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Identifying Gifted and Talented Students


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Identifying Gifted and Talented Students

  1. 1. Identifying Gifted and Talented Students Angela M. Housand University of North Carolina, Wilmington West Chester Area School District West Chester, PA
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Average Ranking Sam Edder Mary Hall Bill Ridell Elaine Hawkins Albert Wright Sarah Lang Mike Grost
  4. 4. Sam Edder = Albert Einstein
  5. 5. Mary Hall = Eleanor Roosevelt
  6. 6. Bill Ridell = Thomas Edison
  7. 7. Elaine Hawkins = Isadora Duncan
  8. 8. Albert Wright = Abraham Lincoln
  9. 9. Sarah Lang = Sarah Lang A Terman Study Participant IQ = 180+ Kindergarten Teacher
  10. 10. Mike Grost = Mike Grost
  11. 11. Definition  There is no universally accepted definition for gifted, talented, or giftedness
  12. 12. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic • Logical-Mathematical • Spatial • Musical • Bodily-kinesthetic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalist
  13. 13. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Analytical Giftedness • Synthetic Giftedness – Creativity – Insightfulness – Intuition – Ability to cope with novelty • Practical Giftedness – Apply first two in pragmatic situations – Wisdom – concerns about needs and welfare of others
  14. 14. U.S. D.O.E Definition Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services of activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor (Department of Education, 1993).
  15. 15. PA State Definition • Mentally Gifted Outstanding intellectual and creative ability the development of which requires specially designed programs or support services, or both, not ordinarily provided in the regular education program.
  16. 16. Definition  The particular definition adopted by a school district will:  Guide the identification process  Consequently determine who is selected for services
  17. 17. Definition  DANGER!  If a definition to narrow, identification methods may discriminate against low SES, minority, disabled, underachieving, and females
  18. 18. 3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
  19. 19. Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
  20. 20. Use “defining” terms as adjectives: Gifted Artist Talented Mathematician Talented Musician Gifted Writer
  21. 21. Personality Factors Influencing Gifted Behavior Charm/Charisma Need for Achievement Ego Strength Energy Sense of Destiny Perception of Self, Self-Efficacy Courage Character Intuition Personal Attractiveness
  22. 22. Environmental Factors Influencing Gifted Behavior » SES » Parental Personalities » Education of Parents » Stimulation of Childhood Interests » Family Position » Formal Education » Role Model Availability » Physical Illness and/or Well Being » Chance Factors » Zeitgeist
  23. 23. Creative Giftedness School House Giftedness
  24. 24. Evil Genius Teacher Pleaser
  25. 25. Identification Considerations There is no perfect identification system! Match identification procedures to the services provided
  26. 26. Identification Considerations High performance vs. high potential May require different kinds of programming options Establish local norms using Grade level Similarity of learning opportunities Background characteristics
  27. 27. Identification Considerations Avoid designations or “rubber stamp” Identification procedures select students who would benefit from supplementary services Label the services, not the students
  28. 28. Identification Procedures Answer Who are the gifted and talented students? Why are we striving to identify them? How do we find them?
  29. 29. Identification Procedures Answer What are the most appropriate tools for identifying students’ gifts and talents? How are data from various tools analyzed and interpreted? Who is responsible for identifying students’ gifts and talents?
  30. 30. Identification Procedures Should: Be provided in multiple languages reflect the dominant student and parent populations Reflect the student population and demographics of the district
  31. 31. Identification Procedures Should: Reflect students’ needs Be defensible and inclusive Include students with disabilities who are English language learners economically disadvantaged
  32. 32. Identification Procedures Should: Be flexible Be communicated teachers parents administrators students Be updated at regular intervals to reflect changing demographics
  33. 33. 3 Things to Avoid Pitting parents of advantaged children against parents of disadvantaged children Leading people to believe that any one instrument is the answer to identification Proliferating the amount of paperwork
  34. 34. Don’t go! I’m sure page 3 of Billy’s Gifted Matrix Checklist No. 5.3 (a) is in here somewhere.
  35. 35. Renzulli’s Identification System  Based on the 3-Ring Conception of Giftedness & The Enrichment Triad Model  Strives for equity, excellence, and economy  Designed to be flexible  Based on research into the behavioral characteristics of highly creative & productive people
  36. 36. The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #1 Develop creativity and/or task commitment in students who may come to an educator’s attention through alternate means of identification.
