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International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.19 No.5
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 2020)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
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Foreword
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Editors of the May 2020 Issue
VOLUME 19 NUMBER 5 May 2020
Table of Contents
Social Pedagogy as a Necessary Basis for Teachers Training in Greece ..........................................................................1
Vassilis Pantazis and Despoina Styla
Game-Based Learning Platform and its Effects on Present Tense Mastery: Evidence from an ESL Classroom ......13
Mohd Iskandar Idris, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said and Kim Hua Tan
Effectiveness and Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the Integration of Automated E-Learning Courses into Vocational
Education Programmes in Universities in Ukraine.......................................................................................................... 27
Valentyna I. Bobrytska, Tatyana D. Reva, Svitlana M. Protska and Oksana M. Chkhalo
Implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Approach in Chemistry Instructional with Context of Tofu
Liquid Waste Treatment ...................................................................................................................................................... 47
Momo Rosbiono Kartamiharja, Wahyu Sopandi and Dini Anggraeni
Ready or Not: The Experiences of Novice Academic Heads in School Leadership..................................................... 78
Gilbert S. Arrieta and Inero V. Ancho
Action Research in Hadith Literacy: A Reflection of Hadith Learning in the Digital Age ......................................... 99
Tedi Supriyadi, J. Julia, Ani Nur Aeni and Elan Sumarna
Perception of TPET Lecturers’ on the Effect of Global Partnerships in Developing Students’ Career Human
Capital .................................................................................................................................................................................. 125
James Edomwonyi Edokpolor and Vero Iyalekhue Abusomwan
Development of the Innovative Smart Orbital (ISO) Medium to Improve the Cognitive Skills on the Heat Transfer
Concept ................................................................................................................................................................................ 141
Firmanul Catur Wibowo, Esmar Budi, Lari Andres Sanjaya, Dina Rahmi Darman, Mohamad Syarif Sumantri and Dinas
Kurnia Robby
Junior High School Students' Experiences of High Technology Based Learning in Indonesia ................................ 153
Supardi Supardi and Enung Hasanah
Factors that Influence Learning Strategy Use among Senior High School Economics Students in Ghana: A
Quantitative Approach ...................................................................................................................................................... 167
Anthony Akwesi Owusu and Cosmas Cobbold
Teachers’ Efforts in Understanding the Factual, Conceptual, Procedural and Metacognitive Assessment Using the
Revised 2013 Curriculum................................................................................................................................................... 186
Hermayawati .
The Impact of Specialty, Sex, Qualification, and Experience on Teachers’ Assessment Literacy at Saudi Higher
Education............................................................................................................................................................................. 200
Sabria Salama Jawhar and Ahmad M. Subahi
Enhancing Students’ Academic Performance in University System: The Perspective of Supplemental Instruction
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 217
Oyinlola Omolara Adebola, Cias T. Tsotetsi and Bunmi Isaiah Omodan
Aesthetic Education as a Topical Direction of Preparation of a Modern Specialist ................................................... 231
Olena F. Sbitnieva, Liudmyla M. Sbitnieva, Hanna E. Ovcharenko, Victoria S. Furkalo and Svitlana S. Bondar
Pedagogical Training System of Future Social Workers in Ukraine: Experimental Study ....................................... 245
Hanna A. Ridkodubska, Oksana Ya. Romanyshyna, Oksana Y. Karabin, Nataliia V. Kazakova and Halyna S. Tarasenko
Potential of the Use of Social Networks in Teaching a Foreign Language in Higher Educational Institutions ..... 260
Iryna M. Zvarych, Natalia M. Lavrychenko, Nataliya H. Zaitseva, Olena M. Chaika and Oksana M. Skorobahata
Development of Social Intelligence in Preschool Children by Art Therapy: Case Study of Oyna Educational
Centre ................................................................................................................................................................................... 276
Akhmetzhan S. Seitenov, Rakhila Zh. Aubakirova, Alyona A. Kostyunina, Ekaterina V. Mishchenko, Natalya B. Shevchenko
Application of Cloud Educational Technologies for Teacher Competence Development........................................ 289
Iurii L. Mosenkis, Liudmyla V. Lukianyk, Oleksandr M. Strokal, Vira A. Ponomarova and Hanna V. Mykhailiuk
Using U-NO-ME Card Game to Enhance Primary One Pupils’ Vocabulary.............................................................. 304
Brenda Ak Lukas, Finola Iba Ak Patrick, Gloria Chong, Nursuriati Binti Jaino and Melor Md. Yunus
Academic Reading and Writing Needs of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Research ...................................... 318
Reynold C. Padagas and Bonjovi H. Hajan
Perspectives on Mentoring Support During Teaching Practicum in Local & International Settings ...................... 336
Rohaya Abdullah, M. Ali Ghufron, Yunita Puspitasari Puspitasari and Norlida Ahmad
Peer Tutorial: Championing Students at Risk................................................................................................................. 352
Joel B. Tan and Esterlina B. Gevera
Malaysian Public University Lecturers’ Perceptions and Practices of Formative and Alternative Assessments ..379
Tajularipin Sulaiman, Sedigheh Shakib Kotamjani, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul Rahim and Muhammad Nazrul Hakim
Enhancing Mathematical Language through Oral Questioning in Primary Schools................................................. 395
Muhammad Sofwan Mahmud, Aida Suraya Md. Yunus, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub and Tajularipin Sulaiman
STEM Education in Malaysia towards Developing a Human Capital through Motivating Science Subject.......... 411
Fazilah Razali, Umi Kalthom Abdul Manaf and Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub
1
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 1-12, May 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.1
Social Pedagogy as a Necessary Basis for
Teachers Training in Greece
Vassilis Pantazis
Department of Early Childhood Education
University of Thessaly, Greece
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0915-7752
Despoina Styla
Department of Early Childhood Education
University of Thessaly, Greece
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9354-7125
Abstract. This paper aims to examine the importance of social pedagogy
theory and practice throughout teachers’ continuing training in Greece.
Teaching is a demanding job that cannot be complete, unless the teacher
is scientifically trained and that’s why we argue, according to relevant
scientific researches, that social pedagogy theory, through practical
application, can be very constructive, for this purpose. Thus, the authors
initially attempt to go through a general overview of social pedagogy, to
inform teachers about what social pedagogy is, about the theory, the
content and objectives of social pedagogy. Moreover, the research method
of the study is a systematic review and a thematic analysis of sociological
and other scientific studies relevant to social pedagogy and teachers
training, conducted/found on the Web. According to the results, first of
all, considering the major responsibility of classroom teachers for
continuing training, it’s important for teachers to be social pedagogues,
since the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them with the
ability to deal with problems and difficulties raised in the classroom.
Secondly, that importance is growing, if we consider that teachers
attempt for a holistic teaching/didactic approach, following social
pedagogy’s principles, is reflected in children’s ability for social and
emotional development, for healthy relationships, for achieving
wellbeing and becoming complete citizens. Finally, the necessity of this
research is growing, if we consider that especially nowadays in Greek
society, students face many social problems, the majority of which occur
due to the current economic crisis (such as bullying, poverty, racism) and
that’s why the spread of social pedagogy’s theory and practice in Greek
teaching/educational community, is of high essentiality and can be
achieved through teachers continuing training.
Keywords: teachers; continuing training; social pedagogy; social
pedagogues; Greek society
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1. Introduction
The founding of Social Pedagogy in Germany depicts the enormous socio-
economic problems that this country was experiencing in the 19th century due to
the industrial revolution, which gave birth to the need for "resistance" from
society and especially from the lower social class, so that social changes can take
place. Thus, more emphasis was placed on the social functioning of education
(Hämäläinen, 2003).
