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ANALYSIS OF SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE DISPLACEMENT USING CONFORMAL COOLING

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1273
ANALYSIS OF SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE DISPLACEMENT USING
CONFORMAL COOLING
Shani Singh1, Dr. Satnam Singh2
1Mtech Scholar, Dept Of Mechanical Engineering P.K University Shivpuri (M.P.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
This research paper presents a comprehensive comparison
between conformal and conventional cooling channels in
injection molding, focusing on geometric conformity, cooling
performance, and part quality. The study demonstrates that
conformal cooling channels offer a more compact design,
with lower displacements in all directions. This enhanced
geometric conformity leads to improved space utilization
and better adaptation to complex part geometries. The
cooling performance of conformal channels is found to be
superior to conventional channels, with shorter cooling
times and higher cooling efficiency. This results in increased
productivity and reduced cycle times. Moreover, conformal
cooling channels exhibit better thermal management, lower
volumetric shrinkage, and improved flatness, contributing to
higher part quality and reduced warpage. The research
findings underline the potential of conformal cooling
technology as a valuable solution for optimizing the
injection molding process.
Keywords: conformal cooling channels, conventional
cooling channels, cooling efficiency, flatness and
volumetric shrinkage
Introduction
The article titled "Analysis of shrinkage and warpage
displacement using conformal cooling" discusses the use of
conformal cooling in injection molding processes to reduce
shrinkage and warpage displacement. Shrinkage and
warpage are common issues in injection molding, which
can lead to dimensional inaccuracies and other defects in
the molded products.
The article describes the methodology used to
simulate the effects of conformal cooling on shrinkage and
warpage displacement. The authors create a 3D model of
the mold and simulate the injection molding process using
finite element analysis software. They compare the results
of simulations using conventional cooling channels versus
simulations using conformal cooling channels.
The results of the study show that conformal cooling can
significantly reduce the shrinkage and warpage
displacement in injection-molded parts. The authors
conclude that the use of conformal cooling can improve the
dimensional accuracy and quality of injection-molded
parts, resulting in cost savings for manufacturers.
Overall, this article highlights the importance of
controlling shrinkage and warpage displacement in
injection molding processes and the potential benefits of
using conformal cooling to achieve this. It also underscores
the value of simulation techniques in understanding the
effects of process parameters on the quality of
manufactured products.
Literature Review
Injection molding is a widely used manufacturing process
for producing parts with complex shapes. However, the
production process is often associated with challenges
such as shrinkage and warpage. These issues can cause
dimensional inaccuracies, reduced mechanical properties,
and product defects[1]. Studies have investigated different
methods to mitigate these problems, and one solution that
has been explored is the use of conformal cooling.
Conformal cooling is a technique that involves designing
and manufacturing molds with cooling channels that
conform to the shape of the part being produced, allowing
for more uniform cooling[2]. It has been shown that
shrinkage and warpage defects in injection-molded parts
are significantly influenced by factors such as injection
pressure, holds pressure, and cooling time [3].Studies such
as Liao et al have investigated optimal process conditions
for shrinkage and warpage in thin-wall parts. Other
research, such as that by Doerffel et al, has studied the
deformation of injection molded parts and validated the
quality of plastic parts based on laminated sheet parts
[4].Further research by Mlekusch has compared the
corner-warpage of short fiber reinforced injection
moldings versus non-reinforced systems, showing that
fiber alignment can result in orthotropic effects that
contribute to increased warpage [5].
According to Hu et al, FE modeling of the map-
molding process was carried out for a map mold
encapsulated with the epoxy system and the warpage [6]
caused by the curing process and the subsequent cooling
down stage was investigated. Additionally, studies have
2Dr. Satnam Singh, Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, P.K University Shivpuri (M.P.).
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1274
shown that the surface temperature of the mold is an
essential factor in determining warpage [7].
