace. The introduction of huge hydropower dams proved to be the "nail in the coffin"
for anadromous fish because little or no heed was paid to the impact of dams on the state's watersheds. Today California has over fourteen hundred
dams responsible for
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Trophic Fishing Imbalances
First, the alarming environmental issue of trophic fishing causes an imbalance in the ecosystem. To begin, while fishing at the trophic levels of the
ecosystem, the predators of the ocean are overfished. Predators such as salmon and tuna are fished quite frequently because they are used in dinners
around the world. Clearly then, as the predators rapidly decrease, the primary and secondary consumers overpopulate. Science News states, "We've
eliminated the marine equivalent of lions and wolves and are moving towards the taking of rats, cockroaches, and dandelion equivalents." (https:/
/www.sciencenews.org/) Clearly then, when predators are eliminated, the prey overpopulate. Without any predators to limit population growth, the prey
populations are able to reproduce. Since these populations are not being hunted, their populations need to consume more food, so the producers are
consumed entirely and eventually eliminated, as well. In addition to imbalances in the ecosystem, trophic fishing also affects fish populations.
Next, trophic fishing affects fish populations. Because of trophic fishing, there are over 75 aquatic species that are endangered as of 2017. ... Show more
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Obviously nets, buoys, and lines are regularly let loose by fishermen. Ghost nets are often found throughout the ocean. Ghost nets are fishing gear, that
are found drifting through the ocean. These nets can be extremely harmful towards many species in the open ocean. However; Many animals mistake
plastic debris for food and eat it. This fills their stomachs with chemicals they can't digest. On the other hand, if the fish do not eat the debris, most
likely they are entangled in it. Whilst they are entangled they can be severely injured or die. Debris gets caught around the necks of marine life, which
eventually suffocates the organisms. The alarming environmental issue of trophic fishing triggers marine
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Overfishing And Its Effects On The Ocean
Overfishing Leads to a Worldwide Oceanic Ecological Collapse People often take the ocean for granted due to its vastness since it makes up over
seventy percent of the Earth, however the integrity of the ocean is deteriorating. One of the major, worldwide threats to the wellbeing of the ocean and
its inhabitants is overfishing. Overfishing affects not only the ocean, but also the land dwellers. Many countries around the world depend on fish as their
main source of food. Tons of fish are caught out of the sea daily, however, the rate that fish are being hauled is far too high where fish stocks are
incapable of naturally recovering. There is a decline in population size of affected fish and some species have even faced extinction. Overfishing is
the leading cause of ecological extinction, foregoing any other human disruptions to marine ecosystems, such as pollution, water degradation, and
climate change (Jackson, et al). Overfishing causes an overwhelming devastation upon the oceans because it depletes food resources, disrupts the
food web, and destroys habitats of aquatic organisms, due to this, overfishing causes an oceanic ecological collapse worldwide. Overfishing is not a
problem that has recently arise, but a problem that started since the early 1800s. Overfishing first began when people sought for blubber for lamp oil,
which lead to a decline in whale population. By the mid–1900s, some fish were almost wiped out, such as the Atlantic cod, herring, and sardines
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Natural Resources and Energy Paper
Natural Resources and Energy Paper An ecosystem is a connection among living resources, residents, and habitats of an area. It includes animals,
plants, microorganisms, trees, water and people. Everything that lives in that specific ecosystem is reliant on the other elements of that ecological
society. Oceans are considered ecosystems due to the plant life supporting the animal life and also the animal life supporting the plant life. The earth's
marine waters cover two– thirds of its surface making marine ecosystem the largest of its aquatic ecosystems. In this paper we will identify the effects
that a growing human population may have on that ecosystem's resources, including loss or harm to populations of wild species, discuss one... Show
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Research traces the increase in damage done to the marine ecosystem back from 150 to 300 years ago and it has only increased since then. The
growth in population can also cause effects in the loss or harm of wild species. In the early 1900's most mammals, birds, salmon, tuna, sharks and
reptiles were depleted, and continued to decline by 1950 as the demand grew for different resources. The International Union for Conservation has a
record of ocean animals that are on the "Red List". This list has 620 species of marine animals listed on it and these animals are in danger of becoming
extinct. This should show the human population that we need to work harder to put in a greater effort in protecting our oceans against pollution and
overfishing. Strategies and techniques for marine ecosystem conservation would be setting up protected areas, as with marine protected areas (MPAs)
or Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas. Other techniques include developing sustainable fisheries and restoring the populations of endangered
species through artificial means. Another focus of conservationists is on curtailing human activities that are detrimental to either marine ecosystems or
species through policy, techniques such as fishing quotas, like those set up by the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, or laws such as those
listed below. Recognizing the economics involved in human use of
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Environmental Impacts Of The Marine Environment
Introduction
Problem Statement / Definition of Research Area
This research will look into the problems caused by fishing. Human impact has proved to threaten the bio diversity of the marine environment. The
environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught, such as overfishing, sustainable fisheries,
and fisheries management; and issues that involve the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by–catch. This research is
connected to sustainability, and will look into the living and non–living things that menace the fish in the sea, along with the care resolution that will
foster the marine environments feasible future.
Rationale
The indicated matter was selected for the sake of the marine environment and its beautiful importance. A great deal of leisure time is devoted to
fishing both on land and sea. I love the bio diversity of the ocean and regard it as something that needs to be safeguarded.
This topic is also significant for my local community. The oceans species are all unique and many people fish illegally and without caution, therefore
we have an environmental responsibility in maintaining sustainable practices. Thus, significantly exploring the living and nonliving factors alarming
the ocean including the current policies enforced toward safeguarding the ocean is important.
Research Questions
1) What is overfishing?
2) What are the causes of overfishing?
3) How effective have the
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The Salmon Fisheries
In my hometown, a local diner serves "Honey dipped Salmon." They claim that the dish is prepared using a species of Salmon, called Chinook, which
is a product of the Alaska Salmon fisheries.
Since Chinook salmon is an anadromous specie, it is born in the fresh water, migrates to the ocean for 1–5 years and then returns to the Main–channel
Rivers to spawn. The female lays around 3,000–14,000 eggs that are successfully fertilized by the males, however the eggs are very brittle and can be
easily destroyed. Fortunately, enough hatch and survive in Alaska to ensure healthy stocks. After spawning, they typically die as they don't feed on
anything during their widespread migration and use up all the stored body fat for survival. ("CSSP", n.d.). As an example of their extensive migration,
we can look at "the Yukon River spawners that travel more than 2,000 river miles during a 60–day period to reach Canada". Their major populations
are located in Susitana, Taku, Copper, Kuskokwin, Nushagak river systems. The specie's returning numbers from their sprawled spawning migrations
had started declining in 2006, however they have significantly recovered now. (Wild explorer, n.d.)
