SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Diabetic Ketoacidosis or "DKA" in Cats

I
ivsdsm

Iowa State University's College of Veterinary Medicine student Taylor Morrison presents a case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a feline patient as seen at Iowa Veterinary Specialties.

1 of 14
Download to read offline
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in
Cats
What is DKA?
• DKA is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body
doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the tissues don’t
respond to the insulin.
– Insulin is responsible for transporting sugar into cells for use as energy.
Without insulin, the cells can’t perform normal functions and are essentially
“starved.”
• Increased production of hormones that have anti-insulin
effects such as glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine, can
exacerbate the insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.
What is DKA?
• The liver responds by using fatty acids as an energy
source. The fats are converted into ketones (ketoacids).
This can lead to acidosis, electrolyte imbalances, and
signs of systemic illness.
• DKA is a life-threatening condition that requires
immediate medical attention!
Which Patients Develop DKA?
• Patients with diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus
• Patients with undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus
• Patients with poorly managed or untreated Diabetes
Mellitus
Symptoms & Physical Exam Findings
• Increased drinking and urination
• Increased appetite
• Vomiting and/or diarrhea
• Weakness
• Anorexia and/or weight loss
• Dehydration
• “Fruity odor” to the breath (from the ketones)
• Enlarged liver
• Rapid breathing
Diagnosis of DKA
• Clinical Signs and Physical Exam
• Bloodwork
– Hyperglycemia (high glucose in the blood)
– Ketones in the blood
– Metabolic acidosis (low body pH)
– Electrolyte abnormalities
• Urinalysis
– Glycosuria (glucose in urine)
– Ketones in the urine
• The majority of patients with DKA also have a concurrent illness such as
pancreatitis or a urinary tract infection

Recommended

Canine Hypoadrenocorticism
Canine HypoadrenocorticismCanine Hypoadrenocorticism
Canine Hypoadrenocorticismivsdsm
 
Treatment and Prevention of Subclinical Hypocalcemia
Treatment and Prevention of Subclinical HypocalcemiaTreatment and Prevention of Subclinical Hypocalcemia
Treatment and Prevention of Subclinical HypocalcemiaDAIReXNET
 
CANINE DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
CANINE DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS MANAGEMENTCANINE DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
CANINE DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS MANAGEMENTSourabh Kant
 
Diseases of carbohydrate metabolism (galactosemia)
Diseases of carbohydrate metabolism (galactosemia)Diseases of carbohydrate metabolism (galactosemia)
Diseases of carbohydrate metabolism (galactosemia)Shubham Halder
 
Diabetic ketoacidosis (2)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (2)Diabetic ketoacidosis (2)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (2)Ali Alwan
 
Carbohydrate metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolismCarbohydrate metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolismCleophas Rwema
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Biochemical changes in pregnancy
Biochemical changes in pregnancyBiochemical changes in pregnancy
Biochemical changes in pregnancyOfonmbuk Umoh
 
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitusInsulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitusbigboss716
 
Glucose homeostasis
Glucose homeostasisGlucose homeostasis
Glucose homeostasisAnand Tiwari
 
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALID
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS  PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALIDDIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS  PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALID
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALIDRooma Khalid
 
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.Raaz Eve Mishra
 
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrateDigestion and absorption of carbohydrate
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrateHerat Soni
 
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)Caroline Karunya
 
Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia FAARRAG
 
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!Fikri Abdullah Zawawi
 
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case study
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case studyDiabetic ketoacidosis: a case study
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case studyLyndon Woytuck
 
The Digestive System
The Digestive SystemThe Digestive System
The Digestive Systemshanen
 
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presentation
Diabetic Ketoacidosis PresentationDiabetic Ketoacidosis Presentation
Diabetic Ketoacidosis PresentationAimee Jalkanen
 

What's hot (20)

Biochemical changes in pregnancy
Biochemical changes in pregnancyBiochemical changes in pregnancy
Biochemical changes in pregnancy
 
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitusInsulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus
Insulin, glucagon, and diabetes mellitus
 
Glucose homeostasis
Glucose homeostasisGlucose homeostasis
Glucose homeostasis
 
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALID
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS  PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALIDDIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS  PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALID
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS PRESENTATION BY ROOMA KHALID
 
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.
Diabetes mellitus in Dogs.
 
Diabetes Overview
Diabetes OverviewDiabetes Overview
Diabetes Overview
 
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrateDigestion and absorption of carbohydrate
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate
 
Ketosis
KetosisKetosis
Ketosis
 
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)
Diabetes mellitus type 2(biochemistry)
 
Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia
 
ketosis In Cows
ketosis In Cowsketosis In Cows
ketosis In Cows
 
Blood sugar homeostasis
Blood sugar homeostasisBlood sugar homeostasis
Blood sugar homeostasis
 
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!
Galactosemia and lactose intelorance!!!
 