Researchers, such as Yang et al, have evaluated the
effectiveness of conformal cooling in reducing warpage
and dimensional inaccuracies. Their results showed that
conformal cooling can significantly improve the quality of
injection-molded parts by reducing shrinkage and
warpage [8].
However, while there have been many studies on
the shrinkage and warpage of injection-molded parts,
some aspects remain unexplored. For example, there is a
lack of detailed research on the correlation optimization
between volume shrinkage and warpage. Additionally, few
studies have investigated the warpage of large-sized
orthogonal stiffened plastic plates.More research is needed
to fully understand and address these issues in injection
molding. Nevertheless, current findings suggest that
conformal cooling can be an effective solution for reducing
shrinkage and warpage in injection-molded parts. By
optimizing process parameters such as pressure,
temperature, and cooling time while utilizing conform
Methodology
CAD Modelling
Creation of CAD Model by using CAD modelling tools in
solidworks for creating the geometry of the part/assembly.
Governing Equation
In this study, the fluids are considered to be
incompressible, Newtonian (for water) or generalized
Newtonian (for polymer melt). The governing equations
for 3D transient non-isothermal motion are:
where u is velocity vector, T is temperature, t is time, p is
pressure, τ is stress tensor, ρ is density, η is viscosity, k is
thermal conductivity, Cp is specific heat & is shear rate. For
the polymer melt, the stress tensor can be expressed as:
The modified-Cross model with Arrhenius temperature
dependence is employed to describe the viscosity of
polymer melt:
where n is the power law index, is the zero shear viscosity,*
is the parameter that describes the transition region
between zero shear rate and the power law region of the
viscosity curve.
The total element number is from to the numerical
schemes, Moldex3D uses a hybrid finite-difference/control
volume/finite element method. Time step selection has an
important effect on accuracy and calculating speed. An
internal parameter was carefully chosen to have a good
balance on accuracy and efficiency”.
Pre-Processing
 Import part/ insert geometry: import a CAD
model for mould analysis.
 Meshing: Cross section is a basic operation in
molding process. In this operation, the CAD
geometry is discretized into expansive quantities
of little Element and hubs. The game plan of hubs
and component in space in a legitimate way is
called network. The examination exactness and
term relies on upon the cross section size and
introductions. With the expansion in cross section
size (expanding no. of component) the CFD
examination speed diminish however the
precision increment.
 Type of Wizard:
1. Gate wizard: choose best gate location
for filling of material
2. Runner wizard: choose the type of
runner for moulding process
 Boundary Condition: Define the desired
boundary condition for the problem by choose
moldbase wizard
 Cooling Channel: design the cooling channel for
cooling the part in moulding process
 Selection of inlet and outlet section in cooling
channel: Selecting the section from where the
fluid is enter and exit in cooling channel.
 Generate meshing: by generating mesh the file is
ready to execute.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1275
Post Processing
 Material Property: Choose the Material property
for molding process.
 Processing: For viewing and interpretation of
Result. The result can be viewed in various
formats: graph, value, animation etc.
