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IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021

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Content- and language-integrated learning (CLIL), an educational approach, in which the subject matter is taught in a foreign language. This has become popular in tertiary education. Many research studies have shown its benefits and discussed the favorable effects, especially with respect to L2 language gains. Yet, critical voices, also from the primary stakeholders, namely the students taking part in such integrated programs, have also been heard. In an effort to integrate into the international academic and scientific community, universities in Vietnam have also started to teach academic courses in English. The main objective of this cross-sectional survey study (N=104) was to explore Vietnamese students’ perceptions of such dual-training programs and to investigate to what extent they feel the program currently meets their needs. Our findings show that both lecturers and students are struggling in these courses, for one thing, because of insufficient levels of mastery of the English language; while for another reason, since courses cannot be characterized as courses in which disciplinary contents and the foreign language are taught in an integrated way. The way forward seems to be to educate the lecturers and the students well, before allowing them to participate in CLIL English courses. All these issues need to be considered in the context of local Vietnamese educational realities and traditions.

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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.20 No.12
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 20, No. 12 (December 2021)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 20, No. 12
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks.
Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the
world to present the results of their research activities in the following
fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education;
knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning;
virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the December 2021 Issue
VOLUME 20 NUMBER 12 December 2021
Table of Contents
Students’ Perceptions of Content- and Language- Integrated Learning in Vietnam: A Survey Study .......................1
Phuong-Bao-Tran Nguyen, Lies Sercu
Industrial Engagement in the Technical and Vocational Training (TVET) System...................................................... 19
Mohd Azlan Mohammad Hussain, Rafeizah Mohd Zulkifli, Arasinah Kamis, Mark D. Threeton, Khaizer Omar
The Impact of Teaching Practice on Female Students’ Preparation for Mathematics Teacher Education
Programme in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria ..................................................................................................35
Sunday Bomboi IJEH, Onoriode Collins POTOKRI
Integrating Video-Based Multimedia in Teaching Physics in Context of Covid-19 in Rwandan Secondary Schools
.................................................................................................................................................................................................49
Gabriel Janvier Tugirinshuti, Leon Rugema Mugabo, Alexis Banuza
Development and Validation of a Model Predicting Students’ Sense of School Belonging and Engagement as a
Function of School Climate.................................................................................................................................................. 64
Jerome St-Amand, Jonathan Smith, Aziz Rasmy
Virtual Mathematics Education during COVID-19: An Exploratory Study of Teaching Practices for Teachers in
Simultaneous Virtual Classes.............................................................................................................................................. 85
Faisal Aloufi, Ibrahim AL-Hussain Khalil, Abdelkader Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed, Yousef Wardat, Ahmed AL-Otaibi
Factors Affecting Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievements in Chemistry............................................ 114
Aimable Sibomana, Claude Karegeya, John Sentongo
An Examination of the Correlation between South African Grade 12 students’ Mathematics Self-Concept and
their Academic Achievement............................................................................................................................................ 127
James Bill Ouda, Tawanda Runhare, Ndileleni Mudzielwana, Hasina Cassim, Shonisani Agnes Mulovhedzi
Religious Instruction for Students with Autism in an Inclusive Primary School....................................................... 139
Hakiman Hakiman, Bambang Sumardjoko, Waston Waston
Assessing the Higher Education Settings after the Transition to Online Learning: Exploring Teaching,
Assessments, and Students’ Academic Success.............................................................................................................. 159
Nahla Moussa
Harnessing the Power of Reflective Journal Writing in Global Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review........... 174
Anselmus Sudirman, Adria Vitalya Gemilang, Thadius Marhendra Adi Kristanto
Game-Based Didactic Resources as a Strategy in Foreign Language Pedagogy ........................................................ 195
Valeria Sumonte Rojas, Lidia Fuentealba Fuentealba, Ranjeeva Ranjan
Resetting Integrity Through Communication on Plagiarism: University Classrooms Weaving Values into the
Social Fabric......................................................................................................................................................................... 212
Arniza Ghazali, Azniwati Abdul Aziz
Theoretical Models of Integration of Interactive Learning Technologies into Teaching: A Systematic Literature
Review.................................................................................................................................................................................. 232
Laila Mohebi
Learning Potentials of Job Shadowing in Teacher Education....................................................................................... 255
Danijela Makovec
Instructional Leadership Capacity of Secondary School Science Heads of Department in Gauteng, South Africa
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 267
Cynthia B. Malinga, Loyiso C. Jita, Abiodun A. Bada

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IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.20 No.12
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 20, No. 12 (December 2021) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 20, No. 12 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the December 2021 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 20 NUMBER 12 December 2021 Table of Contents Students’ Perceptions of Content- and Language- Integrated Learning in Vietnam: A Survey Study .......................1 Phuong-Bao-Tran Nguyen, Lies Sercu Industrial Engagement in the Technical and Vocational Training (TVET) System...................................................... 19 Mohd Azlan Mohammad Hussain, Rafeizah Mohd Zulkifli, Arasinah Kamis, Mark D. Threeton, Khaizer Omar The Impact of Teaching Practice on Female Students’ Preparation for Mathematics Teacher Education Programme in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria ..................................................................................................35 Sunday Bomboi IJEH, Onoriode Collins POTOKRI Integrating Video-Based Multimedia in Teaching Physics in Context of Covid-19 in Rwandan Secondary Schools .................................................................................................................................................................................................49 Gabriel Janvier Tugirinshuti, Leon Rugema Mugabo, Alexis Banuza Development and Validation of a Model Predicting Students’ Sense of School Belonging and Engagement as a Function of School Climate.................................................................................................................................................. 64 Jerome St-Amand, Jonathan Smith, Aziz Rasmy Virtual Mathematics Education during COVID-19: An Exploratory Study of Teaching Practices for Teachers in Simultaneous Virtual Classes.............................................................................................................................................. 85 Faisal Aloufi, Ibrahim AL-Hussain Khalil, Abdelkader Mohamed Abdelkader Elsayed, Yousef Wardat, Ahmed AL-Otaibi Factors Affecting Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievements in Chemistry............................................ 114 Aimable Sibomana, Claude Karegeya, John Sentongo An Examination of the Correlation between South African Grade 12 students’ Mathematics Self-Concept and their Academic Achievement............................................................................................................................................ 127 James Bill Ouda, Tawanda Runhare, Ndileleni Mudzielwana, Hasina Cassim, Shonisani Agnes Mulovhedzi Religious Instruction for Students with Autism in an Inclusive Primary School....................................................... 139 Hakiman Hakiman, Bambang Sumardjoko, Waston Waston Assessing the Higher Education Settings after the Transition to Online Learning: Exploring Teaching, Assessments, and Students’ Academic Success.............................................................................................................. 159 Nahla Moussa Harnessing the Power of Reflective Journal Writing in Global Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review........... 174 Anselmus Sudirman, Adria Vitalya Gemilang, Thadius Marhendra Adi Kristanto Game-Based Didactic Resources as a Strategy in Foreign Language Pedagogy ........................................................ 195 Valeria Sumonte Rojas, Lidia Fuentealba Fuentealba, Ranjeeva Ranjan Resetting Integrity Through Communication on Plagiarism: University Classrooms Weaving Values into the Social Fabric......................................................................................................................................................................... 212
  • 6. Arniza Ghazali, Azniwati Abdul Aziz Theoretical Models of Integration of Interactive Learning Technologies into Teaching: A Systematic Literature Review.................................................................................................................................................................................. 232 Laila Mohebi Learning Potentials of Job Shadowing in Teacher Education....................................................................................... 255 Danijela Makovec Instructional Leadership Capacity of Secondary School Science Heads of Department in Gauteng, South Africa ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 267 Cynthia B. Malinga, Loyiso C. Jita, Abiodun A. Bada
  • 7. 1 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 1-18, December 2021 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.20.12.1 Received Sep 05, 2021; Revised Nov 24, 2021; Accepted Dec 07, 2021 Students’ Perceptions of Content- and Language- Integrated Learning in Vietnam: A Survey Study Phuong-Bao-Tran Nguyen* KU Leuven, Belgium Can Tho University, Vietnam https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2927-0632 Lies Sercu KU Leuven, Belgium https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3213-396X Abstract. Content- and language-integrated learning (CLIL), an educational approach, in which the subject matter is taught in a foreign language. This has become popular in tertiary education. Many research studies have shown its benefits and discussed the favorable effects, especially with respect to L2 language gains. Yet, critical voices, also from the primary stakeholders, namely the students taking part in such integrated programs, have also been heard. In an effort to integrate into the international academic and scientific community, universities in Vietnam have also started to teach academic courses in English. The main objective of this cross-sectional survey study (N=104) was to explore Vietnamese students’ perceptions of such dual-training programs and to investigate to what extent they feel the program currently meets their needs. Our findings show that both lecturers and students are struggling in these courses, for one thing, because of insufficient levels of mastery of the English language; while for another reason, since courses cannot be characterized as courses in which disciplinary contents and the foreign language are taught in an integrated way. The way forward seems to be to educate the lecturers and the students well, before allowing them to participate in CLIL English courses. All these issues need to be considered in the context of local Vietnamese educational realities and traditions. Keywords: English-Medium Instruction (EMI); Content- and Language- Integrated Learning (CLIL); Vietnamese Higher Education; students’ perception; survey * Corresponding author: Phuong-Bao-Tran Nguyen, npbtranctu.edu.vn
  • 8. 2 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1. Introduction As in other countries in the Asian-Pacific Region, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education (MOET) has embraced the idea of teaching content courses in English in both upper-secondary and higher education (HE) institutions. With the Vietnamese government’s release of the “Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in the National Educational System, Period 2008-2020” project, one might say that the government has trusted the higher education sector with the extra challenge and responsibility of educating talented Vietnamese youngsters – not only for the Vietnamese, but also for the global labour market. Master’s in engineering or Business Administration, for example, also have to become proficient users of the English language. They have to be able to use that language flexibly and effectively for social, academic, and professional purposes. According to the Ministry of Education (MOET, 2008), on graduation, students need to be able to use a foreign language confidently and independently in communication, studies and work in an integrated, multilingual, and multicultural environment. Since 2012, universities have started to supplement or replace English language teaching courses with English-Medium Instruction (EMI) courses. In EMI, the lecturer typically uses the English language, and rather than Vietnamese, to teach a content course. Underlying the introduction of EMI is the belief that offering courses in English within the meaningful context of learning specialized content is the ideal way to also foster students’ English language skills. Directly after the first period of MOET’s “Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in the National Educational System” came to an end, this study wanted to investigate the current EMI situation, as it is perceived by the main stakeholders: what do students perceive of teaching, their lecturers’ English proficiency, EMI teaching approaches, their own motivation, and the mastery of English? Do students believe that EMI courses do not negatively affect either content or language learning? To that end, a survey study among EMI students from one university situated in the Mekong Delta was carried out. Students’ perception that data can inform lecturers and university authorities on how to proceed in the future, in order to meet students’ needs and MOET’s expectations. In what follows, we first frame the study, defining and assessing EMI and Content- and Language-Integrated Learning (CLIL), and discussing how CLIL is perceived by students in tertiary education. Next, we provide a general sketch of the current situation of EMI and CLIL teaching in Vietnam. This is followed by a discussion of the research methodology. In the final sections of this paper, we present and discuss our research findings. The data show that both lecturers and students are struggling in these courses, for one thing because of insufficient levels of mastery of the English language and, for another, because courses cannot be characterized as courses in which disciplinary contents and a foreign language are taught in an integrated way.
