The Periodic Table Presentation 1


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Periodic Table notes set 1

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The Periodic Table Presentation 1

  1. 1. The Periodic Table Part One
  2. 2. The Basics <ul><li>What does periodic mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having or marked by repeated cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What things in our everyday life do we notice as cyclic or periodic? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some of the patterns you notice on the periodic table? </li></ul><ul><li>There are many important people who played a key role in organizing the elements in such an intricate fashion… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Antoine Lavoisier (1790’s) <ul><li>Compiled a list of known elements at the time (23) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What elements do you think were included here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, silver, oxygen, carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The 1800’s brought about big changes… </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>What are some big things that may have affected the knowledge of chemistry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of the spectrometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial revolution (mid-1800’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to many chemical industries…soaps, dyes, fertilizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But not all good things came from the revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical pollution now an issue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>70 known elements by the 1870 </li></ul>
  5. 5. In addition to new elements… <ul><li>New scientific data that provided insight into the properties of compounds and elements </li></ul><ul><li>A tool for organization became necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Big step: 1860 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists agreed on a method for accurately determining the atomic masses of the elements (finally!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would be the problem with not having a universal way to measure the mass of elements? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now the search for relationships between mass and elements was on… </li></ul>
  6. 6. John Newlands (1864) <ul><li>English chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed organization scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Also, their properties repeated every eigth element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st and 8 th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd and 9 th </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do were call this repeating pattern? </li></ul><ul><li>Newlands called it: The Law of Octaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Octave is a group of musical notes that repeats every eighth tone </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Newlands organized the first 14 known elements </li></ul><ul><li>Elements with similar properties were in the same row </li></ul><ul><li>How does this compare with our current periodic table </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Law of octaves was not readily accepted b/c it did not work with all elements </li></ul><ul><li>Newlands law was also criticized b/c the use of the word octave was considered very “unscientific” </li></ul><ul><li>The important thing was that Newland recognized that properties of elements were repeated </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lothar Meyer (1869) <ul><li>German chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties </li></ul><ul><li>Did not receive as much credit as Dmitri Mendeleev because he did not publish his organization scheme first </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) <ul><li>Russian chemist demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed (like Newlands) that when elements were put in order of atomic mass there was a periodic repetition of their elemental properties </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first periodic table </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Mendeleev’s table was widely accepted because it predicted the existence and properties of undiscovered elements </li></ul><ul><li>Blank spaces on the table </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted properties of yet to be discovered elements such as scandium, gallium, and germanium </li></ul>
  12. 14. But there were problems… <ul><li>New elements discovered and atomic masses were more accurately determined </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in Mendeleev’s table not in correct order </li></ul><ul><li>Arranging elements by mass now put groups of elements together with different properties </li></ul>
  13. 15. Henry Moseley (1913) <ul><li>English Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Figured out the problem with Medeleev’s Table </li></ul><ul><li>What did Moseley Discover before? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms of each element contain unique number of protons in their nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number and not increasing atomic mass </li></ul>
  14. 16. Problem Solved! <ul><li>Moseley’s arrangement solved the problems with Mendeleev’s table </li></ul><ul><li>His arrangement resulted in clear periodic patterns of properties </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to Periodic Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged in increasing atomic number </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Problem-solving lab p 155
  16. 18. Modern Periodic Table