Blood glucose Regulation Dr veerendra
Blood glucose Regulation Dr veerendraBlood glucose Regulation Dr veerendra
Blood glucose Regulation Dr veerendra
 
Homeostasis
HomeostasisHomeostasis
Homeostasis
 
Meningitis in animals
Meningitis in animalsMeningitis in animals
Meningitis in animals
 
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case study
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case studyDiabetic ketoacidosis: a case study
Diabetic ketoacidosis: a case study
 
DKA
DKADKA
DKA
 
The Digestive System
The Digestive SystemThe Digestive System
The Digestive System
 
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presentation
Diabetic Ketoacidosis PresentationDiabetic Ketoacidosis Presentation
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presentation
 

Viewers also liked

Laparoscopic Liver Biopsies
Laparoscopic Liver BiopsiesLaparoscopic Liver Biopsies
Laparoscopic Liver Biopsiesivsdsm
 
Blood Gas Analysis
Blood Gas AnalysisBlood Gas Analysis
Blood Gas AnalysisSCGH ED CME
 
Pyometra
PyometraPyometra
Pyometraivsdsm
 
Laryngeal paralysis
Laryngeal paralysisLaryngeal paralysis
Laryngeal paralysisivsdsm
 
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain Management
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain ManagementVeterinary Acupuncture for Pain Management
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain Managementivsdsm
 
Tetanus
TetanusTetanus
Tetanusivsdsm
 
Chronic Renal Failure in Cats
Chronic Renal Failure in CatsChronic Renal Failure in Cats
Chronic Renal Failure in Catsivsdsm
 
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogs
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric DogsVestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogs
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogsivsdsm
 
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Rocky mountain spotted feverRocky mountain spotted fever
Rocky mountain spotted feverivsdsm
 

Viewers also liked (9)

Laparoscopic Liver Biopsies
Laparoscopic Liver BiopsiesLaparoscopic Liver Biopsies
Laparoscopic Liver Biopsies
 
Blood Gas Analysis
Blood Gas AnalysisBlood Gas Analysis
Blood Gas Analysis
 
Pyometra
PyometraPyometra
Pyometra
 
Laryngeal paralysis
Laryngeal paralysisLaryngeal paralysis
Laryngeal paralysis
 
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain Management
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain ManagementVeterinary Acupuncture for Pain Management
Veterinary Acupuncture for Pain Management
 
Tetanus
TetanusTetanus
Tetanus
 
Chronic Renal Failure in Cats
Chronic Renal Failure in CatsChronic Renal Failure in Cats
Chronic Renal Failure in Cats
 
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogs
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric DogsVestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogs
Vestibular Disease of Geriatric Dogs
 
Rocky mountain spotted fever
Rocky mountain spotted feverRocky mountain spotted fever
Rocky mountain spotted fever
 

Similar to Diabetic Ketoacidosis or "DKA" in Cats

Metabolic-Emergencies.pptx
Metabolic-Emergencies.pptxMetabolic-Emergencies.pptx
Metabolic-Emergencies.pptxWengelRedkiss
 
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdf
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdfdkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdf
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdfHarisAliKhan22
 
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptx
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptxdkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptx
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptxAhmedMandour37
 
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptx
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptxDKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptx
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptxAhmedMandour37
 
Ketoacidotic coma.pptx
Ketoacidotic coma.pptxKetoacidotic coma.pptx
Ketoacidotic coma.pptxGuru Dev
 
4_5990066123226222018.pptx
4_5990066123226222018.pptx4_5990066123226222018.pptx
4_5990066123226222018.pptxQwerty293214
 
Anorexia Nervosa Case Study
Anorexia Nervosa Case StudyAnorexia Nervosa Case Study
Anorexia Nervosa Case StudyRoanna Martin
 
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic KetoacidosisDiabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic KetoacidosisSof2050
 
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptx
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptxApproach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptx
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptxFebithaVP
 
2020 diabetic presentation
2020 diabetic presentation2020 diabetic presentation
2020 diabetic presentationRobert Cole
 
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitusDiabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitusjithahari
 
Problems during School Aged.pptx
Problems during School Aged.pptxProblems during School Aged.pptx
Problems during School Aged.pptxbrokebunny
 
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitusAcute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitusPushpAnjali6
 
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitus
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitusMetabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitus
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitusNikhil Chougule
 
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptx
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptxDiabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptx
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptxKTD Priyadarshani
 

Similar to Diabetic Ketoacidosis or "DKA" in Cats (20)