As a scientific field, social pedagogy appeared in the 20th century, when the
German philosopher Paul Natorp (1854-1924), published, in 1899, the book
‘Sozialpädagogik: Theorie der Willensbildung Auf der Grundlage der
Gemeinschaft’ (Social Pedagogy: The Theory of Educating the Human Will into a
Community Asset) (Eriksson, 2010). Specifically, Natorp (1904, p.94) as mentioned
in Kornbeck and Jensen (2012, p.201) argued that “teachers should always consider
the interaction between the social aspects of education and the educational aspects of social
life”.
There are some theorists of the 19th and 20th century whose philosophy affected
Social Pedagogy such as Karl Mager (1810-1858) and Friedrich Distersweg (1790-
1866) who believe in education’s social mission and Herman Nohl (1879-1960)
who argued that pedagogical intervention should focus on social help, based on
love (Schugurensky & Silver, 2013).
Social pedagogy΄s relationship with the area of education is narrow, according to
what Moss and Petrie (2019 p. 402) say about that issue. They claim that social
pedagogy is capable of ‘’spanning and infusing’’ all the areas that work with people
of all ages, including schools of all levels. Also, in some European countries, social
pedagogy is the subject of undergraduate and postgraduate studies (Petrie, 2013).
In Greece, at this point, there have also been developed higher education study
programs, dealing with the subject of social pedagogy, such as: 1) the
undergraduate course called ‘introduction to social pedagogy’ at the University
of Thessaly, Department of Early Childhood Education, 2) the undergraduate
course called ‘Socio-educational approaches in primary school’ at the University
of West Macedonia, Department of Primary Education, 3) the postgraduate
course, called ‘Social Neuroscience, Social Pedagogy and Education’ at National
and Kapodistrian University of Athens (EKPA) (Kontogianni, 2019). However,
there is a great need that the range of those education programs about social
pedagogy should become wider.
Moreover, although Greek university students start becoming familiar with social
pedagogy theory (to clarify the theoretical basis, such as learning a theoretical
introduction to social pedagogy, including a history of ideas, basic concepts, etc.),
during their studies at the university, there is no research evidence (research
studies) that they continue with this, during their continuing training. We argue,
that there is a great need, that teachers around the world rediscover the concept
of social pedagogy, during their continuing training. And this is very crucial,
especially for Greek teachers, as Greek society is currently affected by an economic
crisis that also translates into a social crisis (Kyridis, Christodoulou, Vamvakidou
& Paulidis-Korres, 2015). Thus, this paper aims, through literature review, to
emphasize the importance of the social pedagogy theory and practice, throughout
continuing training of teachers and especially Greek teachers.
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2. Methodology
A systematic review was used in the collection of texts, included in this study.
Systematic review is ‘’a form of literature review, which involves identifying,
synthesising and assessing all available evidence, quantitative and/or qualitative, in order
to generate a robust, empirically derived answer to a focused research question’’ (Mallett,
Hagen-Zanker, Slater & Duvendack, 2012, pp. 445-446). Moreover, according to
Green, Johnson and Adams (2006, p.104) “authors of systematic reviews attempt to
obtain all original research studies published on the topic under study by searching in
multiple databases, performing hand searches and contacting authors of previously
published research’’.
After examining the offered possibilities for selecting open accessed articles, on-
line books, conferences proceedings, dissertations/theses and reports relevant to
social pedagogy, we decided to limit the research to the Education Resources
Information Centre (ERIC), to Google Scholar database, to Scopus database, to
Web of Science (WoS), to Research Gate network and Akademia.edu network of
professionals and scientists.
Great effort has been made to perform a scientific procedure, to meet academic
standards of high quality. The following inclusion criteria were conducted, to
select texts in the review: (1) deal with social pedagogy (which were the first
Keywords search), (2) deal with teachers training (which were the second
Keywords search), (3) be published in peer-reviewed journals, (4) be published
during the period 2000-2020, (5) written and published in the English Language,
(6) the terms ‘social pedagogy’ or ‘social pedagogues’ must appear clearly in the
titles, (7) the term ‘teachers training’ must appear in the titles, separate or
combined to the social pedagogy term, (8) avoid texts referring to social work and
social workers, a distinct/separate scientific field (9) avoid comparative studies of
social pedagogy and social work, as they are irrelevant to our study’s topic.
Using the above search criteria on Web (our study’s query run between September
2019 and December 2019) we obtained 85 articles, 3 on-line books, 3 theses, 4
reports, that were eligible for thematic analysis, which is a method for identifying,
analysing, organizing, describing, and reporting themes found within a data set
(Bryman, 2012). To use only those of the 85 articles that correspond to our main
research goal, the following exclusion criteria were used: (1) exclude journals that
include no references to the social pedagogy’s connection to practice and the
general benefits occurred by this connection, (2) to exclude studies referring to
teachers training and to the increase of their professionalism, which are the
majority of studies appearing, when one types on the Web the Keywords ‘teachers
training’, (3) to exclude the major number of studies that examine the history of
social pedagogy in different countries, which is irrelevant to our study.
To continue to literature review, we first analyse the term social pedagogy,
because when the discussion comes to what social pedagogy is, there is a great
misunderstanding, as it is a complex field. A field which tries to combine the
principles of social, psychological, educational, etc. sciences (Cameron & Moss,
2011), to prevent and fight mostly social problems (such as social exclusion), in
different spaces and ages (as schools of all levels, institutions of old age fostering,
supporting domes for youth, etc.). Social pedagogy doesn’t give prescriptions for
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the solutions, but tries to deal holistically with the situation, with an emphasis on
strengthening human relationships and promoting the idea of how to
develop/promote a healthy way to deal with life, to gain a mental and
psychological balance, to become complete personalities, ready to stand on their
feet. That’s why, social pedagogues cooperate with all the factors that affect one's
life (such as the parents, the family, the topical residence, the doctors, etc.).
3. Literature review
3.1. Social pedagogy as a concept
The term pedagogy is derived from the Greek word ‘pais’, meaning child and the
word ‘agein’, meaning to bring up (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011). Τhe concept of
social pedagogy concerns the relationship between society and education and the
way one affects the other (Petrie, Boddy, Cameron, Wigfall & Simon, 2006).
According to ThemPRA (2019) some of the main foundations of social pedagogy
theory are the following: raise the feeling of empathy, emphasize the need for
protection of human rights, enable people to achieve self-autonomy and self –
reflection, to be able enough to change and improve their own lives and generally
speaking, to understand the enormous necessity for the protection of vulnerable
social groups. Moreover, taking into consideration Hämäläinen (2003) claim that
social pedagogy is not a strict teaching method, we understand that an education
system with a social pedagogical orientation does not only care for the strict
education and cognitive performance of their students, with strict teaching
prescriptions, but also pursues to educate all individuals related to the school
community (students, parents, teachers, topical society etc.) to strive for a better
world, for a better society, with less social discriminations (Pantazis, 2012).
Additionally, the drafters of the ‘Radisson Report’ (Social Education Trust, 2001,
pt. 4.1) provide a list of nine characteristics of Social Pedagogy. Some of these are:
social pedagogues/educators view a child’s situation holistically, education cares
for social competencies and morals values learning, putting in the center the
development of healthy human relations.
Through prosperity and learning, it aims at complete development and
integration of each individual, within his social context, considering as a given
that all human beings have the potential to be valuable and responsible members
of society, as long as society caters to their inclusion, rather than exclusion. That
is why social educators deal with a wide range of ages, from the first years of life
to old age, and social pedagogy can be applied to different contexts, such as early
childhood, family support, drug-addicted support, elderly support, teenagers
support, disability services, support for imprisoned, etc. with priority the active
participation of those involved (Petrie & Cameron, 2009).
