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Future-directed assessment: Learning that lasts

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Presentation given at the MBA Directors' Forum, Brisbane, 3 May 2012

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Future-directed assessment: Learning that lasts

  1. 1. www.jeremybwilliams.net Chief Academic Officer Knowledge Universe Stamford Plaza Hotel, Brisbane 3 May 2012
  2. 2. Overview 1. The Five Minute University 2. The case for authentic assessment 3. Open-book, open-Web examinations 4. A sample OBOW exam 5. How to construct an OBOW exam 6. Summary and conclusions 2
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  6. 6. "Life is an open book exam." • Learners need to be convinced of the authenticity of the task if they are to fully engage 6 Professor Alan Blinder Princeton University
  7. 7. • “... Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and .” 7 Authentic assessment defined
  8. 8. 8 Learning design for understanding
  9. 9. • multiple-choice tests • fill-in-the-blanks • true-false • matching words • … Students are passive learners  Authentic assessment is not: 9
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  12. 12. Sound familiar? 12
  13. 13. Assessment of learning Content Assessment Learning outcomes 13
  14. 14. Assessment for learning Learning outcomes Assessment Content 14
  15. 15. Closed book, invigilated exams are more likely to foster cramming/ data dumping than 15
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  17. 17. In brief … • A semi-structured ‘mini-case (or ‘caselette’) • Harnesses the power of ICTs to emphasise currency and real world authenticity • A summative assessment item … … invites the student to draw on all that they have learnt (determining what is relevant). 17
  18. 18. Dull? Boring? Something to fear? • Final assessment  • Boredom and stress not conducive to deep learning • Important to catch the imagination and appeal to the creativity of the learner • Student satisfaction is influenced by positive perceptions toward technology and an autonomous learning mode (Drennan, Kennedy & Pisarski 2005) 18
  19. 19. Key features • Students play the role of decision- maker, auditor, consultant or advisor • They are presented with a unstructured (open-ended) problem that requires resolution (usually in the form of a set of recommendations) • No pre-exam night 'cramming' 19
  20. 20. The template the setting in which the problem/situation is identified and framed the project and issues to resolve the setting of parameters and suggestions about methods/concepts/models/tools to employ. 20
  21. 21. The ground rules • To minimise the scope for unethical behaviour … 1) Time period for the exam must be sufficiently tight 1) Make clear (as a stated objective of the subject) that is the key to success 1) 'Text-book' impersonal responses will not attract high grades. 21
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  24. 24. You have to have invigilated exams or students will cheat 24
  25. 25. 1) Students cheat during invigilated exams 1) In the adult learner context, only a small percentage will attempt to cheat 2) These people will cheat whatever the exam instrument Seldom observed points 25
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  27. 27. Getting started • Keep a look out for material all the time (not exam time!) • e.g. Local newspaper, periodical websites, magazines, television news or current affairs programmes 27
  28. 28. What to look for • A that learners can easily relate to in lay terms • Objective: to get them to about an issue • Student to act as ‘expert witness’ – an effective mechanism for the validation of their learning in their own minds 28
  29. 29. Creating a scenario • Having settled on a theme, gather together various media that can bring the case to life • The inclusion of hyperlinks, photographs and/or streaming media adds a human dimension  29
  30. 30. Lead characters • No story is complete without lead characters • Using people with names, and pictures and voices acts as a catalyst to student engagement • Fictional characters must give the appearance of being real! 30
  31. 31. Setting • Role play  the bridge between a learner's education and their professional practice • Placing the learner in the role of the key decision maker, the expert advisor, or the auditor • Revisit the stated learning outcomes 31
  32. 32. Defining the parameters • The definition of the assessment task might amount to no more than a paragraph • Ideally it should invite a wide of variety of 32
  33. 33. Striking a balance • Avoid 'spoon-feeding' but … • … not so unstructured a student is either struck by 'writers block' or goes off in the wrong direction. 33
  34. 34. Expectations • Before writing , it is helpful to develop an outline of the kind of response one expects from the learner and, importantly, … • This process may also lead to being refined 34
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  36. 36. OBOW exams … • A form of assessment that fosters … as opposed to a display of inert knowledge • Test problem-solving skills not memory • Equips learners with 21st Century skills 36
  37. 37. What OBOW exams deliver… • An assessment instrument that is more relevant to goals of the curriculum, greater authenticity, where real-world problems take centre-stage • Allow ICTs to be harnessed to encourage interaction • Student engagement with the assessment task  induces • Low cost solution for exam delivery in open and distance learning 37
  38. 38. • Studies show stimulation with audio will increase retention rate by 20%. If stimulated with audiovisual, memory retention climbs to 30%. If presented with interactive multimedia involvement, the retention rate can be as high as 60%. 38
  39. 39. References • Williams, Jeremy B. (2009)The efficacy of the final examination: a comparative study of closed-book, invigilated exams and open-book, open-web exams (with Amy Wong), British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (2), 227-236). • Williams, Jeremy B. (2007) E-xams: harnessing the power of ICTs to enhance authenticity, (with Wing Lam and Alton Chua), Educational Technology and Society, 10 (3), 209-221. • Williams, Jeremy B. (2007) Using digital storytelling as an assessment instrument: Preliminary findings at an online university, (with Kanishka Bedi), Proceedings of the 11th CAA Conference, pp.433-447, Loughborough, England, 10-11 July. • Williams, Jeremy B. (2006) The place of the closed book, invigilated final examination in a knowledge economy, Educational Media International, 43(2), 107-119. 39
  40. 40. Alan Blinder, http://halleinstitute.emory.edu/images/research/blinder_large Grant Wiggins, http://myworldpearson.com/images/wiggins.jpg MCQs, http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/2856522/2/istockphoto_2856522_multiple_choice_exam.jpg Exam halls, http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01529/exam-hall_1529387c.jpg ~ http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/schools/graphics/ewert2.JPG ~ http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/SQORvbJYKhErQ67sYQgdVg ~ http://qixsaliva.blogspot.com/2007/04/final-destination-2.html ~ http://www.fotosearch.com/thumb/DGV/DGV078/200239868-001.jpg Bruce Wellman http://pairadimes.davidtruss.com/question-everything/ Students will cheat http://i36.photobucket.com/albums/e47/priyankashis/cheating.jpg Cheating http://i36.photobucket.com/albums/e47/priyankashis/cheating.jpg
  41. 41. authenticlearning.wordpress.com @jeremybwilliams http://sg.linkedin.com/in/jembwilliams http://www.slideshare.net/jembwilliams 41

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