Covalent Bonds Part 2
<ul><li>When two atoms have a covalent bond, the valence orbital of one atom overlaps or merges with the valence orbital o...
<ul><ul><li>Single covalent bonds (one bonding pair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when electron pair is shared in are...
 
 
 
Multiple Bonds <ul><li>Double Bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two bonding pairs of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist...
Pi bonds ( ∏ ) <ul><li>Formed when parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons shared in a pi...
 
 
 
Bond Strength <ul><li>Recap: How are covalent bonds formed </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive and repulsive forces </li></ul><ul...
Bond length <ul><li>The distance from the center of one nucleus to the center of the other nucleus of two bonded atoms dur...
Shared Pairs… <ul><li>INCREASE the number of shared pairs of electrons    DECREASE bond length </li></ul><ul><li>Triple b...
Energy in Bonds <ul><li>When bond is formed   E released </li></ul><ul><li>When bond is broken   E is required </li></ul...
Relationship Between Bond Energy and Bond Length <ul><li>The closer atoms are bonded together, the more energy is required...
<ul><li>Total Energy change of chemical reaction determined by the energy of bonds broken and formed </li></ul><ul><li>End...
Naming Molecules <ul><li>Binary molecular compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalently bonded compound containing only two di...
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds <ul><li>The first element in the formula is always named first, using the entire element...
<ul><li>1 - mon(o)  </li></ul><ul><li>2 - di  </li></ul><ul><li>3 - tri  </li></ul><ul><li>4 - tetr(a)  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Practice problems: <ul><li>CO </li></ul><ul><li>P 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>As 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><...
More practice… <ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 H 4 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NO...
Naming Acids <ul><li>Molecules can be put in solution (water) and they make acids </li></ul><ul><li>If compound releases H...
Binary Acids <ul><li>Hydrogen + one other element </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes there are more than 2 elements </li></ul><ul...
Oxyacids <ul><li>Acids thant contain OXYANION </li></ul><ul><li>What is an oxyanion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyatomic ion ...
Practice <ul><li>HI </li></ul><ul><li>HClO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>HClO 2 <...
Writing formulas <ul><li>Write the symbols for the elements in the order mentioned in the name.  </li></ul><ul><li>Write s...
Writing Formulas for Binary Covalent Compounds:   Examples nitrogen dioxide NO 2 diphosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5 xenon tetr...
Air Pollution Class Work <ul><li>Many common air pollutants for acids when dissolved in a water solution </li></ul><ul><li...
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Covalent Bonds Part 2