Furthermore, according to Eichsteller and Bradt (2019), there are various reasons
why social pedagogy is suitable for educational and social practices, such as the
following: it gives attention to the enhancement of human relationships, believes
that every human being has capabilities and talents and should have the
opportunities to unwrap those, emphasizes dialogue and civilized
communication, strikes at human problems, such as poverty, offers a specific
framework that can be very helpful to a broad range of professionals, raises the
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motivation of professionals. We should add here that the last reason is extremely
crucial for teachers’ jobs, as according to Carson and Chase (2009), teacher’s
motivation is an essential factor that affects and enforces classroom effectiveness.
To summarize the substance of all the above references, can be compacted in
Boddy, Cameron, Moss, Mooney, Petrie and Stathams (2005) following words:
‘’Social pedagogy is an approach: in which learning, care, health, general
wellbeing, and development are viewed as totally inseparable, a holistic
idea summed up in the pedagogical term ‘upbringing’. The pedagogue as
practitioner sees herself as a person in relationship with the child as a
whole person, supporting the child’s overall development’’ (Boddy et al,
2005, p. 3).
3.2. Social pedagogy’s Connection to Practice
As Hämäläinen (2003) claims we can see social pedagogy both as a practice and a
democratic philosophical approach. To understand the connection of social
pedagogy to practice we should bring to mind two metaphorical parallelisms of
social pedagogy, firstly as a tree and secondly as a diamond. According to
Eichsteller and Holthoff (2012) social pedagogy as a tree finds its roots in the
works of scientists in different scientific fields, such as education, philosophy,
sociology, and psychology. The trees flourishment depends on the gardeners
(social educators/pedagogues) who use many tools for this purpose (a person’s
well-being) such as teamwork, communication, etc. The Diamond Model
(Figure1) is another metaphor parallelism of social pedagogy. The image of the
diamond symbolizes the idea that there is a diamond within all of us, that we are
all precious and have a rich variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities. The
Diamond Model outlines four aims of social pedagogical practice: to enhance well-
being and happiness, to enable holistic learning, to develop relationships, and to
increase a sense of empowerment. These aims are brought to life through positive
experiences (Thempra, 2019; Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011).
Figure 1: The Diamond Model (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011)
Social pedagogy in practice offers a set of organized pedagogical actions that seek
to influence and change social and educational mechanisms (Petrie et al., 2006;
Hämäläinen, 2012; Stephens, 2013).
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Taking into consideration the above literature review, at this point of our study,
we suggest some of the following application examples of social pedagogy in a
school classroom, such as:
a) Humanitarian action that promotes the development of students
emotional and social skills,
b) the fight of critical incidents (e.g. violence and victimization, racism in the
classroom) with the development of socio-educational programs, in
cooperation/collaboration with social institutions and special
scientists/experts,
c) the organization of experiential seminars for the parents about social
issues,
d) the participation in experiential socio-educational programs (topical or
international) carried out in schools, organized by the government, aiming
at highlighting the socio-pedagogical dimensions (of the many forms) of
the heterogeneity, the uniqueness and identity of each person (in
collaboration with other teachers/colleagues),
e) the organization of educational activities inside and outside the school,
f) the group meetings and events with parents (celebrations, etc.),
g) the student visits to various institutions (some Greek institutions are: the
Refugee Hospitality Centers, the Child's Smile, the SOS Villages, etc.) that
develop social pedagogical activity.
The application of the above actions requires teachers with emotional stability,
emotional abilities, and emotional intelligence in pedagogical interaction, as it is
emphasized by many studies. When the relationship between teachers and
students is charged with negative emotions, for various reasons, communication
is disrupted and students get disappointed (Konstantinou, 2004).
Moreover, the role of the modern teacher is demanding. Essentially, in terms of
the cognitive part of teaching, the teacher must help in the synthesis and analysis
of knowledge, expand students’ critical thinking, and their productivity. But most
important of all, the teacher must possess emotional intelligence, as according to
Rogers (1983) respect, empathy, and authenticity are the three basic elements of
communication with the student.
Similarly, Fontana (1994) and Brown (2004) argue a teacher must take on modern
roles as: • mediator between knowledge and the student, • humanist and
democrat, • counselor and discreet driver, • psychologist, sociologist, educator.
Moreover, Jacobs (2001), in a common context, believes that the human skills a
teacher should own, are divided into the following categories: A) Counseling
skills: 1. help others solve problems, 2. to build trust and be open with their fellow
human beings, 3. to give advice effectively, 4. help others better understand
themselves. B) Communication skills: 1. to present ideas with objective way, 2. to
present ideas and information comprehensively, 3. to manage the speech
accurately. C) Leadership skills: 1. to inspire confidence and respect in others, 2.
to organize effective groups, 3. to be able to cooperate with "difficult" people. D)
Educational skills:1. help others gain knowledge and different skills, 2. activates
others to present them.
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To summarize, according to Anderberg (2020) the review shows the global
differences as it comes to the role of social pedagogues in schools (about their
missions, goals, status, roles, functions, tasks, activities). The central mission in
most countries is to fight the exclusion of pupil groups or individuals with
problems. Another frequent mission is the prevention of serious problems such as
bullying, violence, and drug use. Moreover, there is an orientation towards
upbringing with a democratic manner and active social participation, of all
students.
3.3. Teachers continuing training
At this point in the literature review, we find it necessary to refer to the meaning
of teachers’ continuing training. First of all, training is defined as:
“The set of measures and activities adopted and implemented to improve
and develop academic, practical and personal or professional knowledge,
skills, abilities, and interests of teachers during their career”
(Mavrogiorgos, 1996, p. 86).
Moreover, according to OECD (2010):
“These activities can be very heterogeneous: dissemination conferences,
workshops (preparation to new subject-matter content), school-based
activities (study groups, courses), personal teacher development
(individual activities outside of schools)” (OECD, 2010, p.7).
Additionally, according to Papadopoulou and Bagakis (2015), as it is mentioned
in Law 3879/2010 (The Development of Life-long Learning), a teacher’s training
can be evolved through:
“a) access to opportunities for continual professional development, b) the
creation of flexible learning paths, c) development of open education and
e-learning, d) branching out into non-formal and informal forms of
learning, e) use of new teaching and learning technologies from
educational and research institutes and other providers, f) creation of
networks for innovation at both a local and regional level, g) activities for
the development of all the educational staff, h) individualized programs
“any time and at any place” (Papadopoulou & Bagakis, 2015, p.427).
Many studies place importance to in-service training that can take place in the
school environment, as according to Mavrogiorgos (1999), the in-school training
is more reliable than the out-of-school training, because it meets teachers’ needs,
combines the theory with the practice, raises the school’s quality level and
contributes to the school collaboration with the other schools and with the field of
scientific research.
According to Eurydice (2019) formal continuing training of teachers of all levels
is usually done by expertized institutions (inspected by the government for their
quality) with high standards, at a national level, aiming at teachers’ professional
development, career evolution, acquisition of competencies and development of
capabilities to cope with change, difficulties and unpredictable situations during
their careers.
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In summary, in Greece, according to Asimaki, Sakkoulis and Vergidis (2016),
Papagueli - Vouliouris (1999), Papastamatis and Panitsidou (2008), in-service
teacher training can be tacked in the following periods: a) 1880 - 1977: the
establishment of the “Didaskaleion”, a training institute, b) 1977 - 1992: the period
of professional teacher training schools for elementary and secondary teachers
called “SELDE-SELME’’, c) 1992 - 1995: the Regional Training Centres (known as
PEKs), d) 1995 - 2011: the "European" period, the implementation, under Law
2986/2002, of the Teacher Training Agency (known as OEPEK), which today is
replaced by the Institute of Education Policy (known as IEP).
3.4. The value of teachers’ continuing training
Especially nowadays, at the end of one’s studies, there is an enormous need for
lifelong learning, since the field of human knowledge is not static, but is in
dynamic development (Papadopoulou & Bagakis, 2015). Teachers’ professional
development should begin during their studies and continue during their life. The
continuing training of teachers should be characterized by flexibility and
adaptability, as new pedagogical and socio-cultural data are constantly emerging
and teachers should be upgraded. We argue that even if they have received a
quality initial teacher education, they need to be trained continually, to know how
to manage the difficulties and problems to which they are faced.