Model Details
Table 1: Model details
S. No. Parameter
1 Material ABS (CYCOLACBDT5510)
2 Part Thickness 1.8mm
3 Length 820mm
4 Breadth 299mm
5 Hieght 250mm
Figure 1: CAD Model Side View
Table 2: Model Geometry Channel detail
Parameter dimension
Diameter of conformal cooling 8 mm
Distance between centre to centre of
conformal pine
34 mm
Distance between outer diameter of
conformal cooling and AC Cover
16 mm
Figure 2: conformal cooling design isomatric view
Figure 3: CAD Model with conformal cooling side view
Figure 4: CAD Model and conformal cooling in mould
Figure 6.7: CAD Model and conformal cooling Meshing
Details
Figure 5: CAD Model and conformal cooling in mould after
Meshing
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1276
Result
 Conventional Cooling
Figure 6: Average Temperature of Conventional Cooling
Figure 7: Cooling Efficiency of Conventional Cooling
Figure 8: Cooling Time of Conventional Cooling
Figure 9: Mold Temperature Difference of Conventional
Cooling
Figure 10: Total Displacement of Conventional Cooling
Figure 11: Warpages Flatness of Conventional Cooling
Figure 12: Volumetric Shrinkage of Conventional Cooling
Figure 13: X-Displacement of Conventional Cooling
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1277
Figure 14: Y-Displacement of Conventional Cooling
Figure 15: Z-Displacement of Conventional Cooling
 Conformal Cooling
Figure 15: Average Temperature of Conformal Cooling
Figure 16: Cooling Efficiency of Conformal Cooling
Figure 17: Cooling Time of Conformal Cooling
Figure 18: Mold Temperature Difference of Conformal
Cooling
Figure 19: Total Displacement of Conformal Cooling
Figure 19: Warpages Flatness of Conformal Cooling
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1278
Figure 20: Volumetric Shrinkage of Conformal Cooling
Figure 21: X-Displacement of Conformal Cooling
Figure 22: Y-Displacement of Conformal Cooling
Figure 23: Z-Displacement of Conformal Cooling
Table 3: Comparison Between Conventional and
Conformal Cooling
Parameter Convectional
Cooling
Conformal
Cooling
X-Displacement 20.49 mm 17.62 mm
Y-Displacement 7.27 mm 6.22 mm
Z-Displacement 5.38 mm 4.38 mm
Total
Displacement
26.42 mm 20.69 mm
Volumetric
Shrinkage
18.12 mm3 15.43 mm3
Flatness 731.74 647.55
Cooling Time 46.11 sec 36.19 sec
Cooling
Efficiency
3.99 % 6.87 %
Mold
Temperture
Diffrence
162.76°C 142.70 °C
Avg Temperture 233.37 °C 222.37 °C
Conclusion
In terms of cooling performance, conformal cooling
channels significantly outperform conventional channels
with a shorter cooling time (36.19 vs. 46.113) and higher
cooling efficiency (6.870 vs. 3.998). This implies that
conformal cooling channels can reduce cycle time and
improve productivity. Additionally, conformal channels
exhibit a lower mold temperature difference (142.705)
compared to conventional channels (162.768), which could
lead to more uniform cooling and reduced thermal
stresses. The average temperature (Avg temp0) is also
conformal cooling channels have a more compact design,
with lower displacements in the X, Y, and Z directions
(17.622, 6.227, and 4.386, respectively) compared to
conventional cooling channels (20.499, 7.278, and 5.386,
respectively). The total displacement is also lower for
conformal cooling channels at 20.692, as opposed to
26.422 for conventional channels. This indicates that
conformal cooling channels can provide better geometric
conformity and space utilization. Moreover, conformal
cooling channels showcase lower volumetric shrinkage
(15.433) than conventional channels (18.129), which could
potentially lead to better dimensional accuracy and
reduced warpage. The flatness value is also lower for
conformal channels (647.553) compared to conventional
channels (731.741), suggesting improved surface quality.

