Planning Principles


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Planning Principles

  1. 1. Planning Principles Module III: Methodology and Practicum in English Language Teaching II
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul>
  3. 3. The importance of lesson planning <ul><li>It will lead you through the class </li></ul><ul><li>It will allow you to combine different activities or exercises thinking about your students´ characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>It will help you to design a class with different components to keep your students’ motivation and interest </li></ul><ul><li>Something the teacher wants to improve (Lindsay, 2000) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Task 1 <ul><li>Think of additional benefits of lesson planning to your particular situation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The two main principles behind lesson planning Source: Harmer, 1991 Flexibility Variety
  6. 6. Task 2 <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>The learners </li></ul><ul><li>The aims </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching poing </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Classrom Management </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Scrivener, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>How many separate activities will there be? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will I stand or sit? </li></ul><ul><li>What do learners need? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there going to be variety of activity in the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>How do lesson objectives fit in the longer-term goals? </li></ul><ul><li>How will I control timing? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they already? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Do´s and Dont´s <ul><li>Be specific </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate problems </li></ul><ul><li>Decide timing </li></ul><ul><li>Have materials ready </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid to many details </li></ul><ul><li>File your plan for the future </li></ul>Source: Lindsay, 2000
  8. 8. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Cognitive Outcomes: Intellectual outcomes. They involve the application of facts, theories and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor Outcomes: They describe skills the learner develops (Physical). </li></ul><ul><li>Affective Outcomes: They describe feelings and attitudes which shape our behavior towards people, work and our world (behavioral). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Expressing learning outcomes <ul><li>It is necessary to use verbs which clearly indicate how the learner will demonstrate what she/he has learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Observable performance </li></ul><ul><li>The instructor can determine whether the learner has achieved the required level of competence. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Analyze the ideas portrayed in selected pieces of art. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Elements of Instruction <ul><li>Learner objective(s): Task statement, it will open with a verb of what the learner will be able to do at the end of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor objective(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the instructor. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important for the learners to master the objectives of the lesson? How do they fit in the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>It determines if the learners already have mastered the skills within the framework of the learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor activities: The dynamics of the lesson as you see it. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner activities: What you plan for the learners to do in order to master the competencies in the objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of the lesson, in order to assist the learners in interpreting the components of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-assessment: It determines if there has been change in competency from the pre-assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage between this lesson and the next lesson in order to help the learners become mentally prepared for what is to come. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Instructional Plan <ul><li>Learner Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Post-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage </li></ul>Aids Instructional activities Instructional Learner activities Time
  12. 12. <ul><li>Objective: Follow a logical pattern to organize information. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: A writer needs to organize information in an acceptable, logical format so the reader can follow an instructional text and understand the details in a procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging: Participants understand how to organize information in general texts, and use specific vocabulary. Now they will apply these skills to instructional texts. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pre-assessment: The instructor asks learners learners if they are good at giving directions, and why (or why not). </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor activities: The instructor generates discussion about different situations where writers are required to write out directions. Learners receive a map and ask questions in pairs to practice their skills at giving directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: The instructor summarizes some of this information </li></ul><ul><li>Post-assessment: The students write the instructions for finding a specific place on the map. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage: In the next lesson, learners will build these skills and write instructions for more complex procedures. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application Exercise <ul><li>a) Design a lesson plan taking into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>learning outcomes and instructional planning. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Review other formats, then decide which elements you consider to be essencial in your lesson plan and justify your choice. </li></ul>