Therefore, it is beneficial for teachers to improve/update their skills, because
benefits are enormous according to the results of different researches. For
example, according to Ajokou (2013), in-service continuing training: 1) enforces
teachers Mental Health to be able to tolerate the disturbances that may occur in a
classroom, 2) broadens their social contacts as they have many chances to socialize
with other colleagues during their training, 3) grows the willingness to know
more about the profession, to catch up with the new and latest findings in
education, 4) gives opportunities for advancement on the job. Everybody wants
to get a better position, such as becoming headmasters, counselors etc. All these
positions are possible only for those who go on and strive to update through
continuing training.
Moreover, we embrace the point of view of Boudersa (2016) that teacher
continuing training and professional development should be democratic enough,
so as not to impose on the consolidation of teachers' perceptions and established
knowledge about a given teaching methodology. Teacher training and
professional development should aim at the fundamental change of teachers’
practices, which, in turn, will lead to the improvement of their educative
effectiveness.
Teachers at all levels of education need to be always trained if they are to improve
their practices in their classes. Such training programs will help teachers to
improve their knowledge of the subject they teach and the social skills they need
in the classroom. There is no doubt that teachers will benefit from professional
development only if that development contains activities that focus on high-
quality content. And those activities should be organized by scientists/experts,
during the training programs and courses, so that the teachers' demands get
satisfied and raise their willingness to keep walking on this long life- learning
path.
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4. The results of the analysis
The results of the thematic analysis can be detected in the following points. First
of all, it seems that Greek teachers get some information about social pedagogy
theory and practice during their university studies, but in Greece we argue that
there is a crucial/substantial need for those programs to be expanded, as the
official number of those university studies, mentioned above (see part 1.
Introduction) is extremely poor.
Secondly, is of great importance for teachers to come up with those principles of
social pedagogy throughout their whole career, especially nowadays in modern
Greek society, where students face many social problems, the majority of which
occur due to the current economic crisis such as bullying, the poverty the economic
crisis brings, racism (due to cultural differences that refugees face), etc. That
importance is growing, if we consider that teachers attempt for a holistic
teaching/didactic approach, following social pedagogy’s principles, is reflected in
children’s ability for social and emotional development, for healthy relationships,
for achieving wellbeing and becoming complete citizens (see 3.1).
Thirdly, as the role of the modern teacher is demanding and as according to
Rogers (1983) it’s very important that teachers not only possess knowledge, but
emotional intelligence too (see 3.2) it seems to be a grave need to update and gain
more familiarity with the social pedagogy principles during their continuing
training and professional development and not only during their university
studies. This is because, according to Kyriakou, Stephens, Avramidis and Werlers
(2011) student teachers, although tend to be open-minded to new initiatives, they
often have second thoughts about how prepared they are to concur to school’s
progress and the application of innovative methods. In short, according to the
citation of the above bibliography social pedagogy theory and practice it’s an ideal
situation and an opportunity for all teachers to enhance their emotional and social
skills.
Moreover, considering the major responsibility of classroom teachers for
continuing training (as we mention above at 3.4), teachers, among other things,
throughout their training and professional development, should be or become
social pedagogues, since the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them
with the ability to deal with problems in the classroom (Eurydice, 2019).
Generally speaking, the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them with
the ability to contribute to the improvement of the Greek education system.
Especially in Greece, unfortunately, that education system: ‘’Is made to create
collegialities through "suppressive" actions and practices primarily attributed in the
range of assessment and school competition’’ (Kyridis, Papadakis, Tourtouras, &
Lytrivi, 2016, p. 12) and we agree with Kyridis, Christodoulou, Vamvakidou and
Paulidis-Korres (2015) who argue that: ‘’We need more holistic educational activities,
such as those that social pedagogy proposes, which are gentler than those of the formal
education system’’ (Vamvakidou & Paulidis-Korres, 2015, p.31).
At this point, we cannot skip the sad truth that in Greece there is a need to obtain
a wider social pedagogy network (composed of experts), and take as an example
the UK, where we find a wide social pedagogy network. Where, for instance,
somebody can meet the following: a) the ThemPra, which is a social pedagogical
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enterprise, supporting the development of social pedagogy through scientific
actions (http://www.thempra.org.uk/), b) the Social Pedagogy Professional
Association-SPPA, which aims to support vulnerable social groups
(https://sppa-uk.org/) and c) the Social Pedagogy Development Network-
SPDN, which tries to unite the social pedagogues and organize relevant activities
(http://www.thempra.org.uk/spdn/).
5. Discussion and conclusion
In this current paper we stress the need for teachers to get acquainted with the
theory and practice of social pedagogy and attain consideration of the main
principles of social pedagogy, during their training, their journey of discovery,
because teachers are one of the three groups of adults involved in the education
of children (the other two groups are the family members and other professional
such as social workers, psychologists, etc.). Especially, teachers have the
potentiality to guide children to become complete citizens and integrated
personalities (Kyriakou, Avramidis, Stephens & Werler, 2011). Moreover, there is
a feeling, that more than ever in Greece, we need open-minded teachers who will
adopt and will be scientifically trained and able to apply social pedagogy in their
classrooms, and this can only be achieved, throughout their continuing training,
by expertized educators and trainers. Coming to the end of our study we can
summarize the substance of the above literature review and analysis, to the
argument that there is a diamond within all of us, we are all precious and have a
rich variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011). This
is an encouraging aspect, that teachers should have in mind during their lifelong
learning path.
Finally, the present study has some important limitations, such as the lack of
interviews (or other research methodologies) conducted with Greek teachers, to
examine the way they think about social pedagogy and to examine if they feel
prepared for the direct practice of the main principles of social pedagogy in
education. We hope that these limitation, will be the trigger for further studies
and research.
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 13-26, May 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.2
Game-Based Learning Platform and its Effects on
Present Tense Mastery:
Evidence from an ESL Classroom
Mohd Iskandar Idris, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said and Kim Hua Tan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
Bangi, 43600 Selangor, Malaysia
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6445-2725
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2891-327X
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3787-5006
Abstract. In the 21st century, gamified learning is found to be essential
for educators to assist students in achieving mastery of English
grammar because the English language proficiency of Asian students,
including Malaysians, remains at an unacceptable level. However, the
literature on the effects of gamification on the learning of English tenses
is somewhat limited. To address this issue, this study aims to examine
the effectiveness of Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform, in
reinforcing simple present tense verb learning amongst young English-
as-a-second-language (ESL) learners. A total of 31 Year 3 students (aged
9) at a national primary school in the central region of Peninsular
Malaysia were involved in the study. A one-group pre-test post-test
research design was employed with an intervention programme that
spanned four weeks. Results analysed using paired sample t-test
revealed that the performance of pupils in the post-test improved
significantly (M =5.61, SD=2.04) with the application of Kahoot! as
compared with that in the pre-test (M=3.35, SD=1.89). Discussion of the
main findings revealed that gamification, through its captivating
features, was responsible for lowering the learners’ affective filter
during grammar lessons and subsequently increasing their learning
motivation. The implications of the findings suggest that Kahoot! is a
relevant teaching tool for the current generation of learners and
educators may explore the possibilities which Kahoot! has to offer with
other grammatical components.