  37. 37. The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #2 Provide learning experiences and support systems that promote interaction of creativity, task commitment, and above average achievement. (Bringing the “rings together!)
  38. 38. The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #3 Provide opportunities, resources, and encouragement for the development and application of gifted behaviors.
  39. 39. Internal Consistency • Develop criteria for identification that matches the program!
  40. 40. Internal Consistency Abilities and Interests of Students Characteristics of Students Identification of interests and needs Services and Programs Provided
  41. 41. TotalTalentPoolConsistsofApproximately15%oftheGeneralPopulation Renzulli Identification System Step 1 99th %ile 92nd %ile Test Score Nominations [Automatic, and Based on Local Norms] Step 2 Teacher Nominations [Automatic Except in Cases of Teachers Who Are Over or Under Nominators] Step 3 Alternative Pathways Case Study Special NominationsStep 4 Case Study Notification of ParentsStep 5 Action Information NominationsStep 6
  42. 42. Step 1: Test Score Nomination
  43. 43. Achievement Tests Iowa Tests of Basic Skills  Riverside Publishing Company   Measures students’ academic skills in several content areas: reading, mathematics, social studies, science, and information sources
  44. 44. Achievement Tests Metropolitan Achievement Test  Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement   Focuses on reading, mathematics, language, writing, science, and social studies
  45. 45. Achievement Tests Stanford Achievement Test  Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement   Assesses reading, mathematics, language, spelling, study skills, science, social studies, and listening
  46. 46. Achievement Aptitude
  47. 47. Achievement Something accomplished…
  48. 48. Aptitude A readiness to learn or to perform well in a particular situation; requires a match between the situation demands and what the person brings to it.
  49. 49. Intelligence/Ability Tests Cognitive Abilities Test Form 6 (CogAT)  Riverside Publishing   Measures both general and specific reasoning abilities in three areas: verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal
  50. 50. Intelligence/Ability Tests Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test  Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement   Measures nonverbal reasoning and problem- solving abilities. Reading and math skills are not required to respond to each set of patterns.
  51. 51. Intelligence/Ability Tests Otis-Lennon School Ability Test  Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement   Measures reasoning skills, including verbal comprehension, verbal reasoning, pictorial reasoning, figural reasoning, and quantitative reasoning.
  52. 52. Intelligence/Ability Tests Cornell Critical Thinking Tests  Critical Thinking Books & Software   Measures students’ ability to think critically when analyzing premises and conclusions, judge the reliability of information, and identify assumptions.
  53. 53. Intelligence/Ability Tests Kuhlmann-Anderson Tests  Scholastic Testing Service   Assesses verbal and nonverbal abilities. Measures academic potential or school learning ability.
  54. 54. Intelligence/Ability Tests Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT)  Riverside Publishing   Assessment of general intelligence, measured nonverbally.
  55. 55. Intelligence/Ability Tests Stanford-Binet, Fifth Edition  Riverside Publishing   Measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory.
  56. 56. Intelligence/Ability Tests Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability  Pearson   Measure of ability; especially designed for culturally and linguistically diverse groups.
  57. 57. Multiple Norm Groups Put data in spreadsheet Include an “opportunity-to-learn” index  (e.g. ELL status) Sort data by percentile rank or SAS  Provides Local Rank
  58. 58. Multiple Norm Groups Sort data again by “opportunity-to- learn” then percentile rank or SAS Provides list divided into two groups Identifies most talented ELL students and most talented native-speaking students
  59. 59. Multiple Score Review Avoid using composite scores – look at subtests individually Review the appropriate information  Do not compare score with average children  Look at the discrepancy between strengths and weaknesses
  60. 60. Multiple-Criteria Eligibility 1997 to 2005 Gifted Program  African-American: 200% increase  Hispanic: 570% increase 2002 to 2006 Advanced Placement Courses  African-American: 71% increase  Hispanic: 180% increase
  61. 61. Step 2: Teacher Nomination All Teachers need to be informed Procedures for nomination Students who have gained access through test scores AVOID NEEDLESS PAPERWORK!
