The Early Battles
The Fall of the Philippines
Hours after the bombing of Pearl
Harbor, the Japanese attacked the
Philippines. As the Japanese advanced
toward the southern part of the
Philippines, US forces commanded by
Douglas MacArthur retreated to the
• Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to evacuate to
Australia when it was certain that he and his
men would be captured.
• MacArthur’s promise :
“I came through
and I shall return”
The defenders of
and all 78,000 of
Sick, exhausted, and
starving they had to
march to the prison
known as the Bataan
Bataan Death March
The Doolittle Raids
• Roosevelt was searching for a way to raise the
morale of the American people. He thought
bombing Tokyo would do it. But there were no
planes available that could reach to Tokyo
without stopping. B-52 bombers were decided
upon because they could take off from an air
craft carrier but they could not land on one.
They would land in China instead.
• The Japanese people had been told they were
invulnerable ... An attack on the Japanese
homeland would cause confusion in the minds
of the Japanese people and sow doubt about
the reliability of their leaders. There was a
second, and equally important, psychological
reason for this attack ... Americans badly
needed a morale boost.
• The Doolittle raids were very successful—not that
they did much damage, but it shocked the
Japanese. The bombs could have killed the
• Fifteen of the aircraft reached China, and the
other one landed in the Soviet Union. All but
three of the crew survived, but all the aircraft
were lost. Eight crewmen were captured by the
Japanese Army in China; three of these were
• The Commander of the Japanese naval forces was
Admiral Yamamoto. He decided the planes came from
Midway Island. So he decided to capture Midway
• Only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor,
and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the
United States Navy (USN), under Admiral Chester W.
Nimitz commanded the operation
• The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war.
• The Japanese would never advance after losing that
battle –they were on the defense and now the Allies
were on the offense.
Turning Back the German Army
• Joseph Stalin wanted the US to send troops to the
Eastern front—to help him fight off the Germans.
• Stalingrad: Hitler was convinced that the only way
to defeat the Soviet Union was to destroy the city
of Stalingrad— SU’s important strategic city.
• Epic battle—both sides were ordered to fight to
last man. In the end the Soviets were victorious in
pushing back the Germans.
• The Battle of Stalingrad was a turning point in the
war—Germany on the Eastern front was now on
the defense never to advance again.
Northern African and Southern Europe
• Roosevelt wanted to get the US forces into the
war right away but Churchill was cautious.
Instead he persuaded Roosevelt to send
troops into the soft underbelly of Europe and
North Africa. The Allied forces with the help of
American soldiers had many victories—the
Axis forces were now on the defense.
• Both England and the US bombed important
cities of Germany—destroying the railroad
system, bridges and factories.
Teheran Conference 1943
• They agreed that the British and Americans
would begin their drive to liberate France in
the spring of 1944 and that the Soviets would
invade Germany and eventually join the war
• With the Germans retreating on the East and
the South it was now time for the Allies to
invade the North.
• To get the majority of the Allies forces on the
continent of Europe the decision was made to
enter thru France.
• In June of 44, Southern England became a
massive army camp of over 3 million troops
• Eisenhower was in charge of the biggest
amphibious invasion in history: retake Europe
from the Germans—Liberate Europe.
• Every material factor of war was made and
shipped—everything from bullets to medical
supplies to blood to artificial limps to eyeballs in
• American soldiers could draw on 4 tons of
supplies to Japans 2 pounds—no country had
ever produced as much as we did
• Over 1.5 million American soldiers, 12,000
airplanes, jeeps and more than 5 million tons
of equipment had been sent to England. Only
one thing was left to do—pick the date.
• Begin at night
• Arrive at low tide
• Low tide had to come at dawn
• Weather had to be good
• Saving Private Ryan http://youtu.be/dBffwk-xHu4
• Timewatch http://youtu.be/cCABRsxWV9U
• http://youtu.be/aLtisgJoy-o band of brothers
• Liberation of Paris
The Battle of the Bulge
• As the Allies closed in on Germany, Hitler
decided to stage one last desperate offensive.
• The battle lasted over 3 weeks but finally the
Germans began to withdraw, after having
suffered more than 100,000 casualties.
V-E Day: The War Ends in Europe
• As German defenses crumbled, American troops closed
in on the West, and the Soviets closed in on the East.
• Adolf Hitler, knowing that the end was near, put a
pistol in his mouth and pulled the trigger. Upon orders,
his personal secretary carried his body outside, doused
it in gasoline and set it on fire.
• On May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered unconditionally
• discovery of camp
• German’s speech
Meeting at Yalta 1945
• After victory in Europe was achieved,
Germany would be divided into occupation
zones, free elections in the liberated countries
of Eastern Europe, and the Soviets would
enter the war against Japan.
President Roosevelt dies
• Roosevelt did not live to see the defeat of
Germany. He died April 12, 1945 after being
President for an unprecedented 12 years.
• His vice president, Harry Truman, became
• After Germany’s surrender, only Stalin
remained as one of the Big Three. They agreed
to issue a warning to Japan to surrender
unconditionally and to hold war crime trials of
War in the Pacific—Island Hopping
• Iwo Jima—strategically an important island for
the Allies—but with the formidable terrain—
full of ash and rugged with rocky cliffs and
dozens of caves where the Japanese were
hiding for years.
• Marines took the Island in fierce fighting that
took the life of over 6,800
Of the six men
depicted in the
Harlon Block, and
were killed during
the battle; the
Rene Gagnon, and
Ira Hayes) became
in the photo
Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima
• As the Allies were Island hopping—taking over
all the Islands that Japan had taken over-- on
their way to Japan, the allies were fire
bombing major cities in Japan killing over
80,000 civilians and 250,000 buildings.
• After massive fire bombing there were no
signs of Japan surrendering.
The Invasion of Okinawa
• With still no signs of surrendering, the Allies
felt that the Japanese would not surrender
unless Japan was invaded. To prepare for the
invasion, the island of Okinawa would need to
be invaded first.
• Code takers
The Manhattan Project
• The American program to build an atomic bomb
was code-named the Manhattan Project.
• In 1939, top physicist, Leo Szilard suggested that
splitting the atom might release enormous
energy. He convinces Albert Einstein to help draft
a letter to Roosevelt. Roosevelt responded by
setting up a committee to study the issue.
• A secret laboratory was set up at Los Alamos,
New Mexico under the direction of J. Robert
The debate on whether or not to drop
Opposed Truman’s decision
modify the terms of surrender
Wait for the shock of the Russian attack
an economic blockade
Defends Truman’s decision
avoid an invasion of Japan and save
millions of lives on both sides
The “agony of war” would end quickly
• In the sand desert of New Mexico, the 1st
Atomic bomb was dropped—10,000times
hotter than the center of the sun—turned the
sand to glass
• “I have become death, the destroyer of
• On August 6,1945 the Enola Gay dropped the
first bomb on Hiroshima
• 3 days later a second bomb was dropped on
• Hiroshima-important industrial city
• 76,000 buildings destroyed –63%
• 80,000-120,000 died instantly and more died
later from burns and radiation.
• Bombing stunned Japan—3 days later Soviet
Union declared war on Japan and later that
day a second bomb was dropped
• The Japanese emperor ordered his
government to surrender.
• In the end, the Allies did allow the Emperor to
remain in power—just superficially.