Keywords: gamification; grammar; Kahoot!; present tense; ESL
1. Introduction
The use of technology has been improving and increasing tremendously in the
Fourth Industrial Revolution to the extent of penetrating the educational field. In
Malaysia, the Education Ministry has proposed a 21st-century learning approach
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to accomplish the main objective of the National Philosophy of Malaysian
Education, which is to produce a holistic individual through education (Ministry
of Education Malaysia, 2013). Students in Malaysia are exposed to
approximately 11 years to 13 years of formal English language education before
furthering their studies at the tertiary level. Nevertheless, a study conducted by
Singh et al. (2017) has indicated that most students still have problems with
mastering English grammar. Nearly 30% of the grammatical errors made by
diploma students in Malaysia involve the use of verb tenses, including present
tense verbs. In reality, students have been taught grammar since primary school,
yet they still struggle to form grammatical sentences (Darus & Kaladevi, 2009)
Stapa & Izahar, 2010) which are partly due to limited vocabulary in the language
(Misbah et al., 2017; Ang & Tan, 2018). Thus, this issue must be addressed
immediately.
In parallel with the existing trends in the Malaysian curriculum, the
incorporation of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools is
valuable. Learners are driven towards the relaxing atmosphere of learning with
the inclusion of ICT in teaching and learning (Azmi, 2017). Yunus (2018) claims
that educators are ‘forced’ to change their pedagogical practices in consideration
of ever-changing technology. The concept of gamification, which was introduced
by Pelling (2002), has accordingly resulted in the invention of interactive
applications, namely, Kahoot!, Socrative, Quizzes, Quizlet and Plickers. Kapp
(2012) defines gamification as the application of game-based mechanics,
aesthetics and game thinking for the purpose of captivating people which will,
in turn, motivate their action, promote active learning, and eventually solve
problems. It is also the process of transforming typical academic components
into gaming themes.
Researchers in different parts of the world report that gamification has shown
positive outcomes in aiding the motivation, engagement and enjoyment of
learners in learning for the past decades (Cheong et al., 2013; Denny, 2013; Dong
et al., 2012; Li et al., 2012, Tan & Tan 2020). Despite the extensive literature on
the use of Kahoot! to enhance English grammar learning, limited Malaysian
studies can be found that discuss how Kahoot! influences present tense verb
learning, especially amongst young English-as-a-second-language (ESL)
learners. Most of the studies were conducted abroad in either high school or
tertiary-level students. Thus, such research must be carried out with local
research participants.
Present tense verb learning is relatively difficult to be mastered by young ESL
learners because one may be confused as to when to add ‘s’ to verbs, mainly
when the grammar system of their native language does not require so. This rule
is somehow intertwined with plural forms, in which the letter ‘s’/‘es’ is needed
to be incorporated into nouns. The participants of this study are also found to be
facing this issue as indicated by their past performance through grammatical
mistakes of such nature in written assignments.
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Various educational applications can be utilised by educators to transform
tedious and complicated parts of grammar learning into fun and relevant ones
for learners, particularly the young ones. The low memory retention of students
in learning present tense verbs should be considered. Rote learning, in which
students are given the rules of present tense verbs and asked to memorise them,
may be adopted. However, in most situations, students tend to be confused with
when to add ‘s’/’es’ to verbs. They can hardly differentiate between present
tense verbs and plural nouns. Hence, before deciding on the right method and
approach to teaching present tense verbs, educators should be aware and
comprehend that two types of memory exist, namely, declarative and
procedural memory.
Declarative memory refers to the ‘learning and storing of facts and events,
including arbitrary information’ (O’Grady, 2006). This type of memory is often
linked to a lexicon or mental dictionary, in which the mind works when the
learner can relate to the new knowledge obtained, including its meaning,
pronunciation and use. However, the information kept in this memory requires
one’s conscious awareness upon retrieval. By contrast, procedural memory
focuses on the use of a broad range of motor and cognitive skills, particularly the
ones involving sequencing (Pinker & Ullman, 2002). This memory type helps the
computations and symbol manipulation concerning grammar components, such
as syntax, nonlexical semantics, morphology and phonology. This memory runs
through unconsciousness. That is, learners may not be aware of and realise what
enables them to form or interpret sentences, especially in first language
acquisition. Declarative memory is involved in learning the grammar of a
second language. Here, educators must ensure that the lesson employed triggers
this part of mind in learning present tense verbs. Does the use of Kahoot!
reinforce the present tense verb learning of young ESL learners? This study aims
to examine the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in reinforcing present tense verb
learning amongst young ESL learners. The findings of this research are expected
to assist educators who are in the quest for a practical approach to teaching
grammar, mainly present tense verbs. The rest of this article is structured as
follows. Firstly, the literature reviews on Kahoot!, gamification and present tense
are presented. Then, the research methods and procedures used in this study are
described. Subsequently, the findings are discussed and summarised. Lastly,
implications, limitations and directions for future research are provided.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Kahoot! and Previous Studies
Digital games have gained recognition from many educators due to the
significant role of technology in language education. For example, Kahoot!,
which was developed in 2006 at the Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, is a popular game-based student response system. It aims to make
learning pleasurable and entertaining across all languages and subjects via a free
online game-based learning platform. Various digital devices can be used to
launch this learning platform. Kahoot! is versatile because it can be tailored to
accommodate the needs of learners. A good and stable Internet connection is
mandatory for this method to work effectively. The gaming experience is
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presented by the embedded graphical and audio elements. These features have
the potential to promote motivation and learning among learners.
Kahoot! has become a popular online game used by educators as a stimulating
platform to check the understanding of learners and enhance their participation
in learning. It adopts gamification as a means to involve learners actively and
motivate them eventually. Gamified learning, such as Kahoot!, facilitates the
achievement of learners concerning the pre-test and post-test conducted (Bullard
& Anderson, 2014; Wichadee & Pattanapichet, 2018). Learners show improved
performance after the interventions due to their engagement in the games
(Poondej & Lerdpornkulrat, 2016). Learning through a fun environment
enhances the retention of the lesson learnt. These studies have revealed the
effectiveness of using online language games in improving the grammar skills of
learners. In another perspective of grammar learning, the outcomes from a
survey conducted by Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) have revealed that 70% of the
participants feel motivated and inspired to learn grammar after having a session
with Kahoot!. Here, Kahoot! has a high potential to elevate the enthusiasm and
motivation of students to learn. Kahoot! has benefited learners of all ages since its
first debut.
Students must register at https://kahoot.it. A unique game PIN number is
given. Then, they have to key in the username of their choice (anonymous
feature). The activities on Kahoot! are real-time, and quizzes are presented on a
screen using an overhead projector. Students can monitor their progress or
scores right after the game. The total score for each question is 1,000 points. The
ratings they receive are based on how fast they answer the right item (Byrne,
2013). The overall number of scores gained by each player is displayed on the
screen at the end of the quiz.
2.2 Gamification
The notion of computer technologies has enabled other principles, such as
gamification, to emerge. According to Deterding et al. (2011), gamification or
gamified learning has been defined as the use of game design elements in
nongame settings to increase motivation and attention on a task. It also refers to
the integration of game elements in nongame ones to solve the task at hand
effectively (Khaleel et al. 2016). The difference between teaching through a
gamified pedagogical method and instruction via the use of authentic games,
which has been found to be a practical approach to teaching lessons, such as
grammar, must be considered (Tuan & Doan, 2010; Yolageldili & Arikan, 2011).
Gamification encourages grammar learning to be entertaining, enjoyable and
lasting because the game successfully delivers a meaningful context for
communicative grammar practice. Unlike teaching with games, gamified
instruction is the incorporation of gaming principles, and this method of
teaching and learning is earning popularity in the field of education (Caponeto,
Earp & Ott, 2014; Domíngues et al., 2013). Gamification in the language
classroom involves the dynamic participation of students, which gradually
offers a solid platform for learners to learn grammar effectively and positively in
ESL (Leaning, 2015). Students acquire more words and learn the right structures
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of English when they are engaged in gamified learning. It promotes a
remarkable learning experience where students keep looking forward to learn
new words (Rao, 2014). A better version of the English language is offered on
online language games , other than engaging students in ESL learning (Mullins
& Sabherwal, 2018). Besides, students gain vocabularies in a difference way,
whereby they acquire more words based on online games, compared to the
chalk and talk method (Castaneda & Cho, 2016). These findings indicate that in
assisting grammar learning, gamification has high potential to be adopted.