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ANALYSIS OF SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE DISPLACEMENT USING CONFORMAL COOLING

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1273 ANALYSIS OF SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE DISPLACEMENT USING CONFORMAL COOLING Shani Singh1, Dr. Satnam Singh2 1Mtech Scholar, Dept Of Mechanical Engineering P.K University Shivpuri (M.P.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract This research paper presents a comprehensive comparison between conformal and conventional cooling channels in injection molding, focusing on geometric conformity, cooling performance, and part quality. The study demonstrates that conformal cooling channels offer a more compact design, with lower displacements in all directions. This enhanced geometric conformity leads to improved space utilization and better adaptation to complex part geometries. The cooling performance of conformal channels is found to be superior to conventional channels, with shorter cooling times and higher cooling efficiency. This results in increased productivity and reduced cycle times. Moreover, conformal cooling channels exhibit better thermal management, lower volumetric shrinkage, and improved flatness, contributing to higher part quality and reduced warpage. The research findings underline the potential of conformal cooling technology as a valuable solution for optimizing the injection molding process. Keywords: conformal cooling channels, conventional cooling channels, cooling efficiency, flatness and volumetric shrinkage Introduction The article titled "Analysis of shrinkage and warpage displacement using conformal cooling" discusses the use of conformal cooling in injection molding processes to reduce shrinkage and warpage displacement. Shrinkage and warpage are common issues in injection molding, which can lead to dimensional inaccuracies and other defects in the molded products. The article describes the methodology used to simulate the effects of conformal cooling on shrinkage and warpage displacement. The authors create a 3D model of the mold and simulate the injection molding process using finite element analysis software. They compare the results of simulations using conventional cooling channels versus simulations using conformal cooling channels. The results of the study show that conformal cooling can significantly reduce the shrinkage and warpage displacement in injection-molded parts. The authors conclude that the use of conformal cooling can improve the dimensional accuracy and quality of injection-molded parts, resulting in cost savings for manufacturers. Overall, this article highlights the importance of controlling shrinkage and warpage displacement in injection molding processes and the potential benefits of using conformal cooling to achieve this. It also underscores the value of simulation techniques in understanding the effects of process parameters on the quality of manufactured products. Literature Review Injection molding is a widely used manufacturing process for producing parts with complex shapes. However, the production process is often associated with challenges such as shrinkage and warpage. These issues can cause dimensional inaccuracies, reduced mechanical properties, and product defects[1]. Studies have investigated different methods to mitigate these problems, and one solution that has been explored is the use of conformal cooling. Conformal cooling is a technique that involves designing and manufacturing molds with cooling channels that conform to the shape of the part being produced, allowing for more uniform cooling[2]. It has been shown that shrinkage and warpage defects in injection-molded parts are significantly influenced by factors such as injection pressure, holds pressure, and cooling time [3].Studies such as Liao et al have investigated optimal process conditions for shrinkage and warpage in thin-wall parts. Other research, such as that by Doerffel et al, has studied the deformation of injection molded parts and validated the quality of plastic parts based on laminated sheet parts [4].Further research by Mlekusch has compared the corner-warpage of short fiber reinforced injection moldings versus non-reinforced systems, showing that fiber alignment can result in orthotropic effects that contribute to increased warpage [5]. According to Hu et al, FE modeling of the map- molding process was carried out for a map mold encapsulated with the epoxy system and the warpage [6] caused by the curing process and the subsequent cooling down stage was investigated. Additionally, studies have 2Dr. Satnam Singh, Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, P.K University Shivpuri (M.P.).
