Multi-disciplinary Approachto the study of EducationPurposes of Education: Philosophical,Historical, Sociological, PsychologicalPhilosophical: Naturalist (Rousseau’s) view thathumans can, through the developmentof society, rise above their naturalstate
Philosophical… The questions philosophers askconcern the nature and purposes ofeducation: what makes an educatedperson, how knowledge is organizedand what should be learned. They areprimarily interested in beliefs, morals,and values which permeate education.(Steve & Burton, 2012)
Philosophical.. Educational philosophies:– Perennialism– Essentialism– Progressivism– Reconstructionism/Critical theory
PsychologicalPerspective How people learn and develop Our maturation, intelligence,personality and motivation, andlearning process Relation between nature and nurture Individual development andachievement
Psychological… Information processing Behaviorism Cognitivism/constructivism Humanism
Psychological perspectiveand education Examines: pedagogy withpsychological perspectives Psychological pedagogy reveals thelinks among psychological,sociological, and philosophicalinfluence
Historical Causal explanations of political andsocial timelines of educationaldevelopment Helpful for strategic vision
Sociological/sociologyof education Functionalist view of edu. To prepare citizenfor society. (Karl Marx: reinforcement ofclass differentials) Durkheim (1947) & Parsons (1964): Society as a system (structure) Structure is fundamental human need Conservative ideology
Sociological… Functions of education: Development of basic academic skills– Socialization– Social control and maintaining socialorder– Preparing for workCONFLICT THEORY:1.Social functions cannot be benefit to allSystem cannot serve all1.Conflict theorists/Marxist see educationas reinforcing a class system
Socio … Critical importance of role taking andinterpretatyion Freedom and ability of the individual todecide Antony Giddens (1985 & 2009):Language provides Giddens with amodel for “duality of structure”.
Conflict … Antonio Gramci: Hegemonic role ofruling (dominant) class Social change/revolutionary can belocated in existing institutions.SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM: Interpretation of symbols Actions of members of society Weber (1958, 1963): development ofWeber thinking George Herbert Mead (1934) as founderof Symbolic Interactionism
Conflict … Critical importance of role taking andinterpretatyion Freedom and ability of the individual todecide Antony Giddens (1985 & 2009):Language provides Giddens with amodel for “duality of structure”.
Post-structuralist & post-modernist perspective Challenge to dominant discourses andpractices Culture, language and identity are keyfeatures of the inequality and operatethrough education Rethinking the school as an institution Discourse on theory of knowledge andpower (Derrida, 1987 & Foucault, 1977) Post-structuralism: critical to educationsystem and traditions.
Outcome of FoundationalAnalysis Life long learning Early childhood education Post- compulsory education Citizenship education There remain a Deep conflict in ideasabout knowledge, curriculum andschoolCONCLUSION: Areas areoverlapping