The Chinook salmon is vastly sought after in Cook Inlet and Southeast Alaska by fishers because of its great value as a sport fish. The annual value of
sports industry in Alaska is about $500 million and the annual harvest looms around 170,000 fish. ("CSU", n.d.). However, to make thefisheries
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I Want To Become A Marine Biologist

  • 1. I Want to Become a Marine Biologist My goals in life are to get a first enlist in the Navy, hope to get a job as a diver in the special operations program. After my first enlistment is up, I want to be a diver at an aquarium where I can feed the animals; Meanwhile, I would like to attend Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at The University of Miami and earn a doctorate degree in Marine Biology to become a Marine Biologist. I've always been fascinated with animals, especially aquatic life. Although, I wasn't dead–set on becoming one at first, over spring break I made my final decision. We went to an aquarium and I just loved every bit of it; the animal's interactions, the knowledge behind all of it, and the joy I saw between the employees and the animals. I'm very interested in not just the study of organisms in the ocean or other marine bodies of water, but also marine conservation and ecology. Thinking about the studies of protecting and preserving of the ecosystems in oceans and seas and interactions among organisms and their environment just gets my full attention. I could sit for hours and hours and listen to anybody talk about these subjects and they would have my full attention, one–hundred percent. This subject has never, and never will lose my interest. As I've researched, marine biologists must achieve at certain skills, such as: public speaking, science, critical thinking, reading comprehension and active listening. I succeed very well in all of those skills, yes, some more than ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2. Endangered Species Of Marine Ecosystems be put in place. These practices are to be put in place to ensure control of overfishing (Eilperon, 2006). Another practice is the introduction of fishing quotas (Costello et al. 2008). These are put in place to ensure a limit in fishing and that the catch of the day is distributed according to the shares each person holds in a fishery. This policy will enable controlled fishing (Solliman, 2014). Endangered species of marine ecosystems can also be restored in an artificial way. This is a practice that ensures all species will coexist in many years to come. Through this practice different species are introduced in a new habitat. Here they are mingled with native species. This enables a specific ecosystem to have variety of different species. It is this practice that ensures predators do not run out of food. Another policy that should be put in place is the reiteration of fisheries law. This law has been neglected over the years and is rarely taught in law schools. It is the duty of a new international marine convention to make the public aware of the new laws in place to protect marine conservations. It could also introduce new laws to deal with upcoming problems such as overfishing due to population increase. Education is a key practice that has been overlooked. Many times tourists and locals get to have fun in the oceans with absolutely zero knowledge on what damage they could cause sea life. Education on marine conservation needs to start with anyone and most ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Kathy Conlan's 'Under The Ice' Kathy Conlan is an expert in understanding the weird and wonderful world of marine creatures that live deep under the Arctic ice. She specializes in marine benthic biology and amphipod systematics. Kathy studies how human and natural changes affect marine life in the Arctic and Antarctic, the effects of pollution on marine life as well as global warming. She is past chief officer for Life Sciences in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and is a judge for SCAR's Martha T. Muse Prize for Science and policy in Antarctica, represents Canada for the Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research, taught at Huntsman Marine Science Centre and Students On Ice, mentors university students and gives speaches and "Show and tells" at the museum.... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Her awards include; US Department of the Navy and the National Science Foundation. Antarctic Service Medal (1992) Nominated, YMCA–YWCA Women of Distinction Awards, Technology Category (1999 and 2001). Winner of the 2002 Science in Society Children's Book Award for "Under the Ice". R. W. Brock Award for best Canadian Museum of Nature research paper of 2003 (co –authored with Ed Hendrycks).Kathy Conlan began working with marine biologist Steve Blasco in the Eastern Arctic looking at the effects of ice scours. When icebergs float around, they are so large that they often scrape and gouge the sea floor disturbing everything in its wake. Conlan and Blasco sampled the species in areas that had been recently disturbed, and compared them to undisturbed sea floor. They discovered that the iceberg's effects were positive. The icebergs had created spaces for weedy species. They found a greater increase of diversity of marine life, as long as the ice scouring was not so repetitive that animals couldn't get settled in to live. In the 1970's, oil companies drilled for oil and gas in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4. Sylvia Earle's Sea Change: A Message Of The Oceans Revolutionary marine biologist Sylvia Earle voiced the need for long–term environmental protection in her book Sea Change: A Message of the Oceans. "I had come to believe that healthy ecosystems are the most important legacy we have from the past, above the ocean or below, and their protection is the single most important legacy we can bequeath to those who follow" (Earle, 307). This motivation, ensued by policy makers alike, gave rise to today's marine sanctuaries, commonly known in legislature as marine protected areas (MPAs) or marine reserves. MPAs consist of critical ecosystems set aside for management or restriction from consequences of human activity and exploitation (NOAA, 2016). Closer examination of the background marine reserves, past and present research, and policy implications provides a better... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, industrial progression of catch technology and global fishing expansion have increased the need for resource protection. Post–World War II study of fish repopulation in the North Sea indicated seclusion of marine zones from human exploitation as a viable fishery management tactic (Beverton & Holt, 1957). Since the 1950s, fisheries have expanded in the developing world to attain larger catches (Pauly et al., 2002). Declining fishing rates spurred the first MPA conference in 1975 to report anthropogenic influences on the marine realm and recommended guidelines for establishment of international MPAs (IUCN, 1976). In 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) agreed on the Law of the Sea treaty to provide fisheries jurisdiction and protection of natural resources. The treaty was ratified by 160 countries, yet its implementation today is still difficult since the ocean is a public resource (Sanchirico, 2016). With increased data collection and monitoring over time, the world continues to rework guidelines based on successful ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Overfishing the World Big Fish Population Over Fishing the World Big Fish Population Insert your Name Here SCI275 Axia College of University of Phoenix The overfishing of our world's oceans is causing a depletion of some prize fish, such as tuna and swordfish, to the point that some scientists believe that 90% of these big fish populations have been fished out. Jeremy Jackson of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography published a study in 2001 in which he asserts that overfishing is more destructive than toxic pollution or degrading water quality (University of Phoenix, 2007). Dr. Daniel Pauly, Professor and Director of the University of British Columbia's Fisheries Centre, describes it as follow on The Overfishing.org (2007) website: "The big fish, the bill ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... By putting this plan into practice, we will also resolve the other problems created by over fishing, as it effects not only the depleted fish population, but also the animals for which those fish are food of choice. Whales are turning to sea otters for food, rather than the sea lions and seals on which they normally feed, as those populations also decline. Over fishing has also caused the use, as stated earlier, of smaller mesh nets, increasing the amount of by catch that is caught in the nets. By catch is the seabirds, dolphins, sea turtles, and even whales that are also caught in the net as they drag it in, and are usually dumped back into the ocean, dead or dying. A drastic reduction in the amount of by catch will subsequently occur with the reinstating of the larger mesh nets. The management plan may cause fishermen to have to look into a second source of income for the first five to ten years, as the most severe restrictions are put into place, giving the fish populations can breed and repopulate, and a reassessment to be done by the scientific community charged with monitoring the big fish groups. Governments might be forced to subsidize the industry for this initial period, to help prevent illegal poaching by some fishermen who saw poaching as their only economic alternative. Consumers would have to reduce their use of fish, and would have to pay more for the fish they did purchase at the market during this period of