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1274 shown that the surface temperature of the mold is an essential factor in determining warpage [7]. Researchers, such as Yang et al, have evaluated the effectiveness of conformal cooling in reducing warpage and dimensional inaccuracies. Their results showed that conformal cooling can significantly improve the quality of injection-molded parts by reducing shrinkage and warpage [8]. However, while there have been many studies on the shrinkage and warpage of injection-molded parts, some aspects remain unexplored. For example, there is a lack of detailed research on the correlation optimization between volume shrinkage and warpage. Additionally, few studies have investigated the warpage of large-sized orthogonal stiffened plastic plates.More research is needed to fully understand and address these issues in injection molding. Nevertheless, current findings suggest that conformal cooling can be an effective solution for reducing shrinkage and warpage in injection-molded parts. By optimizing process parameters such as pressure, temperature, and cooling time while utilizing conform Methodology CAD Modelling Creation of CAD Model by using CAD modelling tools in solidworks for creating the geometry of the part/assembly. Governing Equation In this study, the fluids are considered to be incompressible, Newtonian (for water) or generalized Newtonian (for polymer melt). The governing equations for 3D transient non-isothermal motion are: where u is velocity vector, T is temperature, t is time, p is pressure, τ is stress tensor, ρ is density, η is viscosity, k is thermal conductivity, Cp is specific heat & is shear rate. For the polymer melt, the stress tensor can be expressed as: The modified-Cross model with Arrhenius temperature dependence is employed to describe the viscosity of polymer melt: where n is the power law index, is the zero shear viscosity,* is the parameter that describes the transition region between zero shear rate and the power law region of the viscosity curve. The total element number is from to the numerical schemes, Moldex3D uses a hybrid finite-difference/control volume/finite element method. Time step selection has an important effect on accuracy and calculating speed. An internal parameter was carefully chosen to have a good balance on accuracy and efficiency”. Pre-Processing  Import part/ insert geometry: import a CAD model for mould analysis.  Meshing: Cross section is a basic operation in molding process. In this operation, the CAD geometry is discretized into expansive quantities of little Element and hubs. The game plan of hubs and component in space in a legitimate way is called network. The examination exactness and term relies on upon the cross section size and introductions. With the expansion in cross section size (expanding no. of component) the CFD examination speed diminish however the precision increment.  Type of Wizard: 1. Gate wizard: choose best gate location for filling of material 2. Runner wizard: choose the type of runner for moulding process  Boundary Condition: Define the desired boundary condition for the problem by choose moldbase wizard  Cooling Channel: design the cooling channel for cooling the part in moulding process  Selection of inlet and outlet section in cooling channel: Selecting the section from where the fluid is enter and exit in cooling channel.  Generate meshing: by generating mesh the file is ready to execute.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1275 Post Processing  Material Property: Choose the Material property for molding process.  Processing: For viewing and interpretation of Result. The result can be viewed in various formats: graph, value, animation etc. Model Details Table 1: Model details S. No. Parameter 1 Material ABS (CYCOLACBDT5510) 2 Part Thickness 1.8mm 3 Length 820mm 4 Breadth 299mm 5 Hieght 250mm Figure 1: CAD Model Side View Table 2: Model Geometry Channel detail Parameter dimension Diameter of conformal cooling 8 mm Distance between centre to centre of conformal pine 34 mm Distance between outer diameter of conformal cooling and AC Cover 16 mm Figure 2: conformal cooling design isomatric view Figure 3: CAD Model with conformal cooling side view Figure 4: CAD Model and conformal cooling in mould Figure 6.7: CAD Model and conformal cooling Meshing Details Figure 5: CAD Model and conformal cooling in mould after Meshing
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1276 Result  Conventional Cooling Figure 6: Average Temperature of Conventional Cooling Figure 7: Cooling Efficiency of Conventional Cooling Figure 8: Cooling Time of Conventional Cooling Figure 9: Mold Temperature Difference of Conventional Cooling Figure 10: Total Displacement of Conventional Cooling Figure 11: Warpages Flatness of Conventional Cooling Figure 12: Volumetric Shrinkage of Conventional Cooling Figure 13: X-Displacement of Conventional Cooling
