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  1. 1. Multi-disciplinary Approachto the study of EducationPurposes of Education: Philosophical,Historical, Sociological, PsychologicalPhilosophical: Naturalist (Rousseau’s) view thathumans can, through the developmentof society, rise above their naturalstate
  2. 2. Philosophical… Idealism Realism Pragmatism Existentialism
  3. 3. Philosophical… The questions philosophers askconcern the nature and purposes ofeducation: what makes an educatedperson, how knowledge is organizedand what should be learned. They areprimarily interested in beliefs, morals,and values which permeate education.(Steve & Burton, 2012)
  4. 4. Philosophical.. Educational philosophies:– Perennialism– Essentialism– Progressivism– Reconstructionism/Critical theory
  5. 5. PsychologicalPerspective How people learn and develop Our maturation, intelligence,personality and motivation, andlearning process Relation between nature and nurture Individual development andachievement
  6. 6. Psychological… Information processing Behaviorism Cognitivism/constructivism Humanism
  7. 7. Psychological perspectiveand education Examines: pedagogy withpsychological perspectives Psychological pedagogy reveals thelinks among psychological,sociological, and philosophicalinfluence
  8. 8. Historical Causal explanations of political andsocial timelines of educationaldevelopment Helpful for strategic vision
  9. 9. Sociological/sociologyof education Functionalist view of edu. To prepare citizenfor society. (Karl Marx: reinforcement ofclass differentials) Durkheim (1947) & Parsons (1964): Society as a system (structure) Structure is fundamental human need Conservative ideology
  10. 10. Sociological… Functions of education: Development of basic academic skills– Socialization– Social control and maintaining socialorder– Preparing for workCONFLICT THEORY:1.Social functions cannot be benefit to allSystem cannot serve all1.Conflict theorists/Marxist see educationas reinforcing a class system
  11. 11. Socio … Critical importance of role taking andinterpretatyion Freedom and ability of the individual todecide Antony Giddens (1985 & 2009):Language provides Giddens with amodel for “duality of structure”.
  12. 12. Conflict … Antonio Gramci: Hegemonic role ofruling (dominant) class Social change/revolutionary can belocated in existing institutions.SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM: Interpretation of symbols Actions of members of society Weber (1958, 1963): development ofWeber thinking George Herbert Mead (1934) as founderof Symbolic Interactionism
  13. 13. Conflict … Critical importance of role taking andinterpretatyion Freedom and ability of the individual todecide Antony Giddens (1985 & 2009):Language provides Giddens with amodel for “duality of structure”.
  14. 14. Post-structuralist & post-modernist perspective Challenge to dominant discourses andpractices Culture, language and identity are keyfeatures of the inequality and operatethrough education Rethinking the school as an institution Discourse on theory of knowledge andpower (Derrida, 1987 & Foucault, 1977) Post-structuralism: critical to educationsystem and traditions.
  15. 15. Outcome of FoundationalAnalysis Life long learning Early childhood education Post- compulsory education Citizenship education There remain a Deep conflict in ideasabout knowledge, curriculum andschoolCONCLUSION: Areas areoverlapping

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