  • 6. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Environmental History Of The Oceans And Seas Environmental history of the oceans and seas are daunting topics, either because of the vastness of the oceans and seas, the artificial boundaries, or their seemingly changelessness. Until about 1990, with Arthur McEvoy's The Fisherman's Problem: Ecology and the Law in California Fisheries, 1850–1980, historians largely ignored marine ecosystems as areas of research. Focusing instead on inland fisheries, environmental historians have still had to be "exhorted... to embrace this opportunity" of expanding the discourse of human impacts on marine environments. Scientists, anthropologists, archeologists, and historical ecologists have thus far dominated the production of knowledge concerning historical and current marine ecosystems. In ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Through a compilation of scholars, Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems attempts to show how human disturbance of marine ecosystems in ancient populations. Ranging from Caribbean, North American Pacific, North Atlantic, and Mediterranean, Human Impacts examines archeological and historical ecological data and case studies from "around the world to summarize the history of human coastal occupation, environmental change, and human impacts in their area." Similarly, in Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems, Jeremy Jackson et al. highlights through paleoecological, archeological, and historical data that aboriginals extensively fished coastal ecosystems, resulting in damaged ecosystems. Through the use of archeological and historical data, these scholars challenge the "supposedly superior ecological wisdom of non–Western and precolonial societies." These scholars highlight the damages and exploitation of early human societies on marine ecosystems. However, the data surrounding aboriginal impacts on early marine ecosystems is scarce resulting in fewer scholarly articles on the subject. Beginning in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8. The Human Perceptions Of Biological Systems The ocean in its vast mystique contains millions of species and covers most of our planet. Unfortunately, many people do not truly grasp the gravity of the depletion of biodiversity that has occurred over the years. This is due to shifting baseline syndrome and its prevalence in today's society. What is shifting baseline syndrome, how does the exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History teach visitors the concept of "shifting baselines" and " shifting baseline syndrome" as it relates to conservation, and how does the museum as a whole communicate a conservationist message and promote conservationist values? Shifting baselines syndrome "is a cautionary tale referring to changing human perceptions of biological systems due to loss of experience about past conditions" (Papworth). There are two forms of shifting baselines: there is "generational amnesia" where the younger generation is unaware of what happened in previous generations and the other is "personal amnesia" where the person forgets or remembers incorrectly what has happened to them. Jon Mooallem defines shifting baselines, as well as the different types, in his book, Wild Ones, by writing, "The phenomenon that Powell stumbled onto has a name: shifting baselines syndrome... Every generation of scientist accepts the oceans as it inherits them... when the next generation of scientists start their careers, they don 't see the oceans as depleted; that depleted condition becomes their baseline, against which they ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. The Evolution of the World: Industrial-Based, Less... The evolution of the world toward a more industrial–based society has threatened fisheries, reefs, and maritime systems around the world. To combat the problems, various measures of legislation and government intervention have been implemented to protect living and nonliving marine entities and ensure that resources aren't fully depleted. This paper will look at a number of 'solutions' to the problems that industrial–based, less natural, societies have created for marine life. These 'solutions' have come in a number of forms, from varying levels of government and agencies. The crees of protections have included legislation. We will look at formalized legislation from the state level, national level, and supranational level (European ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... And stock assessments for all marine mammal stocks in waters under U.S. jurisdiction were beefed up. (Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), 2013). Implementation of the legislation is currently overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Essential to the success of the MMPA, a newly founded Marine Mammal Commission was tasked with ensuring the protection of sea otters and marine otters, walruses, polar bears, manatees, and dugongs. NOAA was given responsibility to conserve and manage pinnipeds including seals and sea lions and cetaceans such as whales and dolphins. In their conclusion of their findings, NOAA presented congress with data that showed: "all species and population stocks of marine mammals are, or may be, in danger of extinction or depletion due to human activities; these mammals should not be permitted to diminish below their optimum sustainable population", and argued that: "measures should be taken immediately to replenish any of these mammals that have diminished below that level, and efforts should be made to protect essential habitats; there is inadequate knowledge of the ecology and population dynamics of these mammals; negotiations should be undertaken immediately to encourage international arrangements for research and conservation of these mammals" (H.R. Res 10420, 1972). Under the overarching wings of national legislation, California adopted its own Marine Life legislation in 1999 to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10. The Issue of Overfishing In contemporary society, human society is progressing rapidly on various fronts. Nevertheless at the same time, the problem of overfishing is becoming increasingly worrisome and attract extensive attention of the society. In this essay, I will address overfishing and propose some possible causes of this phenomenon which can give contribution to some solutions. Introduction This issue of overfishing covers vast fields, such as science, humanity, economy, society and nature. The term "optimum", in regard to the yield from a fishery, is difficult to be defined, precisely and fixedly. Generally speaking, we can describe it as follows: (Niles E. Stople, January 2009, FishNet USA) Will provide maximum effectiveness benefit to the Nation, particularly in relation to food production and recreational opportunities, and giving consideration to the protection of marine ecosystems In case of an overfished fishery, provides for reconstructing to a level consistent with producing the maximum sustainable yield in such fishery Overfishing's status as the focus of public concern mainly results from its negligible but harmful influence on individuals, collective, and even the whole world. One of the world's significant fishery in the East China Sea is damage by overfishing and growing levels of contamination, recent research has shown, confirming the fear of fishermen and environmentalists. (Xinhua on GOV, Lu Hui, ed. 16 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Fishing in the North Atlantic Essay example Fishing in the North Atlantic Abstract Ocean fishes have been consumed by humans beyond their maximum sustainable yields for years and the Atlantic cod and squid are two examples. Cods were primarily overfished to commercial extinction. Other variables were also examined to see if they contribute to the declining population. Water temperature was the natural phenomenon that may be responsible for poor egg hatching. Human causes such as increased UV radiation from depleted ozone and bottom trawling disturbance were considered. Trawling disturbance had the worst effect while the other factors were questionable. As the cod vanished, the commercial fisher turned to squid to continue their way of life. Government policy and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As a first world country, we consume a first class quantity of seafood as well. Overfishing of marine resources jeopardizes not just our existence, but they are also vital in supporting various ecosystems. In this paper, a number of research articles and other review articles were examined to compose a picture of the overfishing crisis. The recent developments of Atlantic cod and squid are discussed in more detail to provide a pattern that may lead to empty oceans in the future. Accounting for fish in the ocean. There are many methods to account for the number of fish in the ocean. However, there are many uncertainties within any models of assessment. The reliability of instruments and the weather condition during survey have great influence over the results (Smith and Gavaris, 1993). The mathematics involved and the interpretation of the numbers is very difficult to comprehend and are beyond the scope of this paper. However, in one 1997 journal article, C. J. Corkett criticized the commonly used Graham–Schaeder model of fish accounting. In general, he discredited the interpretation of the data because of the instrumentalist approach used by many fishery managements. Instrumentalism is defined in the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language as a pragmatic theory that ideas are instruments that function as guides of action, their validity being determined by the success of the action. The raw data that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12. The And Estuaries During The Gulf Coast Essay The marshlands and estuaries located throughout the Gulf Coast provide important breeding grounds and nurseries for the fishing and shrimping industries. In 2008, according to the National Marine Fisheries Service, the commercial fish and shellfish harvest from the five U.S. Gulf states was estimated to be 1.3 billion pounds valued at $661 million. "Oil spills are extremely harmful to marine life when they occur and often for years or even decades later," said Jacqueline Savitz, a marine scientist and climate campaign director at Oceana, an environmental group. She said spills could coat sea birds and limit their flying ability and damage fisheries by injuring marine organism 's systems related to respiration, vision and reproduction. Savitz said that the Gulf of Mexico is host to four species of endangered sea turtles and bluefin tuna, snapper and grouper. "Each of these can be affected," she said. "Turtles have to come to the surface to breathe and can be coated with oil or may swallow it." And, she added, the Gulf is one of only two nurseries for bluefin tuna, more than 90 percent of which return to their place of birth to spawn. BP being the responsible party had the liability to bear all the costs and organizational duties associated with the cleanup effort while the Coast guard monitored and approved the things. Part of BPs liability depended on how much oil has been leaked. Therefore, it was in the financial interest of the company to do everything it could do to: ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. The Effect Of Salmon Kills On The Klamath 1.Salmon is everything was written about the 2002 fish kill on the Klamath river. There were several factors that lead to the writing of salmon is everything. The most important of which was that there was a lack of awareness in the community. The play was written so that people outside of the native communities could better understand how the fish kill had effected those communities. The second objective was to help and bring together the different viewpoints on the Klamath. I think that this play was necessary because it helped to educate the local communities as well as bring the various viewpoint together on to one stage. 