DKA for nurses
DKA for nursesDKA for nurses
DKA for nurses
 
Metabolic-Emergencies.pptx
Metabolic-Emergencies.pptxMetabolic-Emergencies.pptx
Metabolic-Emergencies.pptx
 
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdf
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdfdkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdf
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pdf
 
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic KetoacidosisDiabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
 
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptx
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptxdkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptx
dkadrsyed2584-190602083813 (1).pptx
 
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptx
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptxDKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptx
DKA by Dr. A. Mandour.pptx
 
Ketoacidotic coma.pptx
Ketoacidotic coma.pptxKetoacidotic coma.pptx
Ketoacidotic coma.pptx
 
DIABETES MELLITUS.pptx
DIABETES MELLITUS.pptxDIABETES MELLITUS.pptx
DIABETES MELLITUS.pptx
 
4_5990066123226222018.pptx
4_5990066123226222018.pptx4_5990066123226222018.pptx
4_5990066123226222018.pptx
 
Anorexia Nervosa Case Study
Anorexia Nervosa Case StudyAnorexia Nervosa Case Study
Anorexia Nervosa Case Study
 
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic KetoacidosisDiabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
 
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptx
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptxApproach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptx
Approach to Diabetes mellitus.ppt.pptx
 
2020 diabetic presentation
2020 diabetic presentation2020 diabetic presentation
2020 diabetic presentation
 
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitusDiabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
 
Problems during School Aged.pptx
Problems during School Aged.pptxProblems during School Aged.pptx
Problems during School Aged.pptx
 
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitusAcute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus
Acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus
 
Diabetes
Diabetes Diabetes
Diabetes
 
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitus
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitusMetabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitus
Metabolic emergencies in diabetes mellitus
 
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptx
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptxDiabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptx
Diabetes Keto Acidosis management. .pptx
 
Diabetes emergency
Diabetes emergencyDiabetes emergency
Diabetes emergency
 

More from ivsdsm

Feline Urethral Obstruction
Feline Urethral ObstructionFeline Urethral Obstruction
Feline Urethral Obstructionivsdsm
 
Canine Pancreatitis
Canine PancreatitisCanine Pancreatitis
Canine Pancreatitisivsdsm
 
Eye Proptosis in your pet
Eye Proptosis in your petEye Proptosis in your pet
Eye Proptosis in your petivsdsm
 
IMHA and ITP
IMHA and ITPIMHA and ITP
IMHA and ITPivsdsm
 
Feline Pneumonia
Feline PneumoniaFeline Pneumonia
Feline Pneumoniaivsdsm
 
Gastric dilatation volvulus
Gastric dilatation volvulusGastric dilatation volvulus
Gastric dilatation volvulusivsdsm
 
Xylitol Toxicity in Pets
Xylitol Toxicity in PetsXylitol Toxicity in Pets
Xylitol Toxicity in Petsivsdsm
 

More from ivsdsm (8)

Feline Urethral Obstruction
Feline Urethral ObstructionFeline Urethral Obstruction
Feline Urethral Obstruction
 
Impa
ImpaImpa
Impa
 
Canine Pancreatitis
Canine PancreatitisCanine Pancreatitis
Canine Pancreatitis
 
Eye Proptosis in your pet
Eye Proptosis in your petEye Proptosis in your pet
Eye Proptosis in your pet
 
IMHA and ITP
IMHA and ITPIMHA and ITP
IMHA and ITP
 
Feline Pneumonia
Feline PneumoniaFeline Pneumonia
Feline Pneumonia
 
Gastric dilatation volvulus
Gastric dilatation volvulusGastric dilatation volvulus
Gastric dilatation volvulus
 
Xylitol Toxicity in Pets
Xylitol Toxicity in PetsXylitol Toxicity in Pets
Xylitol Toxicity in Pets
 

Recently uploaded

Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxPopulation of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CareBrian Peacock
 
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side EffectsWays to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effectsbkling
 
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCER
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCERRADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCER
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCERKanhu Charan
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxSai Sailesh Kumar Goothy
 
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxEUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxDr. Sumit KUMAR
 
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxRASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxDr. Anusha Baseganni
 
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurHow to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurArlen Meyers, MD, MBA
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxYasser Alzainy
 
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxFinger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxAlawode Samuel2
 
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxHydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxSizan Thapa
 
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...PeerVoice
 
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxPTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxvideosfildr
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptxPopulation of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
Population of India and Family welfare programme.pptx
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid TorsionA rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
A rare case of Omental & Fibroid Torsion
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
 
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side EffectsWays to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Ways to Manage Ovarian Cancer Treatment Side Effects
 
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCER
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCERRADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCER
RADIATION THERAPY IN BILIARY TRACT CANCER
 
