Learning from cognitive development to identity development


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Webinar for third year undergraduates studying educational psychology. The aims are to make connections between many of the concepts and contemporary contexts we have discussed, recognise that theory is open to reinterpretation and have a go a developing theory, complexities of learning and teaching. Move from cognitive understanding of learning to a social constructivist understanding of learning. Feedback much appreciated:)

Correction on slide 14 - epistemology "how can we know", ontology "what can we know"

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  • The Self as inside you. The Self is contained within your body, and also the way you look to others e.g. tattoo above is projecting that person’s self/identity. This is opposed to “space” which is located outside of the body. When people say they understand the self like this they are reproducing the Cartesian conception where “self” is seem as thinking matter, and space is considered as an essential part of the external world. Space is therefore outside of the self. For more information see Hermans (2004) Introduction: The Dialogical Self in a Global and Digital Age http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s1532706xid0404_1
  • Learning from cognitive development to identity development

    1. 1. A Webinar on Learning:From Cognitive Development to Identity Development Jenna Condie University of Salford @jennacondie
    2. 2. This session is about making the connections: Developmental Educational Practice Theory Technology Globalisation Learning E-Learning Multiculturalism Identity Cognitive Development Development
    3. 3. Unpicking theoryFlickr: ogimogiFlickr: wallyg Developing theory Theory as underpinning your practice
    4. 4. An Opportunity to Reflect & Apply Flickr: London College of Fashion short coursesDuring thewebinar, considerthe benefitsand limitationsof learning online.Can this approachbe applied to yourassignments?
    5. 5. What can you rememberabout Jean Piaget’s theoryof cognitive developmentfrom last year (this year)? Image from Wikipedia
    6. 6. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development • Sensorimotor stage (birth to two years) • Preoperational stage (two to seven years) • Concrete operations stage (seven to eleven years) • Formal operations stage (from about eleven years) 6Flickr: ecohen Flickr babypixel eyes Flickr : Lee Coursey Flickr: geonando
    7. 7. Does the theory stand up to examination?Consensus: Further theoretical development needed• Formal operations – Children think differently, they are not mini-adults (Mitchell & Ziegler, 2013)• ‘Naughty teddy’ (Donaldson et al., 1978) – Young children can conserve. – Must have misunderstood what Piaget was asking them. Flickr: AndyNor
    8. 8. Misrepresentations of Piagetian theory? “First, the simple fact that during his productive lifetime – well over 60 years – he wrote more than any one person could keep up with; and his ideas, of course, developed, interacted, and changed in more and less subtle ways.” (von Glasersfeld, 1982) Important to read original work & make your own interpretations Re-interpret Flickr: adesignavon Glasersfeld (1982) An Interpretation of Piagets ConstructivismLink: http://elearnmap.ipgkti.edu.my/resource/dpli_r/index_htm_files/InterpretationPiagetConstructivism.pdf
    9. 9. Interpreting Piaget: The difference between development and learning?Piaget (1964) – Development and Learning: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35piaget64.pdf
    10. 10. Linking cognitive development to learning to read Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJCa_0iZd0Q
    11. 11. Uta Frith (1985): A theory of reading acquisition • Instant recognition of familiar words • Word order largely ignored Logographic • Phonological factors secondary stage • Willing to have a guess, no response if word unknown • Reading systematically decoding phonemes and graphemes Alphabetic • Enables pronunciation of unfamiliar & novel words stage • Letter order and phonological factors now key • Written words as a whole • Fully systematic approach to reading that is non-visual Orthographic stage • Internally representing letter-by-letter stringsFrith, U. (1985). Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. In K.E. Patterson, J. C. Marshall, &M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surface dyslexia , London: Erlbaum. Available here
    12. 12. Could you combine aspects of Piaget’s theory with aspects of Frith’s theory to develop your own theoretical approach for learning to read? have go a concept atFlickr: ellajphillips mapping
    13. 13. The problem with stage theory explanations of learning… Can you jump a stage?Can you be in more than one stage at a time? Are these theories universal? How might learning to read differ across languages? What about the style of teaching? Role of others? Role of culture? Role of identity? Flickr: followtheseinstructions
    14. 14. Piaget’s constructivism: an epistemology that knowledge is actively constructed by the individual (Mitchell & Ziegler, 2013, p. 14) Piaget’s constructivist theory and the classroom Epistemology: a theory of knowledge, how can we know 14Flickr IMLS DCC (Willig, 2001) Flickr 4nitsirk
