Qualitative methods in audience analysis


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Session for MSc Media Psychology students at University of Salford. Centred around qualitative interviewing.

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Qualitative methods in audience analysis

  1. 1. Flickr: familymwr Qualitative Methods in Audience Analysis Jenna Condie | University of Salford | @jennacondie 1
  2. 2. Session Overview  A “how to” focus on qualitative interviewing  Contextualised approach – case study  Develop an interview schedule  Pilot your questions on each other  Critically analysis of method  Back to epistemology and ontology 2Flickr: Daniel Y. Go
  3. 3. Your Case Study: Do TV talent shows no longer have the ‘X Factor’?As the UKs firstMediaPsychpostgraduates,Simon Cowell wants you to investigate why viewingfigures are on a downwards trend. 3
  4. 4. Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simon_Cowell.jpgSimon knows that theviewing figures are down,But he wants you to tell him‘how’ and ‘why’. He wantstounderstand what audiencesnow want from screenmedia.If we want to understand how and why, qualitative methods have the advantage (Maginn et al., 2008). 4
  5. 5. For the purposes of today’ssession, the method that you are going to use in this research is qualitative interviews. Interview society Most Engaging common Dissertation people Useful Only way to get Co-constructed Group data you need?Reflexivity 5
  6. 6. Qualitative InterviewsConversations with a purpose (Burgess, 1984)Mason (1996)• Informal style, thematic, data generated via the interaction.• Questions – substance, style, scope, sequenceHow many interviews are enough? (Guest etal., 2006; Baker & Edwards, 2012) 6
  7. 7. Writing Successful Interview Protocols (Jacob & Furgerson, 2012)1. Pick a topic that is interesting to you (choice?)2. Research should guide your questions3. Use a script for the beginning and end of your interview4. Questions should be open ended.5. Start with the basics.6. Begin with easy to answer questions and move towards ones that are more difficult or controversial.7. The phrase “tell me about…”is great way to start a question. 7
  8. 8. Writing Successful Interview Protocols (Jacob & Furgerson, 2012)8. Write big, expansive questions.9. Use prompts.10. Be willing to make “on the spot” revisions to your interview protocol11. Don’t make the interview too long.12. Practice with a friend.13. Make sure that you can set up a second shorter interview to help you clarify or ask any questions you missed after you have transcribed the interview.14. Get ethical approval. 8
  9. 9. Flickr: ChicagoGeek What might ‘audiences’ not want to tell you? 9
  10. 10. Narrative & StorytellingInvite a story “Can you tell me about…” Flickr: bixentroRather than “Why did you…?”See Hollway &Jefferson (2000) 10
  11. 11. Flickr: umjanedoan Narrative Features: Structure and Temporality Beginning: “Can you tell me about the first time…?” Middle: “Can you tell me about what it is like now?” End: “Can you tell me where you see yourself in the future?” 11
  12. 12. A successful interview schedule?Keep your sample in mind!For the purposes of today’s session, imagineSimon’s company has provided a database of 100people who regularly watch television on aSaturday evening. - How many do you interview? - How do you choose who to interview? - What are the advantages of this sample? - What are the disadvantages of this sample? 12
  13. 13. Using today’s case study, have a go at the following: Develop some questions with prompts Pilot: ask each other Do your questions work (or not)? Developing a successful interview schedule takes time. 13
  14. 14. Flickr: highersightsTips for the interview(Jacob & Furgerson, 2012) 1. Start with your script. 2. Collect consent. 3. Use some type of recording device and only take brief notes so you can maintain eye contact with your interviewee. 4. Arrange to interview your respondent in a quiet, semi-private place. 5. Be sure that both you and the interviewee block off plenty of uninterrupted time for the interview 14
  15. 15. Tips for the interview (Jacob & Furgerson, 2012)8. Have genuine care, concern, and interest for the person you are interviewing.9. Use basic counselling skills to help your interviewees feel heard.10. Keep it focused (I disagree) Flickr: highersights11. LISTEN! LISTEN! LISTEN!12. End with your script. 15
  16. 16. Flickr: MyDigitalSLRA different researcherwould get adifferent story 16