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptxPhysiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
Physiology of Growth hormone and applied aspects 4.pptx
 
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptxEUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
EUTHANASIA: WORLD AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVEpptx
 
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptxRASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
RASASHALA IN ACCORDANCE WITH GMP....pptx
 
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneurHow to be a successful physician intrapreneur
How to be a successful physician intrapreneur
 
A case of Trichobezoar in a teenage female
A case of Trichobezoar in a teenage femaleA case of Trichobezoar in a teenage female
A case of Trichobezoar in a teenage female
 
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptxVertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
Vertigo and Nystagmus - Clinical approach part-2.pptx
 
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptxFinger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
Finger Clubbing by Dr. Samuel2 Alawode.pptx
 
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptxHydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
Hydrocele and tumors of testis Introduction.pptx
 
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
Disruption at the Neuromuscular Junction: Relevance of Autoantibodies to Ther...
 
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
A Comprehensive Fatty Liver Program .pptx
A Comprehensive Fatty Liver Program .pptxA Comprehensive Fatty Liver Program .pptx
A Comprehensive Fatty Liver Program .pptx
 
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptxPTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
PTERYGIUM ,clinical picture and its management.pptx
 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis or "DKA" in Cats

  • 2. What is DKA? • DKA is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the tissues don’t respond to the insulin. – Insulin is responsible for transporting sugar into cells for use as energy. Without insulin, the cells can’t perform normal functions and are essentially “starved.” • Increased production of hormones that have anti-insulin effects such as glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine, can exacerbate the insulin deficiency or insulin resistance.
  • 3. What is DKA? • The liver responds by using fatty acids as an energy source. The fats are converted into ketones (ketoacids). This can lead to acidosis, electrolyte imbalances, and signs of systemic illness. • DKA is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention!
  • 4. Which Patients Develop DKA? • Patients with diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus • Patients with undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus • Patients with poorly managed or untreated Diabetes Mellitus
  • 5. Symptoms & Physical Exam Findings • Increased drinking and urination • Increased appetite • Vomiting and/or diarrhea • Weakness • Anorexia and/or weight loss • Dehydration • “Fruity odor” to the breath (from the ketones) • Enlarged liver • Rapid breathing
  • 6. Diagnosis of DKA • Clinical Signs and Physical Exam • Bloodwork – Hyperglycemia (high glucose in the blood) – Ketones in the blood – Metabolic acidosis (low body pH) – Electrolyte abnormalities • Urinalysis – Glycosuria (glucose in urine) – Ketones in the urine • The majority of patients with DKA also have a concurrent illness such as pancreatitis or a urinary tract infection
  • 7. Treatment of DKA • Immediate hospitalization • Fluid therapy, often with additional electrolytes added • A few hours after starting fluid therapy, insulin is given to help slowly lower the blood glucose concentration • Broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat concurrent infection, or anti-nausea medications may also be necessary • After stabilization, patient will be started on subcutaneous insulin that will be given long-term to control Diabetes Mellitus • Long-term change to high fiber diet
  • 8. Prognosis for DKA • Depends upon the progression of the disorder. • Fair to guarded, with concurrent illness leading to guarded prognosis
  • 9. DKA Case Example: “Peanut” • 7-year old neutered male domestic shorthair cat • Presented with a two-day history of lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and increased drinking and urination. • Peanut’s referring veterinarian had seen Peanut earlier in the day, and lab work showed glucose in the blood and urine: both signs of potential Diabetes Mellitus
  • 10. “Peanut” • Physical Exam Findings: – Dehydrated – Mild decrease in muscle mass – Tense abdomen – Poor haircoat • Recommended hospitalization, abdominal radiographs, bloodwork, and blood glucose monitoring.
  • 11. “Peanut” Diagnostics • Bloodwork: Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), acidemia (low blood pH), low potassium, sodium, and chloride (electrolytes) • Urine ketones: high • Abdominal radiographs: no significant findings
  • 12. “Peanut” Treatment • Hospitalization • Fluids with supplemental potassium • Anti-nausea medications • Insulin was started after Peanut became re-hydrated. • Blood glucose measurements were taken every 2 hours. • High-Fiber Diet
  • 13. “Peanut” Goes Home! • Ketones in the urine resolved • Electrolytes and blood glucose concentrations stabilized • Peanut began eating well • Started on subcutaneous insulin that will continue to be administered by Peanut’s owner at home • Peanut’s owners were instructed to feed him twice a day, and give insulin after he finishes each meal
  • 14. Conclusion • Patients that survive an episode of Diabetic Ketoacidosis will need long-term care for their Diabetes Mellitus • DKA is a serious metabolic disorder. Please bring your pet to the veterinarian immediately if you notice any of the listed symptoms