2.Salmon is everything include the perspective of most of the parties involved on the Klamath. it shows the viewpoints ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14. Plastic Pollution On The Marine Environment Effects of Plastic Pollution on the Marine Environment Concern over increasing quantities of marine microplastic pollution has increased substantially in the last decade, becoming a focus for many local and national governments, intergovernmental organizations, environmental advocacy groups, and the private sector. In financial terms, conservative estimates place the harm to marine ecosystems at $13 billion annually. While the available literature on microplastic pollution impacts has grown due to this increased interest, research into the subject is at an early stage relative to other areas of inquiry. Further, research into the effects and sources of microplastic uptake in marine environments have been largely dependent on laboratory experimental studies, due the technical difficulties in analyzing microplastics in the field. This paper sets out to describe the ecological impacts of marine microplastic pollution as they are currently known: the various types of microplastics and their distinct potentials for environmental harm; the sources of and vectors for microplastic contamination; known effects on marine organisms; and concludes with a discussion of legislative/regulatory solutions to date and potential next steps. Overall, neither the direct nor long–term effects of microplastic pollution in the field are thoroughly understood. The quantity of microplastics in the ocean is set to continue to increase, largely due to three factors; 1) the large volume of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. The Invasive Catfish Population The Maryland rivers and bays have seen a rise in the invasive catfish population, more specifically the blue and flathead species. They are native to the Midwest, making up up 75% of fish in the Virginia and Maryland tributaries. These fish are damaging the local ecosystems because of their size and no natural predators. State and local governments have been researching possible solutions to resolve the issues but the populations of these fish spread very quickly. Though it is sorely needed some of the solutions are experimental and could possibly hurt the native species in the process. There is a growing problem regarding the blue and flathead catfish in the Maryland rivers and bays. "These catfish are native ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Establishing and maintaining Freshwater Protected Areas (FPAs) is a great tool that is used by manyfisheries. "They should be used in High–Risk, High–Value locations so that it may make the biggest ecological impact" (Garman et al. 2013). Another way to mitigate the issue, although it is still in the experimental phase, would be Electrofishing. This technique electrocutes fish in a stretch of water using and electrical field, it has not been widely used because of its chances of killing non target fish in the areas. "Experimental electrofishing for commercial applications would require a significant financial investment (20K per vessel) and strict oversight by agencies but might be fundable through fishery resources grant (FRG) or similar programs" (Garmin et al. 2003). Local awareness of the issue is another way to mitigate the problem. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources launched a statewide campaign to educate its citizen about the invasive fish and its impact on native species and what anglers can do to help. For instance, it started the DNR program which stands for "Do Not Release". This asks anglers to remove and kill any blue or flathead catfish that are caught. It also implemented a fine on anyone who is caught transporting these fish to different bodies of water, which can be between $1000 to $2500. There is also a group called the Sustainable Fisheries Goal Implementation Team (SFGIT) that is made up of jurisdictional managers and fishery stakeholders who are trying to put policies into place to help reduce the problem ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. Ocean Overfishing Effects Ocean overfishing is the process of removing wildlife from the ocean (or any other water sources) at unsustainable rates that lower their replication rates. Overfishing began around the mid–20th century. At this time, there were many attempts to increase the pricings and variety of protein–rich foods; this led to the government trying to increase the fish capacity. While the fishing operations advanced, the fish populations deteriorated. These operations ended up turning into profit–hoggers and started to steal the ocean's wildlife. Considering that this was just the onset of overfishing, the buyers became adapted to having a variety of fish at reasonable prices. In 1989, after about 90 million tons of fish were taken from the ocean, the products ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Simply put, fish do not stand a chance against the most intelligent and dangerous hunters: humans. If people carry on at this pace, it can build a biodiversity crisis larger and more severe than humanity has ever experienced. That is why specialists have formed organizations and societies against overfishing to help decrease the number of fish that vanish every day. Greenpeace East Asia helps to advise people that we depend on earth's oceans or life cannot exist without them (Defending Our Oceans 1). Greenpeace East Asia makes certain that God's creations are indefinitely defended by humans. From reducing air pollution to conserving food and agriculture, Greenpeace, along with companies and establishments aside from it, help maintain a neutral balance between life on land and in water. There are many ways to prevent overfishing from becoming even more of an issue in the world. For instance, normal everyday people can spread the word about how overfishing is a huge crisis that needs to be dealt with appropriately. Also, when people shop for fish they should choose the one's that are not endangered or harmed by overfishing. Besides everyday people, fisheries need to start pitching in. They need to enact safe catch limits, which is a limit on the number of fish caught by a fishery. In addition, they need to take control on bycatch. Another thing they can do is monitor fishermen when they ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Health And Sustainability Of Marine Ecosystem Degradation Goal 14 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seeks to "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development." Targets 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5 and 14.a, aim to improve the health and sustainability of marine ecosystems by a specified date, and avoid adverse impacts to the environment by addressing specific kinds of marine pollution. These are measurable in so far that it is scientifically possible to quantify nutrient pollution, ocean acidity, marine debris, biodiversity etc., across space and time, as well as the impacts of such indicators on other areas of the environment. In principle the lack of analysis of certain aspects of marine ecosystem degradation makes it somewhat difficult to identify causal mechanisms in changes to the environment. Targets to improve scientific cooperation and knowledge relating to marine ecosystems, 14.3, 14.5 and 14.a, can be measured in relation to increased international and cross–sector cooperation and improved research outcomes. Observable sustainable socio–economic development of SIDs and LDCs can be used to measure the achievement of targets 14.7, 14.a and 14.b. Improvements to the regulation of destructive fishing practises, enforcement of international law and reduction of perverse subsidies (14.4, 14.6 and 14.c) can only be partially measured given the size of the ocean and that much illegal activity goes undetected. It is also important to note that an assessment of these ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. Overfishing And Degradation Of Our Marine Ecosystems Research Paper Society has had a major impact on the depletion and degradation of our marine ecosystems. Overfishing has played a large role in the depletion aspect. If we can learn how overfishing hurts marine ecosystems, then we can find ways to protect and prevent the depletion of this resource. This paper will explain the history of overfishing, causes of overfishing, its affect on marine life and our society, and some possible solutions for prevention and protection. Overfishing of marine life began to occur in the mid–20th century when there was a need for new sources of affordable and easily accessed protein–rich foods. The solution was fish, which lead to a burst in the commercial fishing industry with many large ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (2) This collapse occurred in 1992, and caused one of the worlds most productive fishing grounds to be extremely over fished. Technology and industry allowed the fishermen to increase the amount of fish they were able to collect from this area. This increase in the amount of fish they could obtain eventually bottomed out when they had depleted the resource to excessively without allowing time for the fish to replace their populations. Because many of the government officials held shares in the cod industry, they refused to see that the resource was in need of preservation and protection. The fishery eventually had to be shut down because it was so unsustainable. The creation of large trawlers (fishing nets created to drag along the bottom of the sea) was a major aspect in the depletion of the Canadian Newfoundland fishery. These trawlers were brought in by big industries and were able