  62. 62. Step 2: Teacher Nomination Allows identification of students who exhibit behaviors not determined by tests High levels of creativity Task commitment Unusual or intense interests Unusual talents
  63. 63. Step 2: Teacher Nomination Acceptance equal to test scores with one exception…
  64. 64. Step 2: Teacher Nomination Acceptance equal to test scores with one exception… Teachers who over-identify
  65. 65. Teacher Rating Scales GATES Gifted and Talented Evaluation Scales  Pro-ed   Teachers rate intellectual ability academic skills, creativity, leadership, and artistic talent
  66. 66. Teacher Rating Scales GRS Gifted Rating Scales  Pearson   Teachers rate intellectual ability academic skills, motivation, creativity, leadership, and artistic talent
  67. 67. Teacher Rating Scales Tracking Talents  Prufrock Press   Used to screen and identify multiple talents: cognitive abilities, academic talents, social & physical abilities, and technological & artistic talents through peer, teacher, and self-nomination.
  68. 68. Teacher Rating Scales CAB Clinical Assessment of Behavior  PAR   Assesses teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of students’ behavioral functioning including important behaviors associated with giftedness.
  69. 69. Teacher Rating Scales SRBC SS Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students  Creative Learning Press   Teachers assess students on 10 dimensions: learning, motivation, creativity, leadership, art, music, dramatics, planning, communication (precision), and communication (expressiveness)
  70. 70. Step 3: Alternate Pathways  Defined locally  Allows program to reflect  Needs of student population  Demographics of district population  Allows for non-traditional students to receive services
  71. 71. Step 3: Alternate Pathways  Examples  Self-nomination  Parent nomination  Peer nomination  Tests of Creativity  Product evaluation
  72. 72. Step 3: Alternate Pathways  Leads to initial consideration by a screening committee NOT AUTOMATIC!
  73. 73. Step 3: Alternate Pathways  Screening evaluation based on:  Previous school records  Interviews with students, teachers, & parents  Administered individual assessments recommended by committee  Placed in program on trial basis.
  74. 74. Creative Thinking Skills Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Scholastic Testing Figural and Verbal tests assess fluency, flexibility, and originality. The figural test also assesses elaboration.
  75. 75. Creative Thinking Skills Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent Educational Assessment Service Focuses on creativity via imagination, independence, and multiple interests.
  76. 76. Why Creative Thinking Skills Assessments? Intelligence measures are predictive of academic or school success. Creativity measures are predictive of creative activities and accomplishments later in life. Better predictor of future success.
  77. 77. Talent Hidden by Underachievement • Low self-esteem or Low self-efficacy • Feelings of pessimism • Anxious, impulsive, or inattentive • Aggressive, hostile • Depressed • Socially immature
  78. 78. Talent Hidden by Underachievement • Lack goal-directed behavior • Poor coping skills • Poor self-regulation • Defense mechanisms
  79. 79. Not all bad… • Demonstrate honesty and integrity when rejecting inappropriate school work • Intense outside interests • Creative
  80. 80. What about these characteristics? Inability to master certain academic skills Lack of motivation Disruptive classroom behavior Failure to complete assignments Lack of organizational skills Poor listening and concentration skills Unrealistic self-expectations
  81. 81. • Gifted with Learning Disability • May also demonstrate – Learned helplessness – Perfectionism – Supersensitivity – Low self-esteem Twice-Exceptional
  82. 82. Look For: • Advanced vocabulary use • Exceptional analytic abilities • Divergent thinking • High levels of creativity • Spatial abilities • Advanced problem- solving skills • Specific aptitude • Good memory
  83. 83. • Spirituality • Harmony • Movement & Verve • Affect • Communalism • Expressive Individualism • Oral Tradition • Social Time Perspective Cultural Influence
  84. 84. • Seek structure and organization in required tasks • Be slow to motivate in some abstract activities • Have large vocabulary, but one inappropriate for school • Makes up games or activities African American MAY…
  85. 85. • Have extremely strong concentration • Express displeasure in having to stop certain activities • Be very independent • Neglect school work due to other interests • Not show expected achievement African American MAY…
  86. 86. • Express leadership collaboratively rather than competitively • Demonstrate intensity through “Abrazo” (an index of personal support) Hispanics
  87. 87. Hispanic White 25+ years old with a HS Diploma 57% 88.7% Only a 9th grade education 27% 4% Managerial or Professional Occupations 14.2% 35.1%
