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Innovative Pedagogy at Massive Scale (MOOCs)

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Teaching and learning at massive scale with MOOCs

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Innovative Pedagogy at Massive Scale (MOOCs)

  1. 1. Innovative Pedagogy at massive scale: Teaching and learning in MOOCS Rebecca Ferguson & Mike Sharples Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK ECTEL 2014, Graz, Austria
  2. 2. INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGY • Networked learning • Seamless learning • Personal Inquiry learning • Crowd learning • Geo-learning • Maker learning • Learning from gaming • Citizen inquiry • Rhizomatic learning www.open.ac.uk/innovating
  3. 3. 250 million views per year 9 million active learners 7 million course learners 5 million OU registered learners MASSIVE SCALE • Open University OpenLearn: − 5 million registered users, − 23 million visits, − 11,000 hours of learning materials • iTunes U: − 66 million downloads • YouTube EDU: − 21 million views
  4. 4. INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGY AT MASSIVE SCALE www.futurelearn.com • FutureLearn • Company formed by The Open University • Launched in October 2013 • 40 partners, 37 universities • Over 550,000 registered learners • Over 1 million course registrations • New platform, new pedagogy http://about.futurelearn.com/blog/
  5. 5. INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGY AT MASSIVE SCALE Futurelearn course page (‘Exploring English’ by British Council)
  6. 6. INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGY AT MASSIVE SCALE (Exploring English example) • 110,000 learners on the course • Comments linked to content • Over 14,000 learner comments on a single video • Half the learners who start the course contribute to discussions • 178 countries − Spain, Myanmar (Burma), Brazil, UK, China, Russia, Chile, Italy, Algeria, Ukraine …
  7. 7. How do we design teaching, learning and assessment that improve with scale?
  8. 8. SCALING LEARNING Some educational methods degrade with scale e.g. personal tutoring, sports coaching Some educational methods are impervious to scale e.g. lecturing Which educational methods improve with scale?
  9. 9. METCALFE’S LAW Metcalfe, R.M.: It’s all in your head. Forbes, 20th April, 2007. http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2007/0507/052.html • For some networked systems the value of a product or service increases with the number of people using it • The telephone system becomes more valuable to users as more people are connected • In two-sided networks (e.g. educators, learners) each side needs to benefit from scale • Learners find their opportunities to connect increase with scale • However, teachers find it increasingly difficult to maintain control and support learners • Need ways to manage and support learners
  10. 10. PERSONAL NETWORKS Downes, S.: The Personal Network Effect. Blog posting, 4th November 2007. http://halfanhour.blogspot.co.uk/2007/11/personal-network-effect.html. • People are not just nodes in networks • Network information is relevant if it is – new – salient – timely – usable – understandable – appropriate – trusted – contiguous • Need to help people to develop effective personal networks
  11. 11. LEARNING AT MASSIVE SCALE Direct instruction through video and slides Can be made more active by e.g. embedding quizzes No intrinsic benefit of scale Can be made more social by e.g. viewer polls Needs social learning Networked learning Sharing of expertise Intrinsic benefits of scale – the more learners the more expertise to share Can be made more valuable through reputation management and badging Needs mentoring Supported open learning Combined direct instruction, networked learning, and local tutoring Costly, though costs do not increase with scale Can be made more valuable through local expertise Needs funding
  12. 12. FUTURELEARN LEARNING AT MASSIVE SCALE Pedagogy-informed platform design Learning as conversation Gordon Pask, Diana Laurillard Visible Learning John Hattie Narrative learning Social-networked learning
  13. 13. CONVERSATIONAL FRAMEWORK (adapted from Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching. A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge) Medium for mediating agreements Why questions and responses How questions and responses Medium for collecting data, model building and problem solving Level of Descriptions Learner acts to build models and solve problems Partner acts to build models and assist in solving problems Sets goals Adjusts model Acts Modifies actions Learner demonstrates understanding and problem solutions Partner demonstrates understanding and elaborates problem solutions Offers theories and ideas Re-describes theories Offers conceptions and explanations Re-describes conceptions Level of Actions
  14. 14. Medium for collecting data, model building and problem solving Learner acts to build models and solve problems FutureLearn videos, text, computer code, HTML 5 simulations
  15. 15. Learner demonstrates understanding and problem solutions Learner demonstrates understanding and elaborates problem solutions FutureLearn comments and replies Offers theories and ideas Re-describes theories Why questions and responses Offers conceptions and explanations Re-describes conceptions
  16. 16. FutureLearn comments and replies, linked to media Why questions and responses How questions and responses Medium for collecting data, model building and problem solving Learner acts to build models and solve problems Learner acts to build models and assist in solving problems Sets goals Adjusts model Acts Modifies actions Learner demonstrates understanding and problem solutions Learner demonstrates understanding and elaborates problem solutions Offers theories and ideas Re-describes theories Offers conceptions and explanations Re-describes conceptions
  17. 17. FutureLearn small-group discussions: Learner demonstrates understanding and problem solutions Partner demonstrates understanding and elaborates problem solutions ArgueGraph, Jigsaw learning etc. Medium for mediating agreements Offers theories and ideas Re-describes theories Why questions and responses Offers conceptions and explanations Re-describes conceptions
  18. 18. FutureLearn learning Medium for mediating agreements Why questions and responses How questions and responses Medium for collecting data, model building and problem solving Learner acts to build models and solve problems Learner / Partner /Educator acts to build models and assist in solving problems Sets goals Adjusts model Acts Modifies actions Learner demonstrates understanding and problem solutions Learner / Partner / Educator demonstrates understanding and elaborates problem solutions Offers theories and ideas Re-describes theories Offers conceptions and explanations Re-describes conceptions Mentoring Orchestrating Orchestrating