Educators can generate situations which allow unconscious learning to occur
through games because the attention of learners is not on the language but on
the message itself (Cross, 2000). Learners eventually acquire the language
unconsciously, in the same manner, they learnt their first language because they
are focusing on the game as an activity. For this study, this element of
unconscious learning is appropriately observed. According to Hussein (2015),
gamification benefits learners through four key domains. Two out of the four
domains are closely related to young learners. Firstly, children perceive this
approach as entertaining and fun, thus reducing their affective filter and
maintaining consistent engagement. Secondly, gamification permits learners to
reflect upon their learning.
Young learners are said to have a short attention span. Within 10 min to 20 min
of the lesson, their minds wander off. They lose their interest and motivation
when dealing with grammar lessons due to the confusing rules and
memorisation. On the contrary, high levels of engagement and motivation can
be achieved with the elements of fun and competitiveness embedded in Kahoot!.
The outcomes from a study conducted by Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) revealed that
70% of the participants became motivated to learn grammar after learning via
Kahoot!. The motivation is attributed to four reasons, namely, desire to win,
master own knowledge, play with others and determine the purpose of the
game, which include revising, checking and consolidating knowledge. Besides,
80% of the respondents believed that this application positively influenced their
learning motivation because they were well aware of its purposes, which were to
check, consolidate and review their knowledge on the content learnt.
Kahoot! is packed with the elements of gamification, such as leaderboards,
points, feedback, performance graphs and social element/community
collaboration (Flores, 2015). The ‘Leaderboard,’ as one of the main elements
embedded in Kahoot!, shows the rankings of game players based on their
accomplishment levels. The leaderboard, points and scores are closely related,
and Kahoot! has all these features. Learners are granted with points based on
their performance (Flores, 2015). A total of 1,000 points are offered for any
correct response answered in under 0.05 s. From this feature, extrinsic
motivation is evident, particularly when the students attempt to answer the
questions by themselves. The integration of technical elements, such as music,
graphics and colours, also helps retain the acceptance of Kahoot! amongst the
users.
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Kahoot! also encourages learners to compete to be placed amongst the high
ranks, therefore making the learning experience fun and meaningful to them,
especially amongst nine-year-old children. This learning platform is convenient
for educators because it allows them to evaluate the progress of their pupils
formatively. It enables future intervention to be made because the data can be
made available right away. It also allows learners to continue trying to place
themselves on board with the lessons without feeling scared of making
themselves seem stupid. This condition is supported by the feature which only
displays the top three scorers in the final leaderboard. As a result, those who do
not perform well need not reveal their performance to others. These learners can
learn at their own speed without incurring any negative feelings. This situation
eventually contributes to meaningful learning.
2.3 Present Tense Verbs
Numerous scholars have defined and described the use and form of the simple
present tense. The simple present tense, also known as the present simple, is
considered the significant tense used in English to talk about things in general
(Murphy, 1998). It is not merely about the present. It is also used to express that
something happens repeatedly, all the time or in general. It is not about whether
an action is happening at the time of speaking. For instance, ‘Aminah goes to
school by bus’ and ‘The doctors treat patients in the hospital’.
On the contrary, to Murthy (2003), present-tense verbs are used to demonstrate
that action occurs at present. This definition is reflected in the sentence ‘She
speaks Arabic very well’. Similarly, Swan (2000) has indicated that such verbs
are used for permanent situations or actions that happen regularly or all the time
(not now). An example is ‘My mother goes to the market about twice a week.’ In
a different view, Azar (2006) has claimed that the simple present expresses
events or situations that usually happen, always, sometimes and habitually; they
happen now, have happened previously and perhaps will happen again.
The abovementioned definitions imply that the simple present tense refers to
events or actions which are always executed by a subject. It does not entail
impermanent time. It is meant to be used wherever and whenever. Few past
studies have been conducted on students’ mistakes or errors in using the simple
present tense.
The omission, misformation, misordering and addition errors are the types of
mistakes that students tend to commit in using the simple present tense.
Amongst all of the mistakes, misformation is the most common error made by
students (Siswoyo, 2016). In another similar study, omission errors have been
found as the frequent errors made by students (Masruddin, 2019). From these
studies, students are still struggling with present tense verb learning. Thus,
educators must find ways and methods to overcome this situation.
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3. Methodology
This research employed a pre-experimental method (one-group pre-test–post-
test design). The data were collected exclusively from a comparison of pre-test
and post-test data. The study was conducted in a primary school in Puchong,
Selangor, where the main researcher is teaching. Convenient sampling was
considered based on the information of researchers on the population of interest,
the availability the sample and the objectives of the study. It involved
manipulating an independent variable without random assignment of
conditions or condition orders to participants.
The sample of this study consisted of 31 Year 3 pupils (male n=14; female n=17)
without any control group. All of them are nine years of age studying in the
same class. The total number of the participants was acceptable as a sample size
of 15 students is considered acceptable when implementing classroom research
(Dörnyei, 2007). The data were analysed quantitatively because the purpose of
this research was to measure the effect of Kahoot! on present tense verb learning.
The pre-test was administered at the beginning of the study. The final score in
the post-test would indicate the learning progress. It was used as the benchmark
to ascertain the effect of Kahoot! on the present tense verb learning of Year 3
pupils. The present tense verb test was the only instrument used for this
research and was given before and after the application of Kahoot!.
As a means to measure the internal consistency of the item, reliability analysis
was adhered using the IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23 software platform. The
split-half reliability test was used to measure the internal consistency. It is
commonly used for multiple-choice tests. The reliability of the instrument is
almost acceptable with a reading of 0.774 based on the standard rule of thumb
for interpreting split-half readings.
The intervention length was four weeks, which was equivalent to 12 contact
hours. A prominent psychologist, Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885), concluded that
students forgot approximately 56% of what they learnt within one hour, 66%
forgot within one day, and 75% forgot within six days. Thus, he created ‘the
forgetting curve’. Current researchers still refer to this measure of how much
people forget. From this finding, students would have forgotten nearly all of the
pre-test questions and answers to replicate the same responses in the post-test
taken after four weeks (28 days). Here, the intervention length was sufficient
because the students would not have an opportunity to memorise or try to
remember the exact questions and answers in the pre-test. Any outcomes made
between the two tests are likely due to the influence of the intervention
programme.
3.1 Research Procedure
The research flow is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Research flow
PRE-TEST ON PRESENT
TENSE VERBS
KAHOOT!
SESSION
POST-TEST ON
PRESENT TENSE VERBS
RESPONDENTS X Y Z
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
3.2 Pre-Intervention
The researcher firstly selected the targeted verbs. Thirty common verbs were
chosen based on their standard frequencies in English language learning, as
stated in the Year 3 syllabus. They were then transferred into Kahoot!. An
appropriate image was inserted for each question to assist learning. The
researcher felt that exposing the nine-year-old pupils to more than 30 verbs may
lead to confusion and fatigue. Therefore, 30 common verbs, as shown in Table 2,
were selected to support the research aim and examine the effectiveness of using
Kahoot! in reinforcing present tense verb learning amongst the young ESL
learners.
Table 2: Targeted verbs
Ask Call Come Do Feel Get
Give Go Help Like Live Make
Play Put Run See Take Talk
Tell Think Use Want Work Wake
Eat Sleep Cycle Jump Drink Learn
At the initial stage, the pupils were administered with the pre-test, consisting of
10 multiple-choice questions. The researcher believed that the number of items
was sufficient due to the age and their level of English proficiency of the pupils.