  88. 88. American Indian & Alaska Native • Not be assertive • Ask few questions • Be a more concrete learner • Be humble, quiet • Not be competitive • Not openly express feelings MAY…
  89. 89. American Indian & Alaska Native • Not challenge incorrect statements • Not look a teacher in the eye • Consider family & religious activities more important than school MAY…
  90. 90. American Indian & Alaska Native • Not have a strong home reading environment • Have more developed aural/oral memory • Not be comfortable speaking in public • Be fluently bi- or tri- lingual MAY…
  91. 91. Step 4: Special Nominations Safety Valve No.1
  92. 92. Step 4: Special Nominations • Circulate a list to ALL past and present teachers – Allows resource teachers to nominate – Allows override of current teacher if necessary
  93. 93. Step 5: Notification & Orientation of Parents Letter of Notification Comprehensive description of Program Focuses on child placement in program or Talent Pool Not certification of giftedness
  94. 94. Step 5: Notification & Orientation of Parents Meeting to explain ALL program policies, procedures, & activities How admission to program was determined Additions may be made during year Invite further interactions
  95. 95. Step 5: Notification & Orientation of Parents Similar orientation for students! Not told they are gifted Focus on the opportunities available to develop gifted behaviors
  96. 96. Step 6: Action Information Nominations Safety Valve No.2
  97. 97. Step 6: Action Information Nominations • The dynamic interactions that occur when a student becomes extremely interested in or excited about a particular topic, area of study, issue, idea, or event.
  98. 98. Step 6: Action Information Nominations • Any enrichment opportunity (whether school or non-school) that might turn a student onto learning or causes them to express gifted behaviors.
  99. 99. Two Types of Information Leading to Identification Status Information Anything you can put down on paper beforehand that tells you something about the student. Action Information Things that you can only document when they are happening or after they happen.
  100. 100. Status Information  Grades  Test scores  Student work samples  Surveys – Interest – Learning Styles – Expression Styles
  101. 101. Status Information  Teacher input  Parent input  Students’ Self-nomination  Peer Nominations
  102. 102. Renzulli Identification System: Information Summary Form Name:______________________________ Date:_________________________ School:_____________________________ Grade:________________________ I. Academic Performance A. Achievement Test Scores (Most Recent Ac hievement Test Sc ores Test Date Raw Score Grade Equiv. Local %ile Verbal Numerical Non-verbal B. End of Year Grade s for Past 2 Years Subject Year 1 Year 2 Subject Year 1 Year 2 Reading Music Mathematics Art Language Arts/English Foreign Language Social Studies Other: Scienc e Other: II. Te acher Ratings[Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS) ] Scale Score Group Mean Scale Score Group Mean Learning Technology Motivation Artistic Creativity Musical Leadership Dramatic Reading Communication I Mathematics Communication II Scienc e Planning III. Alte rnative Pathways Scale Summary of Strengths Parent Rating Peer Rating Product Rating IV. Special Nominations Teacher:__________________________ Grade:__________________________ Attach a brief description from the nominating teacher about why this student was nominated and enter the SRBCSS ratings in Part II above.
  103. 103. Action Information  Teacher observations • Work habits • Thinking • Questioning • Leadership Qualities • Peer Interactions • Skill Development  Conversations  Interviews  Video/audio recordings
  104. 104. Interest-A-Lyzer
  105. 105. Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
  106. 106. Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)… If you could conduct an interview with a man or woman you admire, past or present, who would it be? What 3 questions would you ask him or her? 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________
  107. 107. Learning Styles Inventory Sample Items (Renzulli & Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really Like Being a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5 is discussing current events Working on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5 material you will discuss in class
  108. 108. What differentiates gifted learners from high achievers?
  109. 109. Bright Knows the Answers Gifted Asks the Questions
  110. 110. Bright Is Attentive Gifted Is Intellectually Engaged
  111. 111. Bright Has Good Ideas Gifted Has Original Ideas
  112. 112. Bright Absorbs Information Gifted Manipulates Information
  113. 113. Bright Top Student Gifted Beyond Her Age Peers
  114. 114. Bright Repeats 6-8 Times for Mastery Gifted Repeats 1-2 Times for Mastery
  115. 115. Bright Understands Ideas Gifted Constructs Abstractions
  116. 116. Bright Grasps the Meaning Gifted Draws Inferences
  117. 117. Bright Is a Technician Gifted Is an Inventor
  118. 118. Questions?
  119. 119. Thank You!