  • 9. 3 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 2. Background and Literature review 2.1 Content and Language Integrated Learning As pointed out by Macaro et al. (2018) in their systematic review of research findings regarding English-medium instruction in Higher Education (HE), EMI is used to refer to a variety of educational approaches, and “both the definition of EMI in HE and its practice appear to be fluid.” (Macaro et al., 2018). Both at the macro- and at the micro-level of education, reference may be made to Content and Language-Integrated Learning (CLIL) or Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE). According to Marsh et al. (2012), Content- and Language-Integrated Learning refers to “any dual-focused educational context in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both content and language (Marsh et al., 2012, p. 9). Teachers in a CLIL context are not typically native speakers of the foreign language or language teachers; they are experts in an academic discipline (Fajardo Dack et al., 2020). Nor are they language-teaching specialists, who master a language-teaching methodology. From this, it follows that CLIL courses at the tertiary educational level may be closer to English-medium instruction (EMI) or Content-based instruction (CBI) courses. In such courses, students do receive large amounts of English language input, but the educational focus remains on content learning. Indeed, in tertiary education, with its focus on disciplinary knowledge and skills learning, CLIL courses tend to come closer to CBI and EMI courses, rather than to true CLIL courses, where the content is learned through language; while language is learned through content (Coyle et al., 2010; Peukert & Gogolin, 2017). Generally, it is assumed that the language would be learned alongside the content, and that there is no need to outline a language-learning trajectory with specific language attainment gains. Although most studies exploring language learning outcomes have found that these content-based language instruction programs to do as well, or better than non-CLIL programs (Graham et al., 2018, p. 30), it is clear that language input alone does not necessarily guarantee language acquisition and that pedagogical interventions supporting the integrated learning of language and content are needed and also beneficial. 2.2. Student perceptions of CLIL As shown by Goris et al. (2019), in a systematic review of longitudinal experimental CLIL studies, CLIL learners develop better writing skills than non- CLIL learners, and additionally, their grammar and vocabulary are better developed. Significant results are found as regards their enhanced fluency in the foreign language. Indeed, fluency is the skill commonly believed to be affected most favorably because of the increased opportunity for authentic communication (Goris et al., 2019, p. 693). Given these overall positive results, it comes as no surprise that researchers investigating students’ perceptions of their CLIL experiences have found that learners at the tertiary level of education overall hold positive views of CLIL. Tsuchiya and Pérez Murillo (2015), for example, found that students in Spain and Japan expressed a relatively positive view towards CLIL in higher education (p. 33). Yet, they also found that students voiced critical concerns regarding CLIL implementation at university level. These concerns include their insufficient
  • 10. 4 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter English skills to understand academic subject matter and the potential risk of lacking subject knowledge in their mother tongue. Aguilar and Rodriguez (2012) report students’ perceptions of some of their lecturers, as only having a low level of mastery of English. This leads to lecturers’ slow delivery rate hindering smooth lecturing, which is said to be “tedious” and “difficult”. Also, CLIL courses lack sufficient opportunities for discussion; since both students and lecturers do not feel at home in the foreign language and may show a tendency towards avoiding student interaction in the classroom (Aguilar & Rodríguez, 2012, p. 193). On the other hand, students also testify to having improved their English listening skills and mastery of specialized vocabulary. Nuñez Asomoza (2015), investigating CLIL at the BA university level in Mexico found that students have an overall positive perception of CLIL courses. However, this study also reports that participants identify many areas that could be improved as regards lecturers, materials and the learning environment in general (Nuñez Asomoza, 2015). Students generally struggle with developing academic skills, such as academic writing, identifying and using academic genres and specialized vocabulary. In addition, they report feeling stressed and anxious in CLIL courses, something that is also due to the presence of native speakers of English in the CLIL classes. This feeling of uneasiness is further fostered by a deterioration in their academic performance because of CLIL. In addition, students remark that teachers need training in English, CLIL teaching methodology and CLIL material development, findings which Aguilar and Rodriguez (2012) also suggested. 2.3 CLIL in Vietnam and Vietnam’s new language policy in higher education In 2012, the Vietnamese government issued a new law on HE, allowing a foreign language to be used as the medium of instruction. This stirred up heated discussions, with many people expressing the fear of losing the country’s unity and a strong Vietnamese cultural identity and heritage. Yet, it is clear that the government has initiated important changes in the national language policy and planning, opening Vietnam further to the world. Following the release of this HE law, Vietnamese HE institutions (HEI) have established linkages with HEI abroad to develop so-called Advanced (AP), Joint (JP) and High Quality (HQP) Programs. Whereas HQP’s are locally developed with reference to foreign programs, A’s are designed and administered in close cooperation with international partners. Sometimes, Vietnamese students study the same curriculum as students in the partner universities. At other times, the foreign curriculum is adapted to local Vietnamese needs and circumstances. The assumption is that all teaching in these programs is done in English and that English medium foreign textbooks are to be used. Even if the government has been successful in establishing a sense of urgency regarding the need to integrate in the international research and teaching community in HEIs, it has not been fully efficient when it comes to stimulating the necessary preparatory work that HEIs need to do before starting with such an important reform (Tran & Marginson, 2018). Given that the students are major stakeholders in this whole endeavor, the government could have incited HEI to
  • 11. 5 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter set minimum EMI course entry requirements, specifically with respect to the level of mastery of the English language. Yet, at the national level, there is no consistency as regards the entry level requirements for students, who want to enroll in EMI programs in which at least 60% of the courses are taught in English. It is said that they should have a sufficient mastery of the English language, but no certificate of English mastery may be required, and no entry test has yet to be taken. When an English certificate is required, a limited to moderate user level, as defined by IELTS (International English Language Testing Services), or a level comparable to an A2 level (CEFR, Common European Framework of Languages) may be deemed sufficient. However, that level does not allow for easy content, comprehension or communication in the EMI content classroom. When taking the VSTEP, the Vietnamese Standardized Test of English Proficiency, and obtaining a B2 or even a C1 score, students are led to believe that they have obtained the internationally recognized CEFR B2 or C1 level, whereas in fact, the VSTEP is a test that is mainly focused on general English communication skills. Thus, it does not reflect international standards where students at the B2 or C1 level are required to demonstrate their understanding of and ability to discuss and write complex texts on abstract topics, including technical discussions in their field of specialization. As regards EMI lecturers, government documents require that they hold a PhD or a master’s degree obtained from an overseas university. Yet, as demonstrated by Nguyen (Nguyen, 2018, p. 123-124), the overseas criteria can be applied loosely, and lecturers who did not study in an Anglo-Saxon environment, or did not obtain an English-medium PhD or a master’s degree can also be asked to teach a course in English. Lecturers do not need to provide proof of their mastery of English at the CEFR C1-level. In addition, professional development toward better EMI teaching competence is left to the lecturer’s own initiative. Additionally, from research, it has become clear that lecturers have not been consulted, as to whether they feel up to teaching a content course in English, let alone supporting their students’ development of their English language proficiency (ELP) via their course. Therefore, lecturers may not experience full ownership of the reform; and they may experience feelings of uncertainty and inadequacy (Do & Le, 2017; Vu & Burns, 2014). As specialists in their area of study, they may fear a language-content trade-off to the detriment of content, something which to them is not acceptable. 3. The Methodology 3.1 Aim From the above review of the literature, it is clear that lecturers and students may be both supportive, as well as critical of CLIL education, and that local language policy-related decisions pertaining to the conditions, under which CLIL programs can co-determine their level of success. The aim of this study, then, was to explore students’ perceptions of CLIL teaching in Vietnam directly after the first phase of
  • 12. 6 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter the government’s “Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in the National Educational System, Period 2008-2020”, whereby the project came to an end. Using a validated questionnaire, the study aimed to answer the following research questions: (1) What are students’ perceptions of their mastery of English within EMI courses? (2) What are students’ perceptions of their lecturers’ English language proficiency within EMI courses? (3) What are students’ perceptions of the amount of teaching done in English within EMI courses? (4) What are students’ perceptions of the teaching materials used in EMI courses? (5) What are students’ preferred teaching activities within EMI courses? (6) To what extent do students feel they have been able to strengthen their English language skills during such EMI courses? The main hypothesis of the study was that growth in students’ English language proficiency would be limited; and it would depend on the amount of teaching time done in English, students’ initial ELP, lecturers’ ELP and the chosen teaching- and-learning activities. 3.2 The Research Instrument The study used a quantitative cross-sectional design (McKinley & Rose, 2019). A self-developed and pretested questionnaire survey (see Attachment 1) was used to explore the following aspects: students’ background (items 1-4), students’ perceptions of their mastery of English (items 5 -7), students ‘perceptions of the usefulness of teaching activities (items 8-16), students’ assessment of the amount of teaching time taking place in English (item 17), students’ views on whether or not CLIL education had helped them to improve their English language skills (item 18) or their content knowledge (item 19), students’ perceptions of their lecturers' English language proficiency (items 20-29), and, finally, students’ appreciation of teaching materials (items 30-41). The participants responded to each statement by using a five-point scale. The survey answers were coded and checked for reliability. A strong Cronbach's Alpha (alpha 0.843) was obtained. 3.3 Sample 3.3.1 Student sample The survey was distributed among freshmen CLIL students from one large Vietnamese public university (PU) that can be considered as being representative of other public universities in Vietnam. From all the EMI students, a randomized sample of 365 students was selected. From this sample, 104 students from diverse study backgrounds participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The participants were studying Business, ICT or Engineering. 3.3.2 University profile At PU, EMI was first introduced in 2010 in the study areas ‘Advanced Biotechnology’ and ‘Advanced Aquaculture’. To these, other disciplines were