The duration of the pre-test session was 30 min (equivalent to 1 period of
English lesson). The researcher was present to monitor the course closely and to
ensure that no one had a chance to copy from another classmate. The pupils
were not informed about the purpose of the test. Before the test, the researcher
gave them a short briefing by instructing them to read each question carefully,
underline the correct answer and write the answer in the blank.
3.3 Intervention
After the pre-test, the pupils had the first lesson about the rules of present tense
verbs and the introduction of all the targeted verbs. For future reference, they
were instructed to write down the wordlist in their exercise book. The pupils
were then familiarised to Kahoot!. The researcher also inserted a YouTube video
about present tense verbs to enhance learning and to attract the attention of the
learners. The quiz on present tense verbs was launched, and the pupils were
instructed to answer it in pairs and individually, as illustrated in Figure 1 and 2.
Figure 1: Kahoot! Interface
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Figure 2: Kahoot! Session
3.4 Post-Intervention
The same questions were distributed in the post-test for the participants to
answer on the final day of the experiment. The duration of the post-test session
was 30 min (equivalent to 1 period of English lesson). The researcher was
present to monitor the course closely to ensure that no one had a chance to copy
from another pupil. Before the test, the researcher gave the pupils a short
briefing by instructing them to read each question carefully, underline the
correct answer and write the answer in the blank. The pupils were not informed
about the purpose of the test.
3.5 Data Analysis
The researcher marked all scripts. The marks scored by the respondents in the
pre-test and the post-test were tabulated. Next, a statistical analysis was
executed by recording the scores of the participants’ in both tests on the
statistical software, IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The paired sample t-test was
used to describe the difference in the mean before and after the use of Kahoot!.
The result from the data was crucial in verifying the effectiveness of Kahoot! in
reinforcing the respondents’ learning and understanding of English present
tense verbs.
4. Findings and Discussions
Ten multiple-choice questions were included in both tests, as mentioned in the
earlier section. The percentage was calculated for both tests to determine any
differences before moving on to the statistical analysis. The researcher must
identify any improvement in post-test scores in comparison with the pre-test
scores.
4.1 Research Question: Does the use of Kahoot! reinforce the present tense
verb learning of young ESL learners?
The data revealed that the value of sig (p) paired sample t-test was 0.000, which
was less than 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. That is, their
scores increased after the treatment of Kahoot!. Besides, 22 respondents or 64.5%
managed to obtain at least five correct answers out of the ten questions in the
post-test compared with only 7 or 22.6% in the pre-test. This finding is shown in
Figure 3.
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Figure 3: Comparison of result
The results of the pre-test and the post-test were keyed into SPSS Statistics
Version 23 to determine the mean, standard deviation, t- and significant values
for supporting the data. The outcomes for the abovementioned statistics are
shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Comparison of pre-test and post-test results
N Mean Std. Dev t-value Sig.
Pre-test score 31 3.35 1.889
−5.550 .000
Post-test score 31 5.61 2.044
A significant difference was observed between the scores of the pupils’ before
and after the learning session via Kahoot! with (t) 30 = −5.550, p <0.05. A
substantial change in the mean scores between the pre-test (mean = 3.35, s.d =
1.889) and the post-test (mean = 5.61, s.d = 2.044) was also found (t = −5.550, p =
.000). The result from this table revealed a difference in terms of the means for
the post-test. These statistics ascertained that the pupils’ performance was
improving over the treatment of Kahoot!. The value of sig (p) paired sample t-
test was 0.000, which was less than 0.05. The effect size using Cohen’s d was
large, that is, Cohen’s d = (5.61 − 3.35) / 1.968027 = 1.148. Based on the results of
the t-test and Cohen’s d, the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. The statistical
analysis indicated a significant difference in terms of the performance of the
pupils after the use of Kahoot! in learning present tense verbs. The respondents
were able to reinforce their learning via Kahoot!. The results confirmed that
Kahoot! reinforced the present tense verb learning of young ESL learners.
The features embedded and the relevance of the application to young learners
could be related to the effectiveness of Kahoot! in reinforcing the respondents’
learning of present tense verbs; Kahoot! features the elements of gamification,
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Pre-test Post-test
Number
of
students
Pre-test vs Post-test Score
Score < 50% Score > 50%
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
such as leaderboards, points, feedback, performance graphs and social
elements/community collaboration (Flores 2015). Bullard and Anderson (2014)
and Wichadee and Pattanapichet (2018) further stated that gamified learning,
such as Kahoot!, manages to improve the achievement of learners concerning the
pre-test and post-test carried out. Besides, Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) determined
that Kahoot! could motivate learners to learn grammar. Concerning to the study
by Rao (2014), he states that the effectiveness of using games to improve
learners’ achievement, lies in the engagement of learners towards learning and
playing at the same time. Online language games are valuable to the 21st-
century learning as students are able to improve their grammar in ESL with the
assistance of the online language games (Mullins & Sabberwal, 2018; Leaning,
2015). Moreover, it can be said that students love something different in their
typical classroom setting. Their learning motivation will increase too (Castaneda
& Cho, 2016). This study also verified the statement made by Hussein (2015). He
stated that this accomplishment might also be driven by the lowered affective
filter triggered by the notion of gamification because learning grammar is
somehow distressing to most second language learners.
5. Conclusion
In the context of the present study, Kahoot! has been indicated to have a positive
effect on grammar learning, in which a significant difference exists between the
scores of the pupils before and after the learning session on the present tense,
leading to the discussion of several implications. The findings suggest that
gamification can enhance the teaching and learning experience and is thus, a
suitable tool for ESL lessons. It provides thought-provoking ideas into the
effectiveness of using Kahoot! in teaching grammar for young learners. Although
the findings cannot be generalised to the entire population, they offer an exciting
insight into the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in teaching grammar. Based on the
findings, the following recommendations are offered for future research. This
study serves as a starting point for subsequent research on different grammatical
items, particularly for young learners at the age of 7 or 8 with large sample size.
However, future studies may consider including a control group whenever
possible to reduce external threats and to strengthen the research design. The
study has also discussed infrastructure readiness as a main concern. A secure
and stable Internet connection is crucial to execute the lesson successfully. Every
school, either in rural or urban areas, should be well-equipped with a computer
laboratory/room to meet the demands of 21st-century learning. Kahoot! maybe
an inappropriate online learning platform for schools in rural areas due to poor
Internet connectivity and the lack of information and technology infrastructure.
Educators may further explore the possibilities which Kahoot! has to offer to deal
with 21st-century learners, but they should carefully develop the content of the
lessons in terms of the degree of difficulty and the nature of their students when
considering this method. While such recommendations are made, interested
parties must be aware that educators, learners and governments play a
significant role in generating conducive, contemporary and relevant learning
environments suited for the current generation.
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
6. Acknowledgements
We would like to express our gratitude to the administrators of SK Puchong for
allowing us to carry out the study, the Sponsorship Division, Ministry of
Education Malaysia for the scholarships awarded. Much thanks are also due to
the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia Grant
FRGS/1/2018/SS09/UKM/02/1.