  17. 17. Debriefing the researcher (Onwuegbuzie et al., 2008)Explore the researcher’s:• interview background/experience• perceptions of the participants• perceptions of NVC;• interpretations of interview findings;• perceptions of how the study might have affected the researcher;• perceptions of how the researcher might have affected the participants;• awareness of ethical or political issues; and• identification of unexpected issues or dilemmas that emerged during the interviews. 17
  18. 18. Oi! I said oi! What you looking at, you littleTranscription rich boy! We’re poor round here, runEnsure relevant to analytical home and lock your door Don’t come round here noapproach more, you could get robbed for Real (yeah) because my manors ill My manors ill For realWhat is lost in transcription? Yeah you know my manors3 A: There’s ↑things that anno:y me when the- ill, my manors ill!4 (0.6) like she bu- (0.2) ha:lf seven last5 ↓ni:ght the kids were playing in their6 bedroom.7 (0.7)8 A: And ah ca:n’t stop them from playin.9 (0.1)10 A: They were playing in the bedroom an ah11 said (0.5) keep the noise >down.=they12 were playin’ on the piano.<13 (0.5)14 A: An’ then >all of a sudden half seven< Example from CA15 (0.4) ban:g bang bang sh’d- (0.3) I don’t16 know what she’d done probably ran17 upstairs. She wasn’ in bed. (Conversation Analysis)Excerpt taken from Stokoe and Hepburn (2004) usingJefferson’s (1984) transcription system 18
  19. 19. Carole: She was very isolated and I just think she’d have died of loneliness really andI just found it, you know, unbearable. And it was partly my husband sort ofsaying, well we’ll end up taking care of her eventually, she ought to come here andget used to living here and make her own network of friends while she can. And Narrative analysisso, you know, we persuaded her to come and live with us. She neededconvincing, you know, that we wanted her. exampleInterviewer: When you were planning for her to come did you talk it over with thechildren?Carole: Oh yes. They were, they felt very strongly, they were upset at her beinglonely. (Carole Grant, aged 46, widowed)Excerpt taken from Mason (2004) Personal narratives, relational selves:residential histories in the living and telling Jenna: so you’ve been here six years [William: hmm] and have you always been in, do you mind me asking, are you in socially rented William: this is, it is yeah, but not always no, I had a house in [city omitted], sold that Discursive analysis twenty years ago [Jenna: right ok] and er moved around a bit, I was working in Farlow so I, in fact I was working for the landlord at the time, it used to be council [Jenna: right] example I was managing one of the, I managed this estate for a time [Jenna: ok] I was normally at another one further up the road and there was a small bedsit came empty in one of the multi-storey blocks, and they were hard to let so I got that [Jenna: right] I mean being an employee I had to go to case conference and everything just so everything was above board and cosha you know [Jenna: yeah] erm and that was it, and when I later removed some neighbours died a few years later, I got moved into a bigger flat because by that time it was fairly clear that the flats were going to have to be emptied for major work to all fillers = headache! be carried out [Jenna: yeah] so that was it Jenna: right ok, do you mind us talking about what it was like to live in the high rise first is that ok Excerpt taken from my research interviews (Condie, forthcoming!) 19
  20. 20. Qualitative Data Analysis Method interconnected with theoretical and methodological approach developed.Ask yourself the following:• What kind of knowledge does your methodology aim to produce?• What kinds of assumptions does the methodology make about the world?• How does the methodology conceptualise the role of the researcher? (Willig, 2001) 20
  21. 21. Qualitative Data Analysis Realism RelativismHow well does the use of this data match:1) my ontological perspective on what constitutes the social world?2) My epistemological perspective on how knowledge can be produced? (Mason, 1996, p. 37)Positivism Interpretivism/ Constructionism21
  22. 22. Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Simon_Cowell.jpgDoes Simon care aboutyour epistemological andontological positions.He just wants someanswers! Academic Epistewhat? Commercial 22
  23. 23. Next: Analysing Qualitative DataLink: http://www.slideshare.net/jennacondie/working-with-word-for-qualitative-data-analysis 23