  • 13. 7 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter added in 2015, namely the areas of Information Technology and International Business. Currently, this group of pioneers has been joined by EMI programs in ‘Chemistry Technology’, Electricity Technology’, ‘Construction Technology’, ‘Food Technology’, and ‘Finance and Banking’. Following government regulations, a minimum of 60% of courses are to be fully delivered in English. Lecturers were required to have obtained a PhD, or to have graduated from an overseas master’s program. However, they did not need to provide proof of a CEFR C1 level of mastery of the English language. From a limited set of interviews with lecturers, we learned that lecturers do not receive assistance when turning their Vietnamese-medium course into an EMI course, nor has a university-wide service been put in place to which they could turn for advice on how to integrate language learning into their content teaching, or to prepare course materials so that students can learn both the language and the content from them. Lecturers use English course books published by renowned publishers; since these are considered to be reliable sources of knowledge; and also they feel that their mastery of the English language does not permit them to write equivalent teaching materials themselves. Before 2020, students who wanted to enter an EMI program were required to take a computerized PU in specific general English placement test, designed after the TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) test. When they did not reach a B1 level, they were required to take an intensive 20 credit English course before they could enter the EMI program in their sophomore year. After having taken the course, students were expected to have reached a B1 level in English. Since 2020, and since students from English medium high school programs, offered in Schools for the Gifted, have entered university, admission is based on the students’ English and content scores obtained in three EMI high-school subjects. 3.4 The data analysis The data processing was done in accordance with the GDPR-file G-2021-3393, approved by the GDPR and Ethics Commission of Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven). Descriptive and inferential data analyses were performed with the help of SPSS version 20. 4. The Results 4.1 Students’ perceptions of their mastery of English As regards students’ self-assessment of their English language proficiency, 15% of the students indicated that they have a level below B1, with about 12% testifying to having a level as low as A1. 27% for assessing themselves, as having acquired a B1 level, and about half of the students, as having a B2 level. Only 4% said that they had a C1 level of ability. When asked whether they hold a certificate testifying to their level of English, 56 students or 54% said that they do. Yet, strikingly, all these students self-assessed their actual proficiency level to be lower than that which the certificate indicated. When inquiring into students’ confidence to use English during EMI courses, one quarter (25%) indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed with that statement.
  • 14. 8 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter They reported that they never feel sufficiently confident to use English; rather they feel frightened and stressed when they do not understand their lecturer, when s/he is speaking in English; and they worry that their final results would be poor, because of that. About one third of the students took a neutral stance in these matters, from which it follows that only about half of all freshmen feel confident enough to study in English in content courses, or to participate actively in EMI courses because of their limited English proficiency. 4.2 Students’ perceptions of their lecturers’ English language proficiency As regards students’ perceptions of their lecturers’ English language competence, as many as 58,5% of the students answered that they agreed or strongly agreed with their lecturers having excellent English language skills, from which it follows that no less than 41,5% indicated they did not agree with this statement. When asked about what skills students want to find in a lecturer, they indicated that they mostly expect their lecturers to have content knowledge (88% of students), to be able to explain that content well (88% of students) and have knowledge of specialized vocabulary (75% of students). Surprisingly, the variable that meets with the lowest overall agreement is that lecturers need to be able to use flawless English (38% of students). The ability to reformulate or to pronounce words correctly is deemed to be more important than that of grammatical correctness, when using English. 4.3 Students’ perceptions of the amount of teaching done in English When asked about the amount of teaching that is done in English in EMI-courses, the picture obtained testifies to the very diverse experiences. As can be seen from Figure 1, the largest group of students (62 %) indicated that they believed their lecturers use English for at least 50 to 60% of the teaching time, with 44% of students’ assessment being that most lecturers meet the 50-60% requirement put forward by PU. It follows that about 2/5 or 38% of the students believed that the lecturers speak Vietnamese during about half or more than half of the teaching time. Figure 1: Students’ perceptions of the amount of English used by lecturers
  • 15. 9 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 4.4 Students’ perceptions of teaching materials, as fostering their English proficiency When asked whether their teaching materials might help them to acquire course contents and the English language equally well, 46,2% of students said that they agreed with this statement, given that teaching materials are generally in English. Yet, more than half of the students voiced the opinion that content learning outweighs language learning. Only slightly over half of the EMI students (52%) said they believed that their teaching materials systematically fosters their English proficiency. 4.5 Students’ perceptions of teaching activities When asked about the usefulness of teaching activities, the students indicated they preferred teacher-centered activities, where the lecturers give oral presentations and explain English media scientific texts, next to allowing students to discuss the contents in groups. Independent individual work, such as making oral presentations in English, was considered to be less useful, by quite a large group of freshmen (30 to 40%). 4.6 Students’ assessment of the extent to which they feel they have been able to strengthen their English language skills during EMI courses Finally, the questionnaire asked whether the respondents believed that they have been able to improve their English language skills. As many as 69% of the students ticked the agree or strongly agree box, with none of the students strongly disagreeing with the statement; and the remaining 31% of freshmen indicating that they were not really sure about this issue. 5. Discussion The findings from our survey have provided important information regarding the extent to which EMI courses can be considered CLIL courses and about how students experience their learning and teaching situation. The findings demonstrate the lack of growth in English-language proficiency among a large group of PU freshmen, thereby confirming our main hypothesis. Both lecturers and students were struggling in EMI courses, which confirms the earlier work of, for example, Nguyen (2018), Tran and Phuong (2019), and Macaro et al. (2018). In many cases, this struggle follows from lecturers’ and students’ insufficient level of mastery of the English language. Our findings also indicated that EMI courses cannot be characterized as true CLIL courses, suggesting that a dual focus on both the content and the English language teaching is not yet in place. Traditional approaches to teaching (lecture format combined with group discussions, which, as it was noticed during our class observations, often take place in Vietnamese, not in English). These are preferred activities in which the students are obliged to demonstrate their personal mastery of content-and-language in an integrated way, for example during an oral presentation followed by a Q&A session. Even if the teaching materials may be in English, too many students indicated that their proficiency in English does not substantially improve in an EMI course – thanks to more extensive purposive English language input. Students with a lower language proficiency indicated they do not always understand their lecturers; and that they feel anxious to speak
  • 16. 10 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter English. A large part of their teaching is done in Vietnamese, which may either follow from lecturers’ awareness of students’ comprehension difficulties, or from their own lack of mastery of this medium of instruction. Furthermore, too large a group of students indicated that they feel their current level of English does not allow them to benefit fully from EMI courses both in terms of content and language teaching, is an unfortunate finding, but this should not surprise us; since it confirms the earlier findings (Phuong & Nguyen, 2019). When self-assessing their proficiency level, students systematically indicate that the English language certificate they obtained seems to have overrated their actual proficiency. This may follow from the fact that students have been studying for the English-language proficiency test, that they wanted to take, with many practice materials being available that could help test takers prepare specific answers to specific exam questions. This is true for the VSTEP, and also for other international English-language tests. However, from learning answers to exam questions by heart, it does not necessarily follow that one can actually transfer vocabulary to new situations, or to use specific grammatical structures independently. Moreover, as the entrance test freshmen take a general English test, passing that test does not guarantee that students would then be able to process scientific reading materials or foreign language textbooks, which may be written for native speakers of English, let alone that they would then be able to learn a language from these materials; since they may have to devote all of their cognitive resources to the comprehension and study of the subject matter. PU would be wise to address the issue of the entry requirements for students. It appears that at present, with English proficiency levels of students being on the low side when graduating from high school, it is currently PU’s own responsibility to prepare freshmen well for EMI / CLIL education via intensive English courses, as is done already now. Furthermore, PU may be advised to opt for a more gradual build-up of the EMI program, with more courses being taught in Vietnamese in the freshmen year, but with a gradual reduction of Vietnamese medium courses in the sophomore year, to end with a full English-medium program during the students’ graduation years. Our findings regarding lecturers’ use of English during EMI courses give food for thought. If it is PU’s strategy and ambition to allow its outgoing graduates to participate in EMI master programs overseas, or to attract incoming foreign students who are not yet able to speak or read Vietnamese in their High Quality and Advanced Programs, major changes in current teaching approaches are needed. Indeed, the only way to attract foreign students would be to teach EMI fully in English, to provide English-medium descriptions of courses and course procedures, and to demand English entry levels that are not below the CEFR. B1; and preferably the B2 level, especially for advanced courses. It follows from this these lecturers should be able to provide proof of their mastery of English at the CEFR C1 level, by successfully completing an internationally recognized English language test, but especially by demonstrating their mastery of the language in their teaching. In addition, lecturers need to be familiar with CLIL