to catch fish at all times both day and night, collecting extreme amounts. Today studies show that 25% of U.S. fish stocks are depleted, which has caused many important fisheries to fall apart. (3) Bottoming trawling is one of the most harmful fishing methods out there. Most bottom trawlers are used to catch fish species like cod, shrimp, and flounder, which live on the ocean floors. Bottom trawling can also result in other fish and marine life being collected that were not intended. This process also leads to severe ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Alaskan Salmon Lead The Most Interesting Life From Life Alaskan salmon lead the most interesting life from birth to death, spending time in both fresh and salt water. Eggs are laid by a female fish in a stream. She actually buries up to thousands of eggs, or ova, in a nest called a Redd. The male fertilizes these eggs, once placed. The eggs develop in the winter and hatch in the spring. Once the eggs hatch, now called Alevin, they stay in the nest for approximately one month feeding on the yolk sac of the egg. Once the baby salmon leave the Redd, known as Fry, they are on their own for survival, like finding food and mastering the challenges of the downhill journey downstream. A Parr is a young salmon approximately six inches in length that is growing as it continues downstream. If the young ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... According to the Department of Alaska fish and game, Alaska has over 15,000 salmon streams. According to the Marine Stewardship Council, the world's top seafood "ecolabel" authority, states that Alaska, by weight, provides over 2/3 of the world's seafood (marineconservationalliance.org/wp–content/uploads/2010/061359_MCA_Report_for_download1.pdf). However, the Alaskan environment, wildlife and stocks of fish remain abundant year after year. Alaska's beauty and fisheries are frequent topics of the Nature Channel programs, and Alaska remains a top tourist attraction for nature enthusiasts. Why, with all the commercial and sport fishing, haven't fishing stocks depleted? Groundfish, scientists say, are abundant in the North Pacific, salmon returns have grown in the last 30 years, and shellfish production is also successful. Even the sea lion population has steadily grown (marineconservationalliance.org/wp–content/uploads/2010 /061359_MCA_Report_for_download1.pdf p.5). This amazing nature preserve and economic way of life are sustainable due to fishing managers following scientific guidelines very conservatively, making rules and regulations based on scientific research: research that is open to the public, and discussed with the public on a regular basis. Alaska became a state in 1959 under President Eisenhower, after Alaskans and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20. Sea World Gold Coast Australia Sea World Gold Coast Australia is a marine animal theme park. The park includes rides, shows and marine attractions. Sea World founded Sea World Research & Rescue Foundation Inc. (SWRRFI) which committed to promote a number of marine research projects and rescue marine organisms' activities. Sea World 's goals are to strengthen knowledge for youth about the ocean habitat and ecology of the marine lives, encourage the public about the marine biodiversity conservation and promote youth education and public awareness. Positioning Sea World as "teach through lively activities" is also a priority. Past media coverage of Sea World has been largely marine mammal topics based, with little substantial discussion around animal conservation or Sea World information. Although the media port of Sea World provides several marine animal contents, it leads to the media relations problem: Sea World 's media releases tend to using marketing strategies that have resulted in an increasing lack of credibility in marine mammal conservation. This does not align with Sea World goals of youth education and strengthened public awareness. An opportunity therefore exists for Sea World to improve awareness of marine conservation, ecological populations and research to marine animals in the short term via media coverage in connection with SWRRF in Queensland. 1.2 Target publics There are main audiences and publics will be targeted in order to push the opportunity as follows: Queensland youths ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Artificial Reefs Used as Fisheries The main objective of our study is to determine if artificial reefs can be used as a fisheries enhancement or conservation tool in Narragansett Bay. Using a variety of research techniques, we will attempt to answer the following questions: (1) do artificial reefs increase the abundance (and biomass) of important species of demersal sport fish? Or (2) do reefs attract existing numbers of fish to the reef and increase the rate of exploitation, thus potentially decreasing localized populations (or communities)? By building a carefully replicated network of artificial reefs, we will advance research on the impact of artificial reefs. In–order to address our study questions, we propose the construction of 0.25 acre artificial reefs (0.5 acre area) using pre–fabricated reef modules in three locations of Narragansett Bay. The creation of small–scale experimental reefs will not only provide long–term research stations but will also improve benthic habitat conditions in an area of soft sediments. The performance of artificial reefs varies considerably, depending on materials used as well as location of deployment and intended results. Breakup, movement, and burial have been reported to occur in reef programs. The location and design of reef complexes must be carefully chosen to balance the goals and objectives of a project with environmental and social constraints (Table 1). We used geospatial andfisheries data to ensure that our reef locations are placed in the most suitable ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22. Royal Chinook Salmon With the influx of human population immigrating to Pacific Northwest Region of the United States at the end of the 19th century, extracting the natural goods of the environment quickly became an issue of sustainability and preservation. In the State of Washington Ninth Annual Report of the State Fish Commissioner of 1898, author A.C. Little illustrates how the extractive actions along many of Washington's river systems are resulting in a major depletion of salmon species unique to the Northwest. Little's Report aimed to bring attention to over consumption of this finite resource that was not only intrinsically valuable to many people within the region but was also a very successful economic engine too value to deplete. The booming fishing industry, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Little's Ninth Annual Report of the State Fish Commissioner of 1898, may not have immediately propagated change in the region toward salmon fish restoration, but the argument laid out in the report provides that the recommendations provided were only to benefit all parties. From the transnational fishing industry, to the individual livelihood of the local fishermen, along with the improvement salmon spawning population, finally paired with ultimate sustainable harvest practices, would piece together to support and improve all entities of the Pacific Northwest's salmon fishing economic engine. Little's report sought took into account the diversity reaction that his recommendations may propagated, and worked to pair all parties to illustrate that the ultimate outcome was to support a society at the brink of developing into a major economic center of the western United States. At the end of the 19th century sustainable salmon practice held a significant share in the progress of Washington State, Little only sought to prove that salmon restoration and sustainable practices could provide a prosperous future for the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Effects Of Overfishing Introduction The main causes of overfishing are poor fishery management with a lack of regulation, unrestricted access to the ocean and illegal fishing. During the last few decades the demand for edible seafood globally has skyrocketed and the high demand is causing us to overfish to keep up with the demand. Unfortunately, fisherman are catching more fish than can be naturally reproduced. There are only limited regulations in place, which means that fishing companies are basically fishing when and where they want to with out any oversite. Overfishing causes such serious effects such as the ocean life getting knocked out of balance. Coastal communities rely on the benefits of the fishing for social and economic health. When we overfish it ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Oceaneos Research Foundation stated that in the mid–1990 the Atlantic cod was caught to near extinction. "Newfoundland's fishing industry collapsed due to overfishing and 40,000 jobs were lost and the ecosystem destroyed. Fifteen years after the loss of the cod industry they are still waiting for a recovery." ("The Oceaneos Marine Research Foundation", 2017) Another global effect of overfishing is fish farming or aquaculture. It was first started to help preserve the ocean and hoped to help people to obtain a reliable fish source. Unfortunately, what many came to realize is the downside of fish farming. One example is water contamination, where consequently waste products such as foods eaten, feces and other dead fish, are all dumped into our main water supply which contributes to water pollution. Moreover, chemicals that are used to treat the fish farms like antibiotics and algaecides are all released into the ocean; which is a real cause for concern for our oceans. Fish that come from the fish farms are pumped full of drugs, to prevent sickness in the fish but this is not healthy for us to eat. There is also a great environmental impact which includes the fact that to sustain fish farms, portions of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. If You Are Interested in Marine Biology Marine Biology If you are interested in adventuring the depths of the ocean, being a marine biologist is the job for you. As a marine biologist you will need to have several years of schooling in order to have a successful career. Being a marine biologist can be an enjoyable and dangerous job, but the journey is worth the ride. Several people ask what is a marine biologist? There are various answers to this question. The best answer shall be that a marine biologist is someone who