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Covalent Bonds Part 2

  1. 1. Covalent Bonds Part 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>When two atoms have a covalent bond, the valence orbital of one atom overlaps or merges with the valence orbital of another atom </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding orbital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>localized region where bonding electrons can most likely be found </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Single covalent bonds (one bonding pair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when electron pair is shared in area centered between two atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results if atomic orbitals overlap end to end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigma bonds form with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlap of s-orbital and s-orbital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlap of s-orbital and p-orbital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlap of p-orbital and p-orbital </li></ul></ul></ul>Sigma bonds ( σ )
  4. 7. Multiple Bonds <ul><li>Double Bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two bonding pairs of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of a sigma bond and one pi bond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple Bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three bonding pairs of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of a sigma bond and 2 wo pi bonds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Pi bonds ( ∏ ) <ul><li>Formed when parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons shared in a pi bond occupy the space above and below the line that represents where the two atoms are joined together </li></ul><ul><li>Double and triple bonds consist of a sigma bond and one or two pi bonds </li></ul>
  6. 12. Bond Strength <ul><li>Recap: How are covalent bonds formed </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive and repulsive forces </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bond broken when balance upset </li></ul><ul><li>Bond strength determined by different factors </li></ul>
  7. 13. Bond length <ul><li>The distance from the center of one nucleus to the center of the other nucleus of two bonded atoms during the point of maximum attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of electrons shared </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Shared Pairs… <ul><li>INCREASE the number of shared pairs of electrons  DECREASE bond length </li></ul><ul><li>Triple bond has shorter bond length than single bond length </li></ul><ul><li>Single bonds are weaker than double bonds, which are weaker than triple bonds </li></ul>
  9. 15. Energy in Bonds <ul><li>When bond is formed  E released </li></ul><ul><li>When bond is broken  E is required </li></ul><ul><li>Bond Dissociation Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of energy required to break a specific covalent bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking bonds requires adding energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive value kJ/mol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of bond dissociation energies for all bonds in a compound determines the chemical potential energy available in a molecule of that compound </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. Relationship Between Bond Energy and Bond Length <ul><li>The closer atoms are bonded together, the more energy is required to break the bond </li></ul><ul><li>DECREASE bond length = INCREASE bond dissociation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following has the greatest bond energy? Which has the least? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F 2 , O 2 , N 2 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Total Energy change of chemical reaction determined by the energy of bonds broken and formed </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater amount of energy required to break the existing bonds in the reactants than is produced in the new bonds formed in the products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exothermic Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More energy is released forming new bonds in the products than is required to break the bonds in the initial reactants </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. Naming Molecules <ul><li>Binary molecular compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalently bonded compound containing only two different elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of 2 different nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ions or metals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 19. Naming Binary Molecular Compounds <ul><li>The first element in the formula is always named first, using the entire element name </li></ul><ul><li>The second element in the formula is named using the root of the element and adding the suffix – ide </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each type that are present in the compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: first element in formula never uses mono - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drop final letter in the prefix when the element name begins with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonded to 7A halogens (drop mono) </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>1 - mon(o) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - di </li></ul><ul><li>3 - tri </li></ul><ul><li>4 - tetr(a) </li></ul><ul><li>5 - pent(a) </li></ul><ul><li>6 - hex(a) </li></ul><ul><li>7 - hept(a) </li></ul><ul><li>8 - oct(a) </li></ul><ul><li>9 - non(a) </li></ul><ul><li>10 - dec(a) </li></ul>Prefixes <ul><li>H - hyd </li></ul><ul><li>C - carb </li></ul><ul><li>N - nitr </li></ul><ul><li>P - phosph </li></ul><ul><li>As - arsen </li></ul><ul><li>O - ox </li></ul><ul><li>S - sulf </li></ul><ul><li>Se - selen </li></ul><ul><li>F - fluor </li></ul><ul><li>Cl - chlor </li></ul><ul><li>Br - brom </li></ul><ul><li>I - iod </li></ul>Nonmetal roots
  15. 21. Practice problems: <ul><li>CO </li></ul><ul><li>P 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>As 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><li>NF 3 </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Diphosphorus pentoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon tetrachloride </li></ul><ul><li>Diarsenic trioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen trifluoride </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide </li></ul>
  16. 22. More practice… <ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 H 4 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>Di hydrogen monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen trihydride </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen tetrahydride </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrazine </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric oxide </li></ul>
  17. 23. Naming Acids <ul><li>Molecules can be put in solution (water) and they make acids </li></ul><ul><li>If compound releases H+ ions when put in water solution, it is an ACID </li></ul><ul><li>Only name acids if molecule is put in water!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyacids </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Binary Acids <ul><li>Hydrogen + one other element </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes there are more than 2 elements </li></ul><ul><li>To name hydrogen, use prefix Hydro- </li></ul><ul><li>Root (or form of root) of the second element followed by suffix –ic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If there are more than 2 elements involved, the root of the second part of the name is the root of the polyatomic ion that acid contains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add the word acid to the end </li></ul><ul><li>Example: HCN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocyanic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: HCl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. Oxyacids <ul><li>Acids thant contain OXYANION </li></ul><ul><li>What is an oxyanion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyatomic ion that contains oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First: Determine anion present </li></ul><ul><li>Use a form of the root of the anion </li></ul><ul><li>Add suffix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anion suffix –ate….oxyacid suffix= - ic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anion suffix –ite….oxyacid suffix= -ous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add the word acid </li></ul><ul><li>Example:HNO 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyanion: nitrate NO 3 - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyacid name: nitric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example:HNO 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyanion: nitrite NO 2 - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyacid: nitrous acid </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. Practice <ul><li>HI </li></ul><ul><li>HClO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>HClO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroiodic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Chloric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrosulfuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorous acid </li></ul>
  21. 27. Writing formulas <ul><li>Write the symbols for the elements in the order mentioned in the name. </li></ul><ul><li>Write subscripts indicated by the prefixes. If the first part of the name has no prefix, assume it is mono-. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes  tell you SUBscripts fro each element </li></ul>
  22. 28. Writing Formulas for Binary Covalent Compounds: Examples nitrogen dioxide NO 2 diphosphorus pentoxide P 2 O 5 xenon tetrafluoride XeF 4 sulfur hexafluoride SF 6 * Second element in ‘ide’ from mono 1 * Drop –a & -o before ‘oxide’ deca 10 nona 9 octa 8 heptaa 7 hexa 6 penta 5 tetra 4 tri 3 di 2
  23. 29. Air Pollution Class Work <ul><li>Many common air pollutants for acids when dissolved in a water solution </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the following table </li></ul>HNO 3 NO 2 Carbonic acid SO 2 Name of Acid Formula of Acid Name of Molecule Formula of Pollutant

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