  • 17. 11 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter teaching strategies and to be able to implement them during their courses, so that students can integrate the learning of specialized vocabulary with content learning and can practice and further enhance their critical thinking and academic presentation skills in the English language. Nevertheless, it is important to strike a good balance between using Vietnamese and English in courses where not all the students have mastered the English language well enough. If lecturers decide to explain difficult concepts and procedures in Vietnamese, so as to prevent subject content loss, this strategy may be wholly appropriate, especially in view of the fact that universities, like the one under scrutiny in this study, face the danger of having larger groups of students who opt out of EMI programs; because they experience them as being too far above their current abilities. This might damage PU’s reputation as a university where it is said that excellent conditions are in place for supporting students to learn. Furthermore, it may be advisable to develop a CLIL methodology course for content lecturers, and to provide them with personalized CLIL teaching support at their request. This approach could lead to true CLIL teaching, in which the learners can learn both precise subject matter contents and accurate academic and professional English in an integrated way. In this way, they would be able to enjoy participating actively in EMI courses; and they could also acquire what is said to be typically Anglo-Saxon academic and professional skills. Furthermore, students should receive dedicated instructions on how to best learn in EMI courses, learning-appropriate strategies to read English-medium academic texts, so that they can maximize their understanding and application of subject matter, whilst also enlarging their discipline-related and academic lexicon and language skills. A limitation of this study lay in the number of respondents it could attract. Only 104 respondents participated in the investigation. Following this, we could not explore potential differences between the various subgroups of students, for example with respect to age, number of years of EMI-experience or disciplinary field. Even if we are well-aware of the fact that we have mapped students’ perceptions only and have not had the opportunity to actually attend EMI classrooms for a limited number of times, we are confident that students’ answer reliability mirrors, which reflect the actual teaching situation at PU, as they confirm what we observed during our own classroom observations. In future, via the collection of more and more longitudinal data, it should be possible to determine when students become truly ready for CLIL teaching; and when perhaps the teaching rhythm could be accelerated. When lecturers could be given the guarantee that an initial slowdown in learning within a CLIL context, especially in the first years of university study, this would surely be followed by more substantial learning in which the contents and the language are integrated, they may be more motivated to teaching according to CLIL methodology, leaving EMI teaching, which may actually be a more Vietnamese-medium teaching than the EMI-teaching, behind them. In the future, it would also be interesting to study to what extent high school students, who have graduated from the schools for the gifted and have entered
  • 18. 12 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter EMI courses at PU for the first time in the schoolyear 2020-2021 do better than students who did not attend such CLIL secondary schools before entering an EMI program at PU. The question to be answered is whether the effort these high school students have made to study mathematics, physics and chemistry in English has really been worthwhile? Do students who take an intensive English course during the first year of their university education not keep up with these students as regards their mastery of the English language, or worse, would they surpass them in terms of content learning? Would all these students remain motivated to support CLIL learning? Does their motivation fluctuate, and if so, why? Are they able to maintain the image of an ideal self? (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). Here, we are referring to one who can participate with ease in the international academic community? Would they go to study further abroad, and thus contribute to Vietnam’s reputation as a reliable business partner? 6. Conclusion The study reported here has looked into CLIL implementation realities against the background of MOET’s project “Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in the National Educational System, Period 2008-2020”, which has now come to an end. Even if the government has been successful in establishing a sense of urgency regarding the need to integrate in the international research and teaching community in HEIs, it has not been fully efficient when it comes to stimulating the necessary preparatory work that HEIs need to do before starting with such an important reform, which touches the heart of education, as it affects the degree of comprehensibility of communication in HEI courses (Tran & Marginson, 2018). Our study reveals that actual teaching reality may still be far removed from the desired reality, namely that lecturers are fully able to teach content courses in English and that students are wholly ready to participate in these courses. From the data, it is clear that lecturers are devoted to content teaching and that students appreciate their efforts. However, the case of PU has shown that sustainable CLIL teaching also depends on improved students’ and lecturers’ preparation. One thing that practitioners should take to heart, is to inform students of the language level required for successful participation in the course. Open communication may motivate students to try and achieve the desired ELP level before entering the CLIL program. Another thing is to support students in the acquisition of CLIL learning skills through systematically directing students’ attention to important content and language features throughout their courses, in order to best serve their students, lecturers would be wise to devote themselves to the acquisition of CLIL teaching methodology, including the preparation of teaching materials and the selection of teaching formats. 7. References Aguilar, M., & Rodríguez, R. (2012). Lecturer and student perceptions on CLIL at a Spanish university. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(2), 183–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.615906 Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). Content and Language Integrated Learning (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. www.cambridge.org/9780521130219
  • 19. 13 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Do, H. M., & Le, L. T. D. (2017). Content lecturers’ challenges in EMI classroom. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.256802 Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2009). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (Vol. 36). Multilingual Matters Bristol. Fajardo Dack, T. M., Argudo, J., & Abad, M. (2020). Language and Teaching Methodology Features of CLIL in University Classrooms: A Research Synthesis. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 22(1 SE-Theme Review), 40–54. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487085.13878 Goris, J., Denessen, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2019). The contribution of CLIL to learners’ international orientation and EFL confidence. Language Learning Journal, 47(2), 246–256. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1275034 Graham, K. M., Choi, Y., Davoodi, A., Razmeh, S., & Dixon, L. Q. (2018). Language and Content Outcomes of CLIL and EMI: A Systematic Review. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 11(1), 19–38. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2018.11.1.2 Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J. (2018a). A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36–76. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000350 Marsh, D., Mehisto, P., Wolff, D., & Frígols-Martín, M. J. (2012). European Framework for CLIL Teacher Education. A framework for the professional development of CLIL teachers. In Encuentro (Vol. 21). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000243 McKinley, J., & Rose, H. (2019). The routledge handbook of research methods in applied linguistics. In The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Applied Linguistics. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367824471 Nguyen, H. T. (2018). English-medium-instruction management: The missing piece in the internationalisation puzzle of Vietnamese higher education. Internationalisation in Vietnamese higher education (pp. 119–137). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978- 3-319-78492-2_7 Nuñez Asomoza, A. (2015). Students’ perceptions of the impact of CLIL in a Mexican BA program. Profile Issues in TeachersProfessional Development, 17(2), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v17n2.47065 Peukert, H., & Gogolin, I. (2017). Dynamics of Linguistic Diversity (Vol. 6). John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/hsld.6 Phuong, Y. H., & Nguyen, T. T. (2019). Students’ Perceptions towards the Benefits and Drawbacks of EMI Classes. English Language Teaching, 12(5), 88–100. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v12n5p88 Tran, L. T., & Marginson, S. (2018). Internationalisation of Vietnamese higher education: An overview. Internationalisation in Vietnamese Higher Education, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78492-2 Tran, T. T. Q., & Phuong, H. Y. (2019). An investigation into English preparatory programs for EMI learning in higher education institutes in Vietnam. Can Tho University Journal of Science, 11(2), 51–60. https://doi.org/10.22144/ctu.jen.2019.024 Tsuchiya, K., & Pérez Murillo, M. D. (2015). Comparing the language policies and the students’ perceptions of CLIL in tertiary education in Spain and Japan. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 8(1), 25–35. https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2015.8.1.3 Vu, N. T. T., & Burns, A. (2014). English as a medium of instruction: Challenges for Vietnamese tertiary lecturers. Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(3), 1–31. http://www.asiatefl.org/main/download_pdf.php?i=59&c=1412065511&fn=11 _3_01.pdf