works in some way in studying, observing, protecting, or managing marine organisms, be they microbe, plant or animal. Marine Biologists study the origins, behaviours, diseases, genetics and the life processes of animals and wildlife of the marine environment. Some marine biologists specialize in wildlife research and management, including the collection and analysis of biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water areas (Marine Biology). Becoming a marine biologist can be pretty difficult. Marine biologist will need to take several biology classes; but you will also need a fantastic understanding of science in general. You will need to take classes such as chemistry and physics. Mathematics will also be required, at least up to calculus. Typing skills will also be necessary in the career, computer, and technical/electrical skills would also be helpful for this field (Becoming a Marine Biologist). Being a marine biologist, does not just ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. How Does Overfishing Affect The Future Nearly seventy–one percent of Earth is covered by oceans. This massive body of water provides homes to millions of species of marine life. Over the years, the amount of fish has decreased rapidly due to the practice of overfishing. Overfishing has become such a massive problem that if there is no stop put to it, it could destroy the ocean's and the Earth's future. Fortunately, an organization named Oceana was founded for the sole purpose of saving the oceans. Due to the overuse of fishing, the population of sea life is decreasing rapidly and the organization, Oceana, is helping to put a stop to overfishing to save world hunger, ecosystem destruction, and economic destruction. Oceana is an organization that was established in 2001. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One contribution made to help saving the oceans is how Oceana has protected over 1 million square miles that they have conserved (Oceana). This will eliminate fishing space for fishermen to use while the fish are protected and can continue to reproduce (Oceana). Oceana is also dedicated to restoring the oceans and creating science–based fishery management and by doing this, they can make a science–based catch limits and protect marine life habitats to help oceans recover (Oceana). A catch limit will be very helpful in contributing to stop this issue. By campaigning for a catch limit, it will help fishermen in their business while at the same time, help the fish keep safe and able to keep up with the reproduction ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Descriptive Essay On Fishing My father and I have be going on an annual fishing trip since I was eight. Every summer, we would go out and sit for hours waiting for something to bite. Last year my father made a poignant observation, he noted that in recent years there seemed to be less fish. He's been doing this trip since he was my age and where he used to at least get some pull, he now has to wait nearly twice as long for anything. I've since come to realize that our ocean is running out of fish. We are overexploiting a natural resource and doing nothing to stop it. The current large scalefishing operations are not sustainable ecologically or economically. large fish are disappearing from the ocean at alarmingly high rates. There has been a 90% decline in the top predator fish abundance in the world between 1955 and 2000. Most industrial fishing techniques are overly aggressive to marine environments in that they attract an abundance of bycatch. The three primary techniques are surface long–line Fishing where chains more than 100 kilometers long are floated in the ocean with thousands of baited hooks, fish aggregating devices use long nets going down 300 meters that are left for days and just collect fish indiscriminately, finally and perhaps the worst being bottom Trawling which involves a long heavily weighed net dragged across seafloor. Fish aggregating devices are too indiscriminate in what kind of marine life they capture. They are often deployed with the intention of catching skipjack ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Importance of Oceans The ocean is one of Earth's most valuable natural resources. It provides food in the form of fish and shellfish–about 200 billion pounds are caught each year. It's used for transportation–both travel and shipping. It provides a treasured source of recreation for humans. It is mined for minerals (salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea) and drilled for crude oil. The ocean plays a critical role in removing carbon from the atmosphere and providing oxygen. It regulates Earth's climate. The ocean is an increasingly important source of biomedical organisms with enormous potential for fighting disease. These are just a few examples of the importance of the ocean to life on land. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In Massachusetts alone, the cod, haddock and yellowtail flounder industries collapsed, causing an economic disaster for the area. Due to the importance of fishing to the worldwide economy and the need for humans to understand human impacts on the environment, the academic division of fisheries science was developed. Fisheries science includes all aspects of marine biology, in addition to economics and management skills and information. Marine conservation issues like overfishing, sustainable fisheries and management of fisheries are also examined through fisheries science. In order for there to be plenty of fish in the years ahead, fisheries will have to develop sustainable fisheries and some will have to close. Due to the constant increase in the human population, the oceans have been overfished with a resulting decline of fish crucial to the economy and communities of the world. The control of the world's fisheries is a controversial subject, as they cannot produce enough to satisfy the demand, especially when there aren't enough fish left to breed in healthy ecosystems. Scientists are often in the role of fisheries managers and must regulate the amount of fishing in the oceans, a position not popular with those who have to make a living fishing ever decreasing populations. The two main questions facing fisheries management are: 1.What is the carrying capacity of the ocean? How many fish are there and how many of which type of fish ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. The Miss En Scene Of National And International Fisheries Now that we have deconstructed the basic premises and their place in the miss en scГЁne of national and international fisheries, let us move to a more detailed analysis of the text's subpoints examining the chapters for any underlying perspectives or evidence that significantly contribute to the arguments overall persuasiveness. The analysis that follows intends to capture each critical argument unfolding and developing itself, giving the reader a means to then discuss the contributions in regard to the circulation of wider discourse. Chapters 2–4: International regulation, political economy of regulation, and regulatory capture. We have already considered much of chapter 2 when regarding CPRs, the most important definition given by the... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Environmental economics provides an appropriate set of analytical tools to understand CPRs even though most regulation draws largely on the logics of population biology (Barkin p. 37). The discussion continues to recognise scientific based secretariat rule proposals being undermined by states final decision making power, and how sovereign representatives avoid advice in favour of free rider benefits. The central argument of chapter 3 is a tension in the approaches to resource management; biologist (or anthropocentric view) are put premium on the value of ecosystems and biodiversity – sustainability perspective – while the econocentric view is focused on maximising present value of fishery resources without regard for the 'unmonetised' ecological utility. In a sense, multilateral cooperation finds a midpoint between these differing worldviews, but the former analysis of CPR enjoys privilege among stakeholders because it is more comfortably aligned with their interests – or perhaps until it is too late in which case ecological value has finally attained equal or greater economic status than the present value of fisheries. Applying these understandings to the overall argument that micro–regulation alone is insufficient, by considering the theoretical perspectives and various co–author studies as evidence, one finds ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. A New List Of Sustainable Development Goals On September 25th, the UN officially announced a new list of Sustainable Development Goals(SDG's) that would replace the previous Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) that would expire in 2015. Among the list of SDG's released by the UN, was one in particular, goal number 14, which stated, in relation to Oceans, the aim to "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development." In addition to setting the goal previously mentioned, the UN also set out a list of targets in order to evaluate the set goals. 