    15. 15. Lev Vygotsky: taking constructivism furtherPiaget Cognitive constructivism Learning as assimilating and accommodating information (revisit Slater & Bremner, 2011)Vygotsky Social Constructivism Can not separate learning from the social context “Every function in the childs cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level and, later on, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 57)
    16. 16. Flickr: Leonard John Matthews Social Constructionism* • What we experience or perceive is not a direct reflection of objective environmental conditions. It is constructed in talk and interaction (Willig, 2001). • Social Constructionist research identifies the ways in which people construct their social realities by taking into account the specific linguistic, cultural and historical influences (Burr, 2003).* Note the different and interchangeable terms (for further reading see Burr, V. (2003) Social 16Constructionism, Hove: Routledge)
    17. 17. Identity Development and Learning Talk Learning Thought Identities Flickr : USAG-Humphreys Social constructionist view – identities as constructed in dialogue in the classroom.
    18. 18. Identity as socially constructed• Identities seen as something which requires “ongoing negotiations within a complex web of relationships and practices” (Gough & McFadden, 2001, p. 89).• Identities as negotiated in interactions and the “telling” of “stories” (Seaton, 2009, p. 304).• Identities as relational to others (Mason, 2004)
    19. 19. Developing dialogues for learning • Mercer (2008) social constructionist research, ‘learning talk’ & construction of identities. • Vygotskian influence, relationship between language and thinking “One of the strengths of bringing a sociocultural perspective to bear on education, I believe, is that it encourages us to recognize that the quality of education cannot be explained in terms of learning or teaching as separate processes, but rather in terms of the interactive process of teaching-and-learning” (p. 18, in press version)Mercer (2008) Developing Dialogues, Link:http://people.ucsc.edu/~gwells/Files/Courses_Folder/documents/Mercer.DevelopingDialoguepdf.pdf
    20. 20. Where is The Self? “When you ask people to localize their self, they will point to their body and tell you that it is somewhere inside.” (Hermans, 2004, p. 298) 20Flickr: hanspetermeyer.ca
    21. 21. Constructing identities“The choosing, deciding, shapinghuman being who aspires to bethe author of his or her own life,the creator of an individualidentity” as “the central Flickr: AhmadHammoudcharacter of our time”(Beck & Beck-Gernsheim,2001, p 22–23) 21
    22. 22. Teaching as dialogical “Teaching involves communication; whether its purpose is to enable students to gain access to inalienable truths, or to promote intellectual or social exploration for its own sake.” (Stables, 2003, p. 1) Vygotskian influence: learning through dialogue with a more learned other in a ‘zone of proximal development’ Classroom dialogue can impact positively or negatively on children’s identities and sense of self.Stables, A. (2003) Learning, Identity and Classroom Dialogue, Journal of Educational Enquiry, 4 (1)Available here: http://www.ojs.unisa.edu.au/index.php/EDEQ/article/viewFile/528/398
    23. 23. Learning through blogging• Remember quadblogging?• Blogging and development of writing skills (McGrail & Davis, 2011)• Ownership creativity, expression, experiment, exploration, Flickr: kpwerker audience, self-directed (Ducate & Lomicka, 2008)• Learning identities?
    24. 24. Link: http://zororomubaya.wordpress.com/2012/11/14/reflection-my-unique-experience/
    25. 25. Link: http://www.doubleblind.org/
    26. 26. Teachers aslearners too Need ideas &inspiration foryour seminar? Check outSalford PGCAP WebsiteLink: http://hub.salford.ac.uk/salfordpsych/2012/11/07/labels-hurt/
    27. 27. Narratives in the classroom: Interrogating practice (Karen Gallas)• ‘Sharing time’ in a socio-economic and racially diverse classroom in city suburb.• “Discourses of power”, dialogical approach• Jiana – six year old African American girl, lives in shelter – Said to Gallas “my mother must not have gone to the same kind of school as you” – Initial assessment (pre-kindergarten level) – Wait and see approach – Jiana enjoyed ‘sharing time’
    28. 28. Screenshot from Riessman, C. (2008) Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences,London: Sage
    29. 29. Screenshot from Riessman, C. (2008) Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences,London: Sage
    30. 30. Narratives for development and learning Flickr: umjanedoan• Stories became part of the “fabric” of the classroom. Stories as “power” (Gallas, 2003)• “Identities were formed and transformed in group performance” (Riessman, 2008, p. 136)• The role of classroom dialogue in enhancing the student learning experience (Stables, 2003)• Teaching-and-learning interaction (Mercer, 2008)
    31. 31. An Opportunity to Reflect & Apply Flickr: London College of Fashion short coursesDuring thewebinar, considerthe benefitsand limitationsof learning online.Can this approachbe applied to yourassignments?
    32. 32. Conclusions What is your stance on learning and development? Same, different, fence? What’s your theoretical position on learning? Cognitivist, constructivist? What has influenced your learning identity? How does your identity link to your learning? Underpin your work with theory. Take a stance!Flickr: derekbruff
    33. 33. A Webinar on Learning:From Cognitive Development to Identity Development Jenna Condie University of Salford @jennacondie
    34. 34. A Webinar on Learning:From Cognitive Development to Identity Development Jenna Condie University of Salford @jennacondie