  • 20. 14 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Appendix 1 QUESTIONNAIRE ON STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF EMI AND CLIL COURSES This questionnaire is about the present implementation of Content and English language integrated learning and teaching at our university. We hope that you can give your feedback on specialized subjects taught in English. Therefore, your answers will help our university to improve the quality and the effectiveness of your academic discipline courses taught in English in the future. The main objective of this questionnaire is to gather information about your impressions and reactions to content and knowledge teaching in English. This questionnaire is anonymous and confidential. The obtained information will be only used for research purposes. Your responses will NOT be passed on to your instructors. Thank you very much for your collaboration. Section 1: Student’s Background 1. Student’s Email 2. Your major: 3. Your age: 4. Your faculty / college : Section 2: Your mastery of English 5.Do you hold any English certificate and if yes, which exactly? (e.g. A2/KET ; B1/ PET, B2 (FCE); C1 (CAE); IELTS, TOEIC, TOFLE) 6.What is your level of English proficiency? Beginner / A1□ Elementary/ A2 □ Intermediate/B1 □ Upper-Intermediate / B2 □ Advanced/ C1 □ Proficiency/ C2 □ 7. How would you rate your English proficiency related to your specific field of study? 1.poor 2.fair  3.good 4.very good 5. excellent
  • 21. 15 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Section 3: How would you evaluate the following course tasks and teaching activities? Not useful at all Slightly useful Quite useful Useful Extremely useful 8. Presentations related to content-subject issues 9. Group work to analyse and discuss issues related to your scientific field. 10. Individual project to present or report issues related to your scientific field. 11. Oral presentations on issues related to your scientific field 12. Recording students’ views according to their oral presentations 13. Assessing and discussing presentations made by other groups. 14. Processing scientific texts. 15. Projects relevant to your scientific field. 16. The use of computers to carry out projects relevant to your scientific field. 17. What is the percentage of teaching time that is carried through in English? ______________ 18. The integrated content and English learning has helped me improve my English-language skills Strongly disagree  disagree  neutral agree  strongly agree 
  • 22. 16 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 19. The integrated content and English learning has helped me to develop my knowledge in other content courses also. Strongly disagree  disagree  neutral agree  strongly agree  Section 4: Your instructors/lecturer’ English language proficiency 20.I think that the instructors teaching my subject-content courses have excellent English language competence Strongly disagree disagree  neutralagree strongly agree  When your teacher speaks in English in CLIL class, what do you consider important? Not at all important Very unimportant Neither important nor unimportant important Extremely Important 21. the correct pronunciation of words 22. teachers’ explanations and instructions 23. knowledge of vocabulary 24. knowledge of the contents 25. the use of facial expressions, gestures and body movements 26. grammatical correctness 27. check that the others understand me when I speak 28. the ability to reformulate (e.g. teacher can change and modify questions, teaching instructions, plans for students Understanding the contents 29.Others:
  • 23. 17 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Section 4: Teaching materials Statements strongly disagree disagree Neutral agree Strongly agree 30. The present materials can satisfy language and content- teaching equally. 31. The content element outweighs the language element in the current materials. 32.Language element outweighs content element in the current materials. 33. The current materials systematically foster English proficiency. 34. The current materials foster learning skills development. (e.g. They can improve the way you study subject-content and English) 35. The current materials foster learners’ autonomy. (e.g. You have the ability to study English and contents in an integrated way by making use of my free time to study, keeping a record of my study, opting out of class activities to practice, catching chances to take part in activities such as pair/ group discussion.) 36. The current materials foster cooperative learning.
  • 24. 18 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 37. The current materials help create a safe learning environment. (The materials can guide you on how to study the subject-content effectively; they provide questions, knowledge summary, and the glossary) 38. The current materials seek ways of incorporating authentic language and authentic language use. 39. The current materials foster critical thinking. 40. The current materials foster the learning in the course to be meaningful. 41. The current materials meet the appropriate technical requirements, like pictures, format, or multimedia. -
  • 25. 19 ©Authors This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 19-34, December 2021 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.20.12.2 Received Sep 11, 2021; Revised Dec 03, 2021; Accepted Dec 07, 2021 Industrial Engagement in the Technical and Vocational Training (TVET) System Mohd Azlan Mohammad Hussain, Rafeizah Mohd Zulkifli* and Arasinah Kamis Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9760-1010 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3621-2668 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3233-4027 Mark D. Threeton The Pennsylvania State University, State College, U.S.A. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2255-4704 Khaizer Omar Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0794-5018 Abstract. From 2010 through to 2021, this study critically assessed Malaysia's government efforts to increase industrial involvement in the country's TVET system. The goal of this research is to look at what the Malaysian government has done to strengthen industrial involvement in the country's TVET system from 2010 to 2021, as well as to make recommendations for any future changes. A textual narrative synthesis, based on three elements: strategy, execution, and the impact of those policies in promoting industrial involvement in the Malaysian TVET system, was used to conduct a systematic review. Five government policies since 2010 have been extracted from 231 linked-literature sources, each of which presented a strategy to improve industry-TVET cooperation. All of these government measures, according to the report, adopted a corporatist paradigm, in order to encourage corporate participation in the national TVET system. This was done by providing various incentives, including tax breaks, training grants, and subsidies. Improvements have been suggested to boost the industry-TVET relationship in Malaysia, particularly by giving connected industries some obligations to participate in the country's human-resource development, in comparison to the German model of the dual Apprenticeship programme. Keywords: industrial engagement; technical and vocational education; vocational education; dual system; industry-TVET partnership; Malaysian TVET; Malaysian government policy
  • 26. 20 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 1. Introduction Malaysia is a developing country with a strong emphasis on industrial, agricultural, and service industries. As Malaysia progresses toward becoming a developed country, a considerable effort has been made to build local human resources, in order to meet the present and the future job demand. Since 2011, the country has made substantial efforts to develop the local human resources through government incentives and initiatives, in order to improve the country's TVET system, thereby resulting in the production of future talent for the country. Malaysia has pledged to become a society that achieves sustainable growth, equitable wealth distribution, and a good quality of living for all of its residents by 2030, as part of its "2030 Share-Prosperity Vision" (Malaysian Ministry of Economic Affair, 2019). Using advanced technology in the industrial and service sectors, as well as boosting investment in the machinery and equipment sectors, are some of its efforts to attain these aims. As a result, Malaysia wants a minimum of 30% of its workforce to be qualified as high-skilled employees by 2030, in order to meet the demands of the job market. TVET has risen to the top of the priority list for accomplishing these goals. Although Malaysia's TVET system is on track to produce skilled people in demand by local industry, TVET products must exceed the quality standards set by the particular industries or corporations. According to the Malaysian Economic Plan Unit (2015), feedback from industry has revealed a mismatch between graduates' abilities, knowledge, and attitudes and what is expected in the job situation. In order to address this problem, we need a formula for increasing the breadth and depth of industrial participation in the TVET systems, in order to establish high-quality training programmes that meets the needs of businesses and those of the present labour market. Industrial involvement in the TVET system is usually done on three levels: (a) industrial experience; (b) collaboration and partnership; and (c) law (Yunos, Sern & Hamdan, 2018). According to Yunos, Sern, and Hamdan (2018), most TVET institutions request industrial experience through internship programmes from industry; because this is the best platform for students to apply their knowledge and skills in a real- world setting, while also understanding the dynamic world of work. In order to solve each problem, the partnership or collaboration parts require synergy among all the industries and TVET centres (Yunos, Sern & Hamdan, 2018). For example, companies contribute input and participate actively in the development of TVET curricula; while TVET centres do the necessary research and development to tackle the industrial concerns. The third pillar, legislation, refers to government policies and regulations regarding industrial engagement in the TVET system, particularly various incentives granted by the government to encourage industrial participation in their TVET system (Postiglione & Tang, 2019). Although industrial participation in the TVET system is critical, gaining their participation is difficult; since there is still a grey area in determining the win-win benefits for both parties. Every TVET
