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Adolescent behavioral problem

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Adolescent behavioral problem

  1. 1. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENT
  2. 2. PRESENTED BY: CAPT IMRAN HOSSAIN ROSTER NO – 11 OBC 82
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. 1. Nobody’s perfect and all children will have bouts of bad behavior. When things start to get out of hand, however it may be a clue that something in the child or teen’s life need attention. Adolescent can seem irritable or even hostile because they are trying to show that they’re growing up. 2. It is important to understand that children can start acting out when there are other stresses in their lives. Reassuring the child and providing extra care may help to get them through this stressful times and sometimes they need professional help.
  5. 5. AIM
  6. 6. Who is Adolosent ? The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies adolescence as the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to19.
  7. 7. Characteristics of Adolescence Self-consciousness Freedom and Independence Rapid Physical Changes Developing Sexuality Peer Pressure
  8. 8. Problems in Adolescence • face pressures to use alcohol, cigarettes, or other drugs • initiate sexual relationships at earlier ages • putting themselves at high risk for intentional and unintentional injuries • unintended pregnancies,
  9. 9. Psychosocial Problems: Nature and Co- Variation  Substance abuse – the maladaptive use of drugs (legal and illegal)  Internalizing disorders – problems are turned inward (emotional and cognitive distress)  Externalizing disorders – problems are turned outward (behavioral problems)  Substance abuse problems tend to be externalizing problems
  10. 10. Problem Behavior Syndrome • Many adolescents with psychosocial problems have more than one type of problem at once • The co morbidity of externalizing and substance abuse problems has led researchers to propose theoretical explanations for this phenomenon, sometimes called Problem Behavior Syndrome
  11. 11. Problem Behavior Syndrome: Theoretical Explanations • Unconventionality in adolescents’ personality and social environment leads to risk-taking behaviors (Jessor) – Tolerance of deviance – Not connected to school/religious institutions – Highly liberal views • Involvement in one problem behavior may lead to involvement in a second one (Kandel)
  12. 12. Prevalence of Substance Use and Abuse  Most adolescents have experimented with cigarette, tobacco, and local alcohol but not with other drugs  Only a very small number of adolescents use any substance daily (one-sixth smoke cigarettes every day)
  13. 13. Earlier Age of Initiation Adolescents are experimenting with drugs at earlier ages than in the past The chances of becoming addicted to alcohol or nicotine are increased when use begins before age 14  Drugs can affect dopamine production in the brain, possibly altering it permanently The effects of alcohol and nicotine on brain functioning (especially memory) are worse in adolescence than in adulthood
  14. 14. Risk Factors For Substance Abuse • Major risk factors are: –Personality – Anger, impulsivity, and inattentiveness –Family – Distant, hostile, or conflicted relationships –Socially – Friends who use and tolerate the use of drugs, living in a context that makes drug use easy
  15. 15. Externalizing Problems: Conduct Disorder • Conduct disorder: a pattern of persistent antisocial behavior that routinely violates the rights of others and leads to problems in social relationships, school, or work – Related diagnosis is oppositional- defiant disorder (less aggressive) • If CD persists beyond age 18, may be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, characterized by a lack of regard for moral standards (psychopaths)
  16. 16. Adolescent Offenders • Life-course persistent offenders – Demonstrate antisocial behavior before adolescence – Are involved in delinquency during adolescence – Are at great risk for continuing criminal activity in adulthood • Adolescent-limited offenders – Engage in antisocial behavior only during adolescence
  17. 17. Life-Course Persistent Offenders • Usually are poor, male, perform poorly in school • From disorganized families with hostile or inept parents – Harsh parenting may affect brain chemistry (serotonin) – Have histories of aggression identifiable as early as age 8 • Have problems with self regulation – More likely than peers to suffer from ADHD
  18. 18. Adolescent-Limited Offending • Do not usually show signs of psychological problems or family pathology • More mental health, substance abuse, and financial problems • Risk factors include: – Poor parenting (especially poor monitoring) – Affiliation with antisocial peers
  19. 19. Protective Factors o Major protective factors are: – Positive mental health – high academic achievement – engagement in school – close family relationships – involvement in religious activities o The most encouraging interventions are programs that combine – Social competence training – Community-wide interventions aimed at adolescents, peers, parents, and teachers
  20. 20. Depression in Adolescence Depression is the most common internalizing problems among adolescents  Emotional symptoms: decreased enjoyment of pleasurable activities,  Motivational symptoms: apathy, boredom  Physical symptoms: loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping, loss of energy
  21. 21. Sex Differences in Depression • Before adolescence, boys are more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms • After puberty, girls are more likely to be depressed, possibly because of: – Gender roles – pressure to act passive, dependent, and fragile – Greater levels of stress during early adolescence – Greater sensitivity to others (oxytocin)
  22. 22. Adolescent Suicide • 20% of high school students think about killing themselves every year (suicidal ideation) • Risk factors include: – Having a psychiatric problem – Having a family history of suicide – Experiencing extreme family conflict – Being under intense stress like fail in the exam
  23. 23. Stress and Coping • Stress responses vary. Multiple stressors have a much greater impact than single stressors (multiplicative) Using more effective coping strategies buffers the effects of stress • Primary control – taking steps to change the source of stress (usually the best strategy) • Secondary control strategies – trying to adapt to the problem (better when situation is uncontrollable)
  24. 24. Treatment and Prevention of Internalizing Problems
  25. 25. Treatment Approaches • Biological therapies – Antidepressant medications (SSRIs) that address the neuroendocrine problems that may exist • Psychotherapies – Designed to help adolescents understand the roots of their depression or change their cognitions • Family therapy – Changing patterns of family relationships that contribute to symptoms
  26. 26. Prevention Approaches • Primary prevention – Teaching adolescents life skills to help them cope with stress • Secondary prevention – Aimed at adolescents who are at risk for depression or are under stress
  27. 27. CONCLUSION
  28. 28. CONCLUSION • Reassuring the child and providing extra care • Seek professional help, particularly if the problems last many months and are severe • the first and fore most duty of parents, relatives and neighbor is to take special care

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