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1277 Figure 14: Y-Displacement of Conventional Cooling Figure 15: Z-Displacement of Conventional Cooling  Conformal Cooling Figure 15: Average Temperature of Conformal Cooling Figure 16: Cooling Efficiency of Conformal Cooling Figure 17: Cooling Time of Conformal Cooling Figure 18: Mold Temperature Difference of Conformal Cooling Figure 19: Total Displacement of Conformal Cooling Figure 19: Warpages Flatness of Conformal Cooling
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1278 Figure 20: Volumetric Shrinkage of Conformal Cooling Figure 21: X-Displacement of Conformal Cooling Figure 22: Y-Displacement of Conformal Cooling Figure 23: Z-Displacement of Conformal Cooling Table 3: Comparison Between Conventional and Conformal Cooling Parameter Convectional Cooling Conformal Cooling X-Displacement 20.49 mm 17.62 mm Y-Displacement 7.27 mm 6.22 mm Z-Displacement 5.38 mm 4.38 mm Total Displacement 26.42 mm 20.69 mm Volumetric Shrinkage 18.12 mm3 15.43 mm3 Flatness 731.74 647.55 Cooling Time 46.11 sec 36.19 sec Cooling Efficiency 3.99 % 6.87 % Mold Temperture Diffrence 162.76°C 142.70 °C Avg Temperture 233.37 °C 222.37 °C Conclusion In terms of cooling performance, conformal cooling channels significantly outperform conventional channels with a shorter cooling time (36.19 vs. 46.113) and higher cooling efficiency (6.870 vs. 3.998). This implies that conformal cooling channels can reduce cycle time and improve productivity. Additionally, conformal channels exhibit a lower mold temperature difference (142.705) compared to conventional channels (162.768), which could lead to more uniform cooling and reduced thermal stresses. The average temperature (Avg temp0) is also conformal cooling channels have a more compact design, with lower displacements in the X, Y, and Z directions (17.622, 6.227, and 4.386, respectively) compared to conventional cooling channels (20.499, 7.278, and 5.386, respectively). The total displacement is also lower for conformal cooling channels at 20.692, as opposed to 26.422 for conventional channels. This indicates that conformal cooling channels can provide better geometric conformity and space utilization. Moreover, conformal cooling channels showcase lower volumetric shrinkage (15.433) than conventional channels (18.129), which could potentially lead to better dimensional accuracy and reduced warpage. The flatness value is also lower for conformal channels (647.553) compared to conventional channels (731.741), suggesting improved surface quality.
  • 7. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 05 | May 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1279 lower for conformal cooling channels (222.375) compared to conventional cooling channels (233.375), indicating better thermal management. Overall, conformal cooling channels offer several advantages over conventional cooling channels, including enhanced cooling performance, reduced cycle times, and improved part quality. References [1]. P. Lin and C. Lee. "Process Parameters Optimization for an Injection-Molded Plastic Wheel by Uniform Design of Experiment and Kriging Interpolation". Destech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research. no. apetc. Jun. 2017. 10.12783/dtetr/apetc2017/10884. [2]. M. Göktaş and A. Güldaş. "Production of Plastic Injection Molds with Conformal Cooling Channels by Laminated Brazing Method". Gazi University Journal of Science. vol. 33. no. 3. pp. 780-789. Sep. 2020. 10.35378/gujs.621930. [3]. T. Bhirud and R. M. Metkar. "Experimentation and Optimization of Shrinkage in Plastic Injection Molded GPPS Part". Jan. 2017. 10.2991/iccasp- 16.2017.18. [4]. T. Jachowicz and V. Moravskyi. "Numerical Modeling of Cooling Conditions of Thermoplastic Injection- Molded Parts". Acta Mechanica Slovaca. vol. 20. no. 1. pp. 42-51. Mar. 2016. 10.21496/ams.2016.007. [5]. F. Tan. "Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded PA66+PA6I/6T Composite using RSM and Grey Wolf Optimization". El-Cezeri Fen Ve Mühendislik Dergisi. May. 2020. 10.31202/ecjse.705212. [6]. J. Wang, C. Hopmann, M. Röbig, T. Hohlweck, C. Kahve and J. Alms. "Continuous Two-Domain Equations of State for the Description of the Pressure-Specific Volume-Temperature Behavior of Polymers". Polymers. vol. 12. no. 2. pp. 409. Feb. 2020. 10.3390/polym12020409. [7]. Y. Li, N. Gong, Q. Wang, Y. Chen, B. Wang and X. Li. "Advances in Polymer Technology: Application of Pareto-Based Genetic Algorithm in Determining Layout of Heating Rods for a Plastic Injection Mold". Advances in Polymer Technology. vol. 2020. pp. 1-7. Mar. 2020. 10.1155/2020/7573693. [8]. "Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Injection-Molded PA66+PA6I/6T Composite using RSM and Grey Wolf Optimization".