  • 27. 21 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter centre is keen to form strategic partnerships with businesses, in order to provide students with the necessary industrial experience through internships, apprenticeships, on-the-job training, and other programmes. These exercises are critical in assisting students in becoming physically and intellectually ready for a job (Tan & Tang, 2016). However, TVET colleges can only offer a limited number of mutually beneficial services to industry. In Malaysia, the On-the-Job Training (OJT) programme for TVET students is currently the most important industrial contribution to meeting the needs of training centres, particularly for graduates from local TVET universities. However, their contributions are lower than that which TVET institutions had hoped for; because they require significant industrial input in the creation and improvement of their programmes, in order for them to be marketable. On the industrial level, the present cooperation with TVET centres tends to be one-sided, due to the lack of mutual interest that TVET institutions can offer to potential industrial partners (Pillay et al., 2013). The main benefits of partnering with TVET universities are usually letters of recognition, tax revenue, and personnel recruiting. However, only tax revenue appears to be a convincing and profitable incentive for the industries; whereas new recruitment after OJT is becoming less popular, as several studies have shown that many employers still prefer to hire foreign labour rather than local labour, because of the lower wages (Norsi'ee et al., 2014). The Malaysian government has taken these challenges seriously, and the action plan has been incorporated into most government programmes and national planning, as well as being revised on a regular basis. Consequently, this research will critically examine all the government policies and plans dating back to 2010, in terms of incentives and tactics to increase industrial engagement in Malaysia's technical and vocational training system. This analysis was carried out by the author, based on three major elements: strategy, implementation, and impact. 2. Methodology This research is based on a ten-year comprehensive literature evaluation of Malaysian government policies and pertinent publications. The primary source of information in this study comprised secondary data from government official papers, such as budget planning, annual reports, and policy filing, which was supplemented with journal articles from internet resources. Popay et al. (2006) and Lucas et al. (2007) proposed a method of textual narrative synthesis, which was implemented in this study, by using a standard data- extraction format to extract various study characteristics (e.g., issues, findings, suggestions, etc.) from each piece of literature. According to textual narrative synthesis, these studies can be divided into homogeneous groupings. Then, using the data retrieved, the similarities and differences between the various research projects were evaluated (Lucas et al., 2007). The quantitative counts were able to show the number of studies with each attribute, because of the consistent coding
  • 28. 22 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter style. To address the research question, a commentary on the strength of evidence could be employed (Lucas et al., 2007). The first step in this research is to find relevant material by using general keywords, such as "Malaysian Development Plan" and "Malaysian government policy" in the Google Scholar database. A total of 231 literature sources have been identified, as a result of this approach. The selection and refining process was carried out until five primary literatures were chosen to be analysed by utilising the textual narrative synthesis (see Figure 1). The technique adopted by Almestahiri et al. (2017) in their literature-review study was followed for the refining and selecting process. These five literatures were chosen because, in addition to being within the researcher's timeline, they had a specific objective relating to industry-TVET system collaboration (i.e., the years 2010-2021). The remaining literature sources were employed to back up the study's discussion and findings. Figure 1 depicts the overall process of selecting the literature, as implemented by Almestahiri et al. (2017). Figure 1: The literature-selection process The selected literature was critically examined for parallels and variations in strategy, implementation, and impact of government policies on increasing industrial participation in the Malaysian TVET system. The author also made certain that all of the study's conclusions would be reported professionally, thereby avoiding faked or fabricated data, as well as any sort of plagiarism. 3. The Findings Malaysia's 10th Development Plan (10th MPDP, 2011-2015) and Malaysia's 11th Development Plan (11th MDP, 2016-2020), which are the five-year Malaysian blueprints for developing the country's social, environmental, and economic status, are two of the five Malaysian government policies chosen for textual narrative-synthesis analysis. The government's goal to offer a fair standard of life to all Malaysians by 2030, is the third policy in Malaysia's Shared-Prosperity Vision 2030, which was presented in 2019. The fourth policy is the National Recorded in search database (n=231) Recorded Screening (n=231) Full article accessed (n=27) Textual narrative synthesis (n=5) Excluded (n= 204) Unrelated to research study (n =132) Time period below than 2010 (n=72) Excluded (n= 22) Unrelated to research objective (n =22) Identification Screening Eligibility Included
  • 29. 23 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Economic Recovery Plan (PENJANA), which focuses on labour-market stabilisation; and this was implemented in 2020, as a response to the social and economic catastrophe brought on by the global pandemic of Covid-19. The last policy chosen for further analysis was the Strategic Programme to Empower the People and the Economy (PEMERKASA, 2021), which is highly focused on initiatives to boost economic growth, to support businesses, and to continue targeted assistance to people and the sectors still affected by Covid-19. 3.1 Malaysia’s 10th Development Plan (MDP) The Malaysian government is preparing the country to become a developed nation by 2020 through its 10th Development Plan (2011-2015), which requires the country to double down on productivity and innovation, as well as to prepare a generation to become a creative and innovative workforce (Malaysian Economic Plan Unit [EPU], 2010). Furthermore, the government is required to implement the Vocational Education Transformation within that timeframe, in order to transform Malaysia into a developed country with high-income residents (Abdul Rahman, Mohammad Hussain & Mohammad Zulkifli, 2020). In order to fulfil the needs of developed countries, Malaysia's government has recognised the need to improve Malaysian skills in 2010, in order to promote employability by addressing the future job-market needs. The 10th MDP outlined a strategy to rebrand Malaysian TVET by updating and harmonising its curriculum quality with the industrial requirements, while also seeking greater enrolment in the TVET programmes. The introduction of Industrial Leading Bodies (ILBs) to promote the public- private partnership and to build the industry’s recognition of the Malaysian TVET system is one of the important initiatives made to restructure Malaysian TVET, in order to render it more industrially oriented. The ILBs are made up of representatives from various business sectors, who play an important role in offering feedback and guidance on the Malaysian TVET system, the in light of the current and future market trends. Their advice is primarily focused on the following topics: 1. The establishment of an occupational framework, which examines the structure, job description, and abilities required for a specific industrial vocation. 2. NOSS (National Occupational Skills Standard), is a collection of standard abilities expected of skilled professionals in certain occupational categories, based on the current industrial needs. 3. The necessity for upskilling, new skilling, and skill certification among current industrial workers. 4. Conducting research (Department of Skills Development, 2020) Thirty ILBs are expected to be actively participating in Malaysia's TVET system by 2019. The Malaysian Department of Skills and Development has developed the National Occupational Framework (NOF) and the National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS), as guidelines for curriculum development and revision in Malaysian TVET programmes, together with the help of expert panels comprising industrial experts and practitioners from specific ILBs occupation sectors. The
  • 30. 24 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Occupational Framework defines a certain occupation's work scope, in terms of job competencies. The National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) is then developed, with a total of 1,819 Malaysian National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS) developed in 2019 as a guideline for producing curricular content for Malaysia's TVET training programme. Additionally, this offers companies instructions for training and examination requirements for their employees, in order for them to become trained and certified personnel, in accordance with the applicable standards and norms. Another strategy implemented, as part of the 10th MDP, was to engage Malaysian industries in the TVET system, by streamlining TVET delivery through the National Dual-Training System (NDTS). The NDTS is an apprenticeship programme, in which 70 to 80 per cent of the training or the practical session is conducted in the real workplace; while 20-30 per cent of the theoretical lesson is conducted in TVET training centres, either through block-release (i.e. one week in a training centre and four weeks in the workplace for every month) or day-release (i.e. one day in a training centre and five days a week at the workplace) or day- release (i.e. one day in a training centre (Ali et al., 2015). The NDTS has received a lot of attention, because it provides: 1. Future skilled workers with on-the-job training. 2. More opportunities for an apprentice to be hired because the company pays close attention to their performance and abilities. 3. An apprentice's productive contribution that helps both the employer and the apprentice. Although the NDTS was first implemented in the Malaysian TVET system in 2005, the government has budgeted a total of MYR 150 million (about USD 35 million) under the 10th MDP in 2010, in order to encourage more students, training centres, and enterprises to participate in the NDTS programme. Furthermore, industries which provide NDTS training programmes are eligible for the following benefits: 1. A claim on the levy; 2. Deduction for income tax (single tax deduction); 3. A stipend for each pupil they have tutored (USD 50 per student). The government has set aside USD1.7 million to teach experienced employers in the workplace, who will coach apprentice trainees, to help them to give training to their apprentices more successfully. During the 10th MDP era, 20,000 people are projected to join the programme, primarily school dropouts, in order to contribute to the national skilled-talent pool. The 10th MDP's strategies had a substantial influence on increasing access to excellent TVET programmes and increasing annual enrolment in the Malaysian TVET system from 113 000 in 2010 to 164 000 in 2013 (Economic Plan Unit, 2015). Moreover, during the 10th MDP, the National Dual Training System benefited 38 000 employees, including 12 835 teenagers, who were able to find work after completing their training programme (Economic Plan Unit, 2015).