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International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 27-46, May 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.3
Effectiveness and Stakeholders’ Perceptions of
the Integration of Automated E-Learning
Courses into Vocational Education Programmes
in Universities in Ukraine
Valentyna I. Bobrytska
National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv, Ukraine
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1742-0103
Tatyana D. Reva
Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3367-5931
Svitlana M. Protska
National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv, Ukraine
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9212-8700
Oksana M. Chkhalo
Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8874-4674
Abstract. The purpose of this research was to identify whether the
integration of the automated vocational e-courses into vocational
education could bring the students to the same academic achievements as
the tutor-moderated ones, and whether the stakeholders of education
perceive the automation of e-learning positively or negatively, and what
impact factors triggered their perceptions. The baseline study used the e-
course evaluation checklist to assess the e-course structure and content
from eight randomly selected universities. Four hundred and four
students and thirty-one instructors participated in the baseline study, first
pilot, and core experiment. The instruments utilised to monitor the
variables in the pilots were as follows: the sampled students’ academic
records, a Criteria Cognitive Aptitude Test, a Rasch Measurement Model,
and the Kolb’s Learning Style Questionnaire. The IBM SPSS Statistics
5.0.0.1. Software package was used to process the data drawn for the
above measurements. The above measurements were followed by the
focus group and nine education stakeholders’ perceptions analyses using
the Triangle Assessment Method. The study provided new evidence that
automated e-course delivery can lead to approximately the same
statistically significant improvements in the students’ vocational
competence, academic motivation, and learning styles proving that it
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
might be considered to be a feasible instructional tool. Additionally, it
suggested that the use of automated educational e-course assisted by a
virtual agent had been a more cost-efficient option.
Keywords: vocational education programme; e-courses automation;
vocational competence; academic motivation; learning styles
1. Introduction
The integration of the automated e-learning courses in the vocational education is
gradually becoming a preferred cost-efficient option for tertiary institutions
worldwide and in Ukraine, but an instructional challenge for the teachers
(Latchem, 2017; Diachenko et al., 2019; Katambur, 2019). This trend is consistent
with the fifth-generation distance education model (The Intelligent Flexible
Learning Model) that is featured with the tools of interactive, internet-based,
technology-mediated communication (Moller, Robison & Huett, 2012). The model
can provide the learners with the conventional-like quality of education for a
significantly lower cost (Mirrlees & Alvi, 2020). The greatest challenge for the
educators who have been recently forced to design and deliver the distance
courses is a struggle to create and work online learning environment caused by a
lack of computer skills. The teachers are supposed to apply more constructivists
pedagogies based on new tools, approaches, and methods (Iskander, Kapila &
Karim, 2010). Additionally, instructors are reluctant to shift to the use of the
distance learning models, especially automated ones, as this shift entails teachers
and institutions getting rid of traditional classroom instruction followed by losing
jobs by teachers (Dovbenko et al., 2020).
It is also a trend-driven innovation (CommLab India, 2020) that meets the
principles of the current educational policy of Ukraine (Bobrytska, 2015;
Bobrytska, 2017; Reva, 2017) and requirements associated with education
accessibility, affordability, and effectiveness (Chivu et al., 2018). Besides, it is
consistent with the ideas of both a new paradigm of 21st-century education
(Cunningham, 2019) and robotics-based education (Alimisis, 2020). Interestingly,
the recent developments in Speech and Language Technology (SLT), AuthorIT &
TutorIT technologies have made it possible to substitute a human-run learning
environment losing no instructional quality and ensuring high-cost effectiveness
(Delić et al., 2019; Cernak, Asaei & Hyafil, 2018; Scandura, 2010; Scandura, 2016).
The letter inspired this study and created a research gap as the study found
insufficient limits of information on the use of virtual tutor’s assistants in the
course delivered on the Moodle platform.
Literature review
The literature review found that theory, methods, quality assurance and
effectiveness issues of vocational education in universities in Ukraine are
thoroughly investigated and revealed (Bobrytska, 2015; Bobrytska, 2017) in terms
of reshaping and adjusting it to the international job market, and making it more
‘real life-friendly.’ (Tsymbaliuk, Shkoda & Artiushyna, 2019). The literature
review found an extensive body of research revealing the use of technology in
educational settings. The relevant and credible works show that there is the
relationship between the use of information communication technology (ICT) and
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
students’ academic performance, educational self-efficacy determined by the
ability to navigate in the flow of information, to acquire new knowledge, to self-
develop professionally (Bobrytska, 2015; Bobrytska & Protska, 2017; Bobrytska &
Protska, 2018; Chkhalo, n.d.; Saxena, 2017; Balali, Ahmadi, Tabatabaei & Hassani,
2018; Basri, Alandejani & Almadani, 2018).
The irruption of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Artificial Linguistic Internet
Computer Entity (A.L.I.C.E.) gave rise to emerging breaking educational projects
(Smutny & Schreiberova, 2020; Laurillard, 2013; Holotescu, 2016; Garrett, 2017;
Fadhil & Villafiorita, 2017) based on the use of the Facebook Messenger (Smutny
& Schreiberova, 2020). Furthermore, educational projects to teach learners a
language are coming into practice. They are using a conversational chatbot
substituting a teacher and based on Computer Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) systems used as a media (Shawa, 2018). The chatbot can reproduce a
standardized dialogue by using a series of written or verbalised messages that can
substate the human teacher's lesson delivery. After such a class (a lecture or a
presentation, or a lab explainer) the chatbot can assign a student with a multiple-
choice test or quiz, immediately check it and forward the results to the teacher or
the course moderator. It reduces the teacher’s workload and helps the one to
engage students in the learning and collaboration process. A chatbot also can track
students’ information inquiries to be further used to update the content of the e-
course (Farkash, 2018).
Though this research problem is quite trendy, it is underrepresented in the
literature, specifically from a pedagogical perspective. Therefore, the purpose of
this research was to identify whether the integration of automated educational
courses into vocational education programmes in universities in Ukraine could be
effective and perceived positively by education stakeholders.
The research questions were as follows: 1) what delivery structure of the
vocational e-courses at universities are commonly used at universities in Ukraine;
2) whether that structure is appropriate to train students’ vocational competence;
3) how the automated educational e-courses integrated into vocational disciplines
influences students’ vocational competence, academic motivation, and learning
styles; 4) how the stakeholders of education perceive the automation of e-learning
and what factors trigger their perceptions.
2. Research methodology
The study attempted to answer the research questions in the course of the core
experiment that was proceeded by a baseline study and a pilot study. It was
divided into four stages to have used different designs and methods (see Fig. 1).
Research Design
A descriptive research design was employed to complete a baseline study, which
was the first stage of the research by utilising quantitative methods. A quasi-
experimental research design relying on pre-testing‒post-testing procedures was
utilised in the first pilot and the core experiment. The latter both relied on a mixed-
methods approach to monitor changes in the dependent variables and
perceptions. The fourth stage was analytical that used statistical methods to
process data, interpret the results, and draw conclusions. The sampled students’
vocational competence, academic motivation, and learning styles were the
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©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
dependent variables for the pilot study. The above-outlined variables were kept
under systematic review in the core experiment and perceptions of different
stakeholders were examined after completing the intervention. The perceptions
of automated educational e-course delivery were studied in the core experiment.
Figure 1: Abstract Research Design
Research Participants and Procedure
The baseline study was conducted at eight leading and highly-rated universities
in Ukraine from January to the end of May of 2018. Those were National
Pedagogical Drahomanov University (NPDU), Bogomolets National Medical
University (BNMU), Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University (BGKU), Kyiv National
Economic University (KNEU), Kyiv National University of Technologies and
Design (KNUTD), Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture
(KNUCA), Lviv Polytechnic National University (LPNU), and V. N. Karazin
Kharkiv National University (KKNU). The consent for running the study was
obtained from the Institutional Scientific Review Boards of all universities prior
to the intervention.
The purpose of the study was to analyse scientific and methodological approaches
used to develop e-courses in different vocational tertiary schools, to examine
(mutually considered) best practices of organising and administrating online
component of the vocational training, and to specify the structure of e-courses
placed on the MOODLE platform. To meet the purpose of the study, two existing
online course checklists developed by Federation University (Australia) (n.d.) and
Winthrop University (USA) (n.d.) were adapted and refined for the use in this
study to evaluate the structure of the course and instructional methods. They were
chosen because they comply with Standards and Guidelines for Quality
Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG), Articles: 1.2
(Design and approval of programmes), 1.3 (Student-centred learning, teaching,
and assessment), 1.6 (Learning resources and student support) (ESG, 2015).
The first pilot lasted from