14.1) According to a recent article by Dong Chen, Paul Szostak, Zongsu Wei, and Ruiyang Xiao, there have been significant eutrophication issues as a result of nutrient runoffs from farmlands into natural water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, streams, etc. The nutrients, such as Phosphorus, that runoff from the farmlands into the water bodies act as a limiting agent for the growth of algae. In other words, they prevent the algae from growing, and as a result, affect the whole ecosystem of that water body. In an article published in Sensors Journal, in June 2015, Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) were announced as possible means of detecting and observing aquatic environments. According to this article, these sensors would be used in a variety of ways, namely to monitor pollution, prevent disasters from occurring, or "assisted navigation and to send monitored data to the sink." However, we do not need to wait until the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Case Study: New England Fishery Management Council New England Fishery Management Council established by federal legislation in 1976 and conserves fishery stocks from three to 200 miles off the coasts from Maine to Connecticut. Our official website clearly explains our goal is,"Conserving and managing fishery resources by relying on sound science, promoting public participation, and balancing competing interests." (NEFMC) As the representative of NEFMC, I believe that overfishing problem should be valued. Overfishing and its recovering are essential issues around the world; people should consume resources in a sustainable way; Better management of fishing is our responsibility. First of all, overfishing is a big issue all around the world. The demand of customers and the greed of making ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Also, that ABC should remain relatively constant for 2016–2018, or perhaps be reduced modestly. The recommended ABC (Acceptable Biological Catch)of 111,000 mt, compared with status quo estimate of 114,000 mt, achieves that outcome. Additionally, the SSC noted and the Council concurred that the current high herring biomass, bolstered by two very large year classes, likely meets ecosystem goals by default and not design, as ecosystem goals are not explicitly identified in the current ABC control rule. Thus, the Council concluded that it is not necessary to increase scientific uncertainty above the SSC–recommended level at this time." (Atlantic Herring 2016–2018 Specifications) This specification gives a very specific and comprehensive solution and recommendations. Every managements are based on real statistics and facts. Thus, our organization really cares about everyone's ideas and we try to find the most stable and sustainable way to solve ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Overfishing, Crisis Or Overthought? Overfishing, Crisis or Overthought? In today's world we have a problem, a very big, yet very underestimated problem in which if not solved, could lead to the extinction of nearly all fresh and saltwater aquatic life on our great earth. This problem is overfishing and it's against the law. In this time of great advancements and inventions, us humans have made many tools to make our lives easier... at the cost of our environment. Deep sea fishermen have been using illegal fishing techniques through loopholes in federal law. These loopholes allow said deep sea fishermen to take far more fish *and other life* than lawfully allowed. Professor Eugene Buck explains."States generally have jurisdiction within 3 miles of the coast. Beyond state ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Expert Bill Fox explains the effects of fish leaving or being taken from the area "Targeted fishing of top predators (such as billfish, sharks and tuna) eventually disrupts marine communities, causing increased abundance of smaller marine animals at the bottom of the food chain. This in turn has impacts on the rest of the marine ecosystem, such as the increased growth of algae and threats to coral reef health. Overfishing is also closely tied to bycatch, another serious marine threat that causes the needless loss of billions of fish, along with marine turtles and cetaceans."(Fox). If this shows what will happen if the predators leave an area, what would happen if all of the small fish leave an area? For one, Coastal communities around the world depend on fish as their primary source of protein. Overfishing threatens their long–term food security, particularly in developing countries. Secondly the predators in an area will have to compete against each other for food, leading to a decline in the predator population. Overfishing is a major crisis Overfishing is a problem that can be easily solved with added supervision by the law, yet some believe that overfishing is a problem that should not be worried about, and those are the few that influence the government to be so lenient. Overfishing too much in an area can lead to the endangerment ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Argumentative Essay On Overfishing Abstract: Overfishing is the process of fishing to the point where more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction. It may seem profitable to quickly grab as much fish as you can, but it is extremely harmful to the marine ecosystem. The results of this have lasting impacts on the balance of life in the oceans, and the social and economic well–being of the coastal communities who depend on fish for their way of life. Fortunately, there are efforts being done to help prevent this dangerous activity. New Zealand has noticeably led the charge to ending overfishing. Some ways countries have been limiting fishing activities are: marine protected areas, and fishing quotas. These are more of the notable examples, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If you think about how big that number is, it should tell you how much of a problem this is. The same study found that 32 percent are classified as overexploited, depleted or recovering, meaning that they are reproducing far less than they are potentially able to. This percentage is the highest that has been seen in the decades of studies, indicating that the problem of overfishing is becoming more and more severe. And at this point, it seems the problem will only get worse, unless we make severe changes. However, this is much easier said than done, billions of people rely on fish for protein, and fishing is the principal livelihood for millions of people around the world. For centuries, our seas and oceans have been considered a limitless source of food. However, increasing fishing efforts over the last 50 years because of the depleting fish populations, has led to unsustainable fishing practices that are pushing many fish stocks to the point of collapse. Many important commercial fish populations (like the Atlantic bluefin tuna) have suffered a decline to the point where their survival as a species is extremely threatened. The more we hunt and kill these fish, the less likely the fish will be able to reproduce and begin to thrive again. Target fishing of top ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Freidrich Heincke's Paper Introduction A paper published in 1898 by the Freidrich Heincke, a German fisheries biologist, influenced biologists to consider the population as the unit of study instead of the species. Insights from the Heincke's paper helped to cultivate the influential quantitative methodology to distinguish marine fish populations. The application of statistical methods and quantification techniques in marine biology contributed to the generation of an enormous amount of knowledge related to fisheries. The shift of fishery biologists, Zoologists and wildlife agencies towards numbers and measurement in their research methodology, shaped modern Fisheries Science and contributed to solving some of the critical problems associated with fisheries. In 1957, a model published by Beverton and Holt enabled scientists to predict the future size and yields of fish stock. This quantitative bio–economic model allowed governments to make decisions on the most optimal fishing levels to help reach biological and economic goals ( Bavington, D.L.Y. 2009). Cod fishery management systems in Canada incorporated Heincken's population approach and bio–economic system models of the 1950's to calculate the total allowable catch. An official report that was the basis for Canada's Cod fisheries management strategy, tremendously overestimated northern Cod populations. To correct this error in 1990, the Harris report recommended the reduction of "Total allowable Catch" from 235, 000 to 190, 000 tonnes. In 1992, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Essay On Atlantic Cod This paper takes a closer look at spawning behavior of Atlantic cod, and explores a new way of monitoring presence or absence of spawning cod at a particular site. Male cod are known to emit low–frequency grunts while spawning and courtship, and this study deployed a marine autonomous recording unit capable of recording these grunts in a known cod spawning ground during the spring spawning season. The MAR unit was deployed in Spring Cod Conservation Zone in Massachusetts from April through June Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto, and N. Scialabba. 1990. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125 (6): 44–47. Put out by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States and part of a series of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Preceedings of the virtual symposium "Flagship species – Flagship problems". Canadian Journal of Zoology 89. 386–400. In this publication, two Canadian biologists present their research that takes an in depth look at the crash of Atlantic cod populations in the north Atlantic. Their research looks at historic catch, peaking between 1962 and 1992, and the subsequent decline in spawning stock biomass as a result of this overfishing. Hutchings and Rangeley also look at some trends in abundance and life history, broken down by region, and find an overall drop in age at which an individual reaches 50% maturity, suggesting lowered fecundity of the population. The paper concludes by outlining the many importance's of cod, both commercially and from a biological standpoint, and most importantly outlining specific and robust management plans that would allow Canadian Atlantic cod the conditions to recover. This paper will be immensity powerful in contributing to the conservation issues and solutions section of my paper. Jenson, A. C. 1972. The Cod. Fitzhenry and Whiteside Limited, Toronto. For many years Albert Jenson was the director of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. In this book, he chronicles Atlantic Cod, describing the life history and ecology of the fish, as well as how humans have drastically impacted cod populations through commercial fishing. He ends the book by describing conservation efforts that should be in effect but ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. The Impact of Hydropower Dams on California's Populations... Running head: IMPACT OF DAMS ON ANADROMOUS FISH The Impact of Hydropower Dams on California's Populations of Anadromous Fish: What Can be done to mitigate the Dams Effects and Restore California's Watersheds. Russell Cole Western Governors University The Impact of Hydropower Dams on California's Populations of Anadromous Fish: What can be done to mitigate the Dams Effects and Restore California's Watersheds. The indigenous people of California were completely dependent on the seemingly infinite quantities of salmon and steelhead that annually returned to their coastal rivers. Upon their arrival, European settlers soon developed a commercial fishing industry, which supported them very well. Today, however, that never–ending... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Importantly, let's not overlook the effects of salmon population declines on the indigenous peoples of California. Tribes such as the Karuk, Yurok, Wiyot and the Hoopa, to name just a few, have depended on salmon as their main food source for centuries. Salmon was not just food, but central to their religion, their diet, and their overall way of life. Salmon are the cornerstone of their culture (Harling, 2006). The loss of this abundant natural resource must be seen not only as degrading the health of the river ecosystem, but also as severely impacting the health of the tribes. Until the early 1850's California's rivers flowed freely to the Pacific Ocean. The emergence of dams started with small earthen dams used to divert water for mining and irrigation purposes. The diverted water used for hydraulic mining would prove to be the beginning of a long era of environmental degradation of California's river ecosystems. With the turn of the century came a population boom and the rapid development of urban centers and an increased demand for water. With the end of the gold rush, agriculture quickly became the main player in California's economy. This too, raised the demand for water and dams were being built at a staggering pace. The introduction of huge hydropower dams proved to be the "nail in the coffin" for anadromous fish because little or no heed was paid to the impact of dams on the state's watersheds. Today California has over fourteen hundred dams responsible for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. Trophic Fishing Imbalances First, the alarming environmental issue of trophic fishing causes an imbalance in the ecosystem. To begin, while fishing at the trophic levels of the ecosystem, the predators of the ocean are overfished. Predators such as salmon and tuna are fished quite frequently because they are used in dinners around the world. Clearly then, as the predators rapidly decrease, the primary and secondary consumers overpopulate. Science News states, "We've eliminated the marine equivalent of lions and wolves and are moving towards the taking of rats, cockroaches, and dandelion equivalents." (https:/ /www.sciencenews.org/) Clearly then, when predators are eliminated, the prey overpopulate. Without any predators to limit population growth, the prey populations are able to reproduce. Since these populations are not being hunted, their populations need to consume more food, so the producers are consumed entirely and eventually eliminated, as well. In addition to imbalances in the ecosystem, trophic fishing also affects fish populations. Next, trophic fishing affects fish populations. Because of trophic fishing, there are over 75 aquatic species that are endangered as of 2017. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Obviously nets, buoys, and lines are regularly let loose by fishermen. Ghost nets are often found throughout the ocean. Ghost nets are fishing gear, that are found drifting through the ocean. These nets can be extremely harmful towards many species in the open ocean. However; Many animals mistake plastic debris for food and eat it. This fills their stomachs with chemicals they can't digest. On the other hand, if the fish do not eat the debris, most likely they are entangled in it. Whilst they are entangled they can be severely injured or die. Debris gets caught around the necks of marine life, which eventually suffocates the organisms. The alarming environmental issue of trophic fishing triggers marine ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Overfishing And Its Effects On The Ocean Overfishing Leads to a Worldwide Oceanic Ecological Collapse People often take the ocean for granted due to its vastness since it makes up over seventy percent of the Earth, however the integrity of the ocean is deteriorating. One of the major, worldwide threats to the wellbeing of the ocean and its inhabitants is overfishing. Overfishing affects not only the ocean, but also the land dwellers. Many countries around the world depend on fish as their main source of food. Tons of fish are caught out of the sea daily, however, the rate that fish are being hauled is far too high where fish stocks are incapable of naturally recovering. There is a decline in population size of affected fish and some species have even faced extinction. Overfishing is the leading cause of ecological extinction, foregoing any other human disruptions to marine ecosystems, such as pollution, water degradation, and climate change (Jackson, et al). Overfishing causes an overwhelming devastation upon the oceans because it depletes food resources, disrupts the food web, and destroys habitats of aquatic organisms, due to this, overfishing causes an oceanic ecological collapse worldwide. Overfishing is not a problem that has recently arise, but a problem that started since the early 1800s. Overfishing first began when people sought for blubber for lamp oil, which lead to a decline in whale population. By the mid–1900s, some fish were almost wiped out, such as the Atlantic cod, herring, and sardines ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Natural Resources and Energy Paper Natural Resources and Energy Paper An ecosystem is a connection among living resources, residents, and habitats of an area. It includes animals, plants, microorganisms, trees, water and people. Everything that lives in that specific ecosystem is reliant on the other elements of that ecological society. Oceans are considered ecosystems due to the plant life supporting the animal life and also the animal life supporting the plant life. The earth's marine waters cover two– thirds of its surface making marine ecosystem the largest of its aquatic ecosystems. In this paper we will identify the effects that a growing human population may have on that ecosystem's resources, including loss or harm to populations of wild species, discuss one... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Research traces the increase in damage done to the marine ecosystem back from 150 to 300 years ago and it has only increased since then. The growth in population can also cause effects in the loss or harm of wild species. In the early 1900's most mammals, birds, salmon, tuna, sharks and reptiles were depleted, and continued to decline by 1950 as the demand grew for different resources. The International Union for Conservation has a record of ocean animals that are on the "Red List". This list has 620 species of marine animals listed on it and these animals are in danger of becoming extinct. This should show the human population that we need to work harder to put in a greater effort in protecting our oceans against pollution and overfishing. Strategies and techniques for marine ecosystem conservation would be setting up protected areas, as with marine protected areas (MPAs) or Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas. Other techniques include developing sustainable fisheries and restoring the populations of endangered species through artificial means. Another focus of conservationists is on curtailing human activities that are detrimental to either marine ecosystems or species through policy, techniques such as fishing quotas, like those set up by the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, or laws such as those listed below. Recognizing the economics involved in human use of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Environmental Impacts Of The Marine Environment Introduction Problem Statement / Definition of Research Area This research will look into the problems caused by fishing. Human impact has proved to threaten the bio diversity of the marine environment. The environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught, such as overfishing, sustainable fisheries, and fisheries management; and issues that involve the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by–catch. This research is connected to sustainability, and will look into the living and non–living things that menace the fish in the sea, along with the care resolution that will foster the marine environments feasible future. Rationale The indicated matter was selected for the sake of the marine environment and its beautiful importance. A great deal of leisure time is devoted to fishing both on land and sea. I love the bio diversity of the ocean and regard it as something that needs to be safeguarded. This topic is also significant for my local community. The oceans species are all unique and many people fish illegally and without caution, therefore we have an environmental responsibility in maintaining sustainable practices. Thus, significantly exploring the living and nonliving factors alarming the ocean including the current policies enforced toward safeguarding the ocean is important. Research Questions 1) What is overfishing? 2) What are the causes of overfishing? 3) How effective have the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. The Salmon Fisheries In my hometown, a local diner serves "Honey dipped Salmon." They claim that the dish is prepared using a species of Salmon, called Chinook, which is a product of the Alaska Salmon fisheries. Since Chinook salmon is an anadromous specie, it is born in the fresh water, migrates to the ocean for 1–5 years and then returns to the Main–channel Rivers to spawn. The female lays around 3,000–14,000 eggs that are successfully fertilized by the males, however the eggs are very brittle and can be easily destroyed. Fortunately, enough hatch and survive in Alaska to ensure healthy stocks. After spawning, they typically die as they don't feed on anything during their widespread migration and use up all the stored body fat for survival. ("CSSP", n.d.). As an example of their extensive migration, we can look at "the Yukon River spawners that travel more than 2,000 river miles during a 60–day period to reach Canada". Their major populations are located in Susitana, Taku, Copper, Kuskokwin, Nushagak river systems. The specie's returning numbers from their sprawled spawning migrations had started declining in 2006, however they have significantly recovered now. (Wild explorer, n.d.) The Chinook salmon is vastly sought after in Cook Inlet and Southeast Alaska by fishers because of its great value as a sport fish. The annual value of sports industry in Alaska is about $500 million and the annual harvest looms around 170,000 fish. ("CSU", n.d.). However, to make thefisheries ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...