  • 31. 25 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter 3.2 Malaysia’s 11th Development Plan The Malaysian government released the 12th iteration of the Malaysian- Development Plan (2016-2020) in 2015, as the ultimate blueprint for attaining developed-nation status by 2020. The transformation of the Malaysian TVET, in order to satisfy industrial need, was one of the major issues in the 11th MDP. The goal was to shift the country's economic activities from labour-intensive to knowledge- and innovation-intensive. The transition is expected to result in the creation of 1.5 million new jobs, 60 per cent of which would require TVET-related skills, making TVET a game-changing mechanism for developing skilled employees that the country needs (Economic Planning Unit, 2015). A major emphasis has been placed on enhancing collaboration with industries, in order to continue to expand the number of people who enrol in TVET, and to improve the program's quality and institutions, and to raise the overall profile of Malaysian TVET (Economic Plan Unit, 2015). Through the implementation of the tenth plan, the Malaysian TVET system has been improved by allowing industry-led programmes to eliminate skills mismatch and to boost graduate employability. From curriculum creation to student enrolling, training delivery, and job placement, the industry-led TVET programme entails collaboration between industry and TVET schools throughout the entire process. Through collaboration with the industrial players, an Industry- Skills Committee (ISC) has been formed to identify the relevant competencies for each occupation, as well as to develop and proposed new partnership models that might enable industrial involvement at every level of the Malaysian TVET system, particularly in the areas of curriculum design and delivery, in order to ensure that they are job-oriented; and that they meet the needs of the current job market. The ISC also reviews TVET training modules to see if they might be confronted with a problem, project, or product based on real-world industrial activities, in order to expose students to real-world situations. The effectiveness of industrial engagement in the NDTS programme during the 10th MDP was reinforced during the 11th MDP by setting a target of 6 000 skilled people created annually from this programme (Department of Skills Development, 2020). The key reason for these successful collaborations is that this programme benefits the company or industry in terms of employee recruiting; furthermore, it allows its employees to participate in this programme for upskilling and reskilling, in order to be certified as skilled workers (Department of Skills Development, 2020). The NDTS programmes have been allotted USD 9.5 million in the 11th plan. The new 1MASTER NDTS was created in response to the specific human-capital requirements of Malaysia's industrial region. The Iskandar Malaysian Development Corridor, for example, is a big new industrial sector located in Malaysia's southern region. The youth and the current workers in those locations have benefited from the 1MASTER NDTS initiative, which has provided opportunities for skill training and employment.
  • 32. 26 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter The Structural-Internship Programme (SIP), a systematically organised internship programme for undergraduates and TVET trainers from all over the country, in order to equip them with real working experience, was introduced through the 11th MDP, as another new incentive to maximise industrial involvement in the Malaysian TVET system. Previously, internship programmes were managed separately by TVET training centres. Most of the time, TVET centres or trainers, must discover the related businesses or industries for their internship programmes. The SIP makes the internship placement process much easier to navigate. The Malaysian government established the Talent Corporation Malaysia Berhad (TalentCorp) to create a database of possible candidates and sectors for industrial training programmes. Malaysia's talent strategy to become a dynamic talent hub is planned and organised by TalentCorp, an organisation under the Ministry of Human Resources. TVET trainers have additional options in picking business and industrial centres, in order to gain work experience with TalentCorp's internship database, while business centres can choose individuals to groom, as their future employers. TVET trainers, who are able to get an internship through the SIP programmes are entitled to a monthly minimum allowance of USD100.00 (Malaysia Ringgit 500.00) from the employer (TalentCorp, 2018). The SIP's participating company, on the other hand, benefits from a double tax reduction, if they meet the government's requirements. These include: (a) registering with the TalentCorp; (b) providing a minimum monthly allowance of about USD100.00; (c) offering a minimum 10- week internship duration; and (d) clearly defined learning outcomes for their interns (TalentCorp, 2018). The SIP programmes also assist the company by increasing the awareness of its internship programmes and developing stronger ties with TVET universities. Malaysian SIP programmes have successfully administered internship programmes for 94 133 students at 16 219 organisations, as of December 31, 2020. In addition, the double tax reduction incentive has benefited 11 161 businesses (TalentCorp, 2021). 3.3 Malaysia Shares Prosperity Vision 2030 In 2019, the Malaysian government, which had hoped to become a developed country by 2020, was depressed by its dismal performance; and it was understood that the country needed to pursue an additional vision, which is: “To make Malaysia a country that achieves sustainable economic growth, along with fair, equitable and inclusive economic distribution, across all income groups, ethnicities, regions and supply chains. The emphasis is on the principle of equitable outcome, rather than on opportunities” (Economic Planning Unit, 2019, p. 5). The Education and TVET enabler will be developed through this strategy, in order to enhance the number of skilled people to meet the industrial needs, and to build a highly educated workforce. As a result, industrial involvement in the TVET
  • 33. 27 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter system was projected to assist the country in producing 35 per cent of high-skilled workers in the labour force and to improve educational and training programmes at universities and training institutes, in accordance with the industry’s expectations and requirements. Consequently, this policy has strengthened the motivation and initiative put in place by previous MDPs, in order to increase industrial engagement in Malaysia's TVET system (Economic Panning Unit, 2019). 3.4. Post Covid-19 Pandemic Policy (PENJANA & PEMERKASA) Since February 2020, Malaysia, like the rest of the world, has been affected by the global Covid-19 epidemic. Since March 2020, a series of Movement Control Orders (MCO) has been in place, in order to combat the spread of the virus. The government's MCO has contributed to the slowing of the country's economic growth (Leo and David, 2020). Many firms and industries have had to temporarily halt their operations, resulting in massive economic losses and increased unemployment (Idris, Andi Kele, Lily & Kim Lian, 2020). In response to these concerns, the Malaysian government has announced a MYR250 billion emergency fund to support citizens, as well as small and medium businesses (SMEs) throughout the pandemic (Jalil, 2020). The government has also implemented a number of social-protection and employment-related initiatives, including the Prihatin Rakyat Economic-Stimulus Package (Prihatin) for social assistance and the National Economic Recovery Plan (Penjana), in order to stabilise the labour market (Rahman, Jasmin & Schmillen, 2020). In Malaysia, the Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the local TVET system. Since skill-based professions are classified as vulnerable and require on-site employment, many TVET graduates and skilled workers have lost their positions. The country's Movement-Control Order prevents their worksites from operating (Rahman, Jasmin & Schmillen, 2020). The government has responded to this problem by implementing the Prihatin policy, which introduces time-limited wage incentives, to encourage staff retention. The wage subsidies help firms to pay their workers at a rate of MYR 600 per month for up to six months, during this important period, thereby ensuring that they remain employed (Malaysia Ministry of Finance [MOF], 2020). Consequently, the initiative is able to retain almost 2.75 million individuals in their jobs (Malaysia Prime Ministry Office, 2020). In addition, as a solution to unemployment difficulties, the government offers firms financial incentives to hire new workers by paying up to 60% (maximum of MYR 6000.00) of their new workers' monthly wage for a six-month period. Employers can also claim up to MYR 7000 for any training courses provided to their new employees (PERKESO, 2020). At least 300,000 new jobs are predicted to have been created as a result of this programme. Since TVET has traditionally been Malaysia's most important tool for combating youth unemployment, the apprenticeship programme has also been employed as a tactic for assisting the country in reducing the societal impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Through collaboration between industries and TVET training centres,
  • 34. 28 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter the government has budgeted MYR 2 billion to equip youth and jobless individuals with the critical skills relevant to the needs of the current job market (MOF, 2020). These funds were used to provide training to at least 200,000 people, in preparation for future jobs. In addition, the government has funded upskilling programmes for industrial workers in crucial areas, such as electronics and information and communication technology at a number of TVET colleges (MOF, 2020). The government has established the Human-Resource Development Corporation (HRDF) to set up a database, so that all employers, TVET training providers, and individuals may receive better access to all of the government's incentives during the important pandemic issue (HRD Corp, 2021). Through the Strategic Programme to Empower the People and the Economy (PEMERKASA), another MYR 20 billion will be injected by the government in 2021 to continue the time-bound wage subsidies, apprentices, as well as up- skilling and new-skilling programmes, in order to assist people and those sectors still affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, while also boosting economic growth and supporting business (Malaysia Prime Ministry Office, 2021). 3.5 The Overall Findings All the above policies of the Malaysian government have been analysed and synthesised; Table 1 summarises the findings. According to these findings, the Malaysian government has actively begun programmes to connect the country's TVET system with industry from 2010 to 2021. The National Dual-Training System (NDTS) is a significant TVET programme used by the government to connect the national TVET system with local industries, as shown in the table. The Malaysian government has regularly committed a large amount of funds to improve the collaboration between industries and the national TVET system across these time periods. The Malaysian government has also made a concerted effort to encourage industry’s participation in the country's TVET system, by proactively revising and offering incentives to industries across all the policies implemented over the last ten years, in terms of levy claims, current industrial workers' benefits, and tax reductions. To encourage more industrial involvement in the country's TVET system, the tax- reduction incentive for industries that contribute to TVET programmes has been quadrupled since 2016; and pay subsidies will be introduced in 2020. Those government policies and incentives have had a substantial impact on Malaysian human-resource development by promoting more industrial engagement in the country's TVET system, which includes NDTS, internships, upskilling and new- skilling programmes, as well as job-retention programmes (Department of Skills Development, 2020; Talent Corp, 2021). Table 1: Industries-TVET system partnership initiative, incentive, and impact across Malaysian Government policies olicies/Documents 10th MDP 11th MDP SPV PENJAN A PEMERKA SA
  • 35. 29 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter Initiative 1. Industry-Led Bodies / / 2. National Dual- Training Systems / / / / / 3. Funding / / / / / 4. Structural- Internship Programme / / / / Incentive 1. Tax reduction / / (double) / (double) /(double) /(double) 2. Current workers’ benefit / / / / / 3. Claim of Levy / / / / / 4. Wage subsidies / / Impact 1. Industrial involvement / / / / / 2. Graduate employment / / / / / 3. Job retention / / Note: [/] refers to initiative/incentive/impact of government policies to strengthen industries-system partnership. 4. Discussion 4.1 Industry-TVET System Collaboration Model in Malaysia According to Bonoli and Wilson (2019), there are three forms of ideal industrial involvement in the TVET system: (a) liberal; (b) corporatist; and (c) universalistic. A liberal model is one in which industries play a key role in selecting their level of involvement in the TVET system, which is based on labour market logic and supply and demand equilibrium. The liberal model's government involvement is modest; and it is unable to compel corporations to participate in human-capital development in those countries. Consequently, enterprises have low expectations of mutually beneficial collaboration between industries and TVET centres. The government's active engagement to increase industrial involvement in the country's TVET system represents the second paradigm, which is a corporatist one. Most initiatives, on the other hand, take a diplomatic approach, by cultivating industry’s interest and trust, in order to develop the country's workforce through various subsidies and incentives. However, the success of this strategy is heavily dependent on how eager corporations are to share the responsibility for human- capital development with the TVET system. The last type, the universalistic, is represented by a government that practises a high level of macro-corporatism and which maintains that all groups have a role to play in the growth of the country. These countries have a defined policy on the extent to which industry should be involved in their country's TVET system, when it comes to training future workers.