  19. 19. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDAGOGY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING AT MASSIVE SCALE? Data collection and analysis • 18 courses from 14 universities • Courses from October 2013 to February 2014 • Course materials, emails and discussions • Grounded approach to analysis • Emergent themes in the data
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES OF MASSIVE FOR LEARNERS Massive participation offers learners • Support from a wide range of other learners • Resources provided by those learners in the form of discussion and links • Range of diverse cultural perspectives Advantages of massive
  21. 21. SUPPORT, RESOURCES AND A VARIETY OF PERSPECTIVES Improving Your Image: Dental Photography University of Birmingham Elias Adan Gimenez Feliu I'm one of the very few photographers in an area trice as big as Scotland (the Paraguayan Chaco), where 8 different cultures live together. There's no record-keeping or proper research done with regards of dental treatment, specially among the most remote areas on the country. I believe there's huge opportunities to enhance the dental service through the powerful medium that photography provides, by providing material for research and education. Mainly to inform central and local government and other decision makers, about the realities the region faces, but specially to educate patients (elderly and children) dental workers and other professionals, that sometimes have to travel hundreds of kilometres on very bad roads, in order to reach a small town with no proper facilities but where people in need of proper treatment live. Advantages of massive
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES OF MASSIVE FOR EDUCATORS Massive participation offers educators • Affective benefits • Potentially increased access to resources • Motivation to develop teaching practices Advantages of massive
  23. 23. Corpus Linguistics: Method, Analysis and Interpretation Lancaster University I am very passionate about the study of language based on naturally occurring speech and writing. So getting more people to know about it and be able to do it is my goal Practise what you preach, as they say. So I have decided to do some reflective learning and blog about my experience with our Climate Change MOOC. Web Science: How the Web is Changing the World University of Southampton ENJOYMENT, RESOURCES AND MOTIVATION Advantages of massive
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES OF MASSIVE FOR SOCIETY Massive participation offers society • Potential to develop tools and resources • Potential to develop professional practice • Increased access to higher education • Potential for global impact Advantages of massive
  25. 25. DEVELOPMENT, ACCESS & IMPACT Corpus Linguistics: Method, Analysis and Interpretation Lancaster University It has been great to test AntConc with so many new users! In response to the many helpful comments Laurence has received, he is making a new version of the software available in week two. I am particularly keen for the MOOC to reach audiences that don’t have access to the learning experience we provide here at Leeds – such as those in Nepal, which features prominently as one of our case studies Fairness and Nature: When Worlds Collide University of Leeds British Minister of State for Universities and Science MOOCs provide the opportunity to widen access to our world-class universities and to meet the global demand for higher education Advantages of massive
  26. 26. CHALLENGES OF MASSIVE Challenges of massive participation include • Need the skills to learn together online • Need to be able to search for and locate trustworthy support and resources • Widening access brings in inexperienced learners • Educators may be overwhelmed by workload Advantages of massive
  27. 27. SUPPORTING INEXPERIENCED LEARNERS TO LEARN TOGETHER ONLINE Fairness and Nature: When Worlds Collide University of Leeds We have provided a short video to highlight a few points to help make your learning experience effective and enjoyable. The video includes: Preparing to learn […] Listening and reflecting […] Making notes […] Communicating with others Challenges of massive
  28. 28. Introduction to Forensic Science University of Strathclyde You have been actively engaged in the discussions, which is excellent, thank you, but with more than 23,000 participants it means that our responses and comments risk getting lost. One way to ensure we keep in touch with all of you is by sending out our weekly email – like this one LOCATING TRUSTWORTHY RESOURCES Challenges of massive
  29. 29. Introduction to Forensic Science ENGAGING LEARNERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS University of Strathclyde This will be primary school material for some of you and exactly the opposite for others. It is just not possible to tailor the material to each of you […] If it appears too technical, forget the detail and concentrate on the higher level principles; if you think ‘yes I know all about that’ we’d encourage you to be an active participant in the learning community Challenges of massive
  30. 30. HIGH LEVELS OF ENGAGEMENT – MANAGING WORKLOAD Good Brain, Bad Brain: Basics University of Birmingham I have been amazed and impressed by the level of interest and input – 1800 of you have posted at least one comment. If you posted something hoping to get a reply but haven’t then I am sorry, but me and my four mentors have been doing our best to monitor what’s going on in between doing our usual activities. Challenges of massive
  31. 31. LEARNING DESIGN AND PLATFORM DESIGN We can design to increase the benefits and reduce these challenges by • Creating learning designs that take the benefits into account • Making it straightforward to ask questions and receive answers • Providing ways of filtering and navigating resources • Designing for accessibility
  32. 32. DESIGNING FOR MASSIVE FROM THE START Learning design and platform design Learning design tools help educators to plan for massive as they consider different types of learning activity, including: • delivered • reflection • collaboration • conversation • networking • browsing • assesssment
  33. 33. ASKING QUESTIONS, GETTING ANSWERS Learning design and platform design
  34. 34. FILTERING RESOURCES Learning design and platform design
  35. 35. ACCESSIBILITY Learning design and platform design
  36. 36. TEACHING AND LEARNING AT MASSIVE SCALE • Exploit the knowledge of peers • Use recommender tools to promote expertise and enable trustworthy support • Employ expert educators, equipped with live analytics, as a valued scarce resource, • Use social network tools, such as filtering and following, to enable ‘education 2.0’ • Build on the benefits of many cultural and cognitive perspectives • Help learners to develop enduring social learning networks
  37. 37. Mike.Sharples@open.ac.uk Rebecca.Ferguson@open.ac.uk

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