  • 36. 30 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter According to an analysis of Malaysian government policy from 2010, the country's approach to increasing industrial participation in the country's TVET system is similar to the corporatist model proposed by Bonoli and Wilson (2019). The Malaysian government works with local industry, in order to generate human capital that fulfils current job demands; because it believes that industries should lead the national TVET system. Various incentives supplied by Malaysian government policies, such as tax reductions, training funding, and wage subsidies, have sealed the relationship between industries and the TVET system. Even during the pandemic, the government works with local industry to retain social and economic standing through apprenticeships, new employment, up- skilling, new skilling, and job-retention programmes, as well as offering major incentives to those companies. 4.2 Strengthening TVET-industry’s Cooperation in Malaysia: Adapting Lessons from the German Experience The Malaysian government has successfully implemented three main policies from 2010 and 2021: the 10th MDP, 11th MDP, and PENJANA. All of these measures have prioritised improving the country's TVET system through the National Dual-Training System programme. This demonstrates that the administration believes in the apprenticeship system; and it is eager to put it in place on a wider scale. Since 2004, the Malaysian National Dual-Training System (NDTS) has been used to improve the country's TVET quality, based on the German Dual-System programme (Leong et al., 2015). As a result, in order to effectively execute the Dual-Training System, lessons must be learnt from countries that have successfully implemented the system for their own development. The effectiveness of the German Dual-Apprenticeship System in involving firms to offer facilities, funding, venues, and trained instructors for their vocational training programmes is a major sign that makes it an exemplar for effective collaboration between industry and TVET (Postiglione & Tang, 2019). Students have a training contract with industries, and industries are accountable for the training allowance. In addition, regulations relating to the Dual VET system are in place to prevent misuse and to limit the behaviour of industry and TVET institutions. One of the key elements for effective collaboration between industry and TVET programmes, according to the German Dual-Apprenticeship System, is a federal management strategy (Gessler, 2017). The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) in Germany is in charge of organising the country's training regulations and policies, which are produced collaboratively by companies and their employees. They also have the Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK), a non-constitutional voluntary coordinating organisation for State ministries that are in charge of coordinating the creation of training curricula and State governments, based on real-world work procedures. Collaboration between training centres and industries is also recommended by the KMK. Through the introduction of the Department of Skill Development, the Malaysian TVET system has made the right decision by adopting this model. They are in charge of overseeing the
  • 37. 31 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter implementation of Malaysia's skill-training programmes, such as the NDTS, as well as developing training curricula. based on the current job-market needs (Department of Skills Development, 2021). Malaysia also has its own National-Skills Development (i.e., based on the Malaysian Law Act 652), which was introduced in 2006 with the aim “to promote, through skills training, the development and improvement of a person’s abilities, which are needed for his/her vocation; and to provide for other matters connected therewith.” (Law of Malaysia, 2006, p. 7). They are used as a guideline for developing and implementing training policies. However, having a specific Act that "requires" companies and schools to collaborate in the execution of vocational education and training, such as Germany's "The Reformed National Vocational Training Act" from 2005, is one element on which Malaysia's TVET system could improve effectively, in order to implement the NDTS, based on the German model (Federal Ministry of Education and Research, 2005). The Germans have specific expectations for their industry in terms of their contribution. The appropriate laws, such as the Law of Vocational Education, Labour-Promotion Laws, and Youth-Labour Protection Laws, serve to codify the interaction between industrial and TVET systems. There are also specialised industrial regulations that outline their responsibilities, trainer qualifications, and dual apprenticeship-training procedures (Postiglione & Tang, 2019). As previously stated, the Malaysian government has a strong belief in its corporatist model, which fosters industry-TVET system partnership through incentives and appealing initiatives, resulting in only interested corporations participating. Some changes to the present Act could be made by requiring industry, particularly large and international corporations, to contribute to the development of the country's human resources. 5. Conclusion Finally, the Malaysian government has actively pushed local industries to participate in national TVET programmes, in order to ensure that the country's human-capital development matches the demands of today's employment market. Malaysia needs to produce more qualified employees, who are competent and ready to enter the employment market, as the country moves toward in becoming a developed nation. Consequently, industry’s input has always been required, when it comes to creating and executing training and skills development. Based on industrial experience and collaboration measures, an analysis of Malaysia's three major policies (2010-2021) suggests that the country has had a considerably successful influence on industry-TVET collaboration. Industry and TVET centres have formed effective relationships, especially through the National Dual-Training System (NDTS) programmes; while the Structural-Internship Programmes (SIPs) provide more important internship opportunities. During the difficult Covid-19 pandemic, the government has successfully collaborated with industry, in order to address social and economic difficulties, by providing various incentives and subsidies to affected
  • 38. 32 http://ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter corporations, organisations, small and medium businesses, and single individuals. However, in order to boost industry’s participation in Malaysia's TVET system, the legal framework should be changed, so that enterprises are legally compelled to contribute to the country's human-capital development. 6. Acknowledgement This paper was part of a research project entitled “A framework to facilitate and sustain the win-win partnership between industries and training centres;” and it was funded by the 2018 Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education Fundamental Research Grant Scheme. (FRGS/1/2018/SSI09/UPSI/02/20). 7. References Act, V. T. (2005). Reform of Vocational Education and Training in Germany The 2005 Vocational Training Act. Berufsbildungsgesetz. https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/en/2005/reform-vocational-education-and- training-German-2005-vocational-training-act Ali, U., Shahbaki, N. M., Muhammad Zain, R., Spahat, G., Mohamed Ali, J., Ab Rahim, N., Ludin, A. H., & … Abdullah M. N. (2015). Kajian penglibatan goverment link company (GLC) dan multinational company (MNC) dalam program sistem latihan dual national (SLDN): Model Pelaksanaan Berkesan [Study on GLC and MNC involvement in the national dual training system: Success implementation model]. Skills Malaysia Journal 1(1), 74-86. https://www.ciast.gov.my/journal/files/vol_1/9.pdf Almestahiri, R. D., Rundle-Thiele, S., Parkinson, J., & Arli, D. (2017). The use of the major components of social marketing: a systematic review of tobacco cessation programs. Social Marketing Quarterly, 23(3), 232-248. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524500417704813 Bonoli, G., & Wilson, A. (2019). Bringing firms on board. Inclusiveness of the dual- apprenticeship systems in Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. International Journal of Social Welfare, 28(4), 369–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsw.12371 Department of Skills Development. (2021). National Dual Training Sytem. https://www.dsd.gov.my/index.php/en/service/national-dual-training- system Department of Skills Development. (2020). Lapaoran Tahunan 2019 JabatanPembangunan Kemahiran Malaysia [2019 yearly report of Malaysian Department of Skills Development. In Department of Skills Development]. https://ejournal.unisba.ac.id/index.php/Kajian_Akuntansi/article/view/2615 %0Ahttp://scholar.unand.ac.id/60566/ Economic Plan Unit. (2015). Malaysia 10th development plan (2011-2015). https://www.pmo.gov.my/dokumenattached/RMK/RMK10_Eds.pdf Economic Plan Unit. (2015). Malaysia 11th development plan (2016-2020). https://www.pmo.gov.my/dokumenattached/speech/files/RMK11_Speech.p df. Economic Plan Unit. (2019). Malaysia Shared Prosperity Vision 2030. https://www.epu.gov.my/sites/default/files/2020- 02/Shared%20Prosperity%20Vision%202030.pdf (Retrieved on 2nd August 2021). Federal Ministry of Education and Research. (2005). The 2005 Vocational Training Act: Reform of vocational education and training in Germany. https://www.bibb.de/dokumente/pdf/The_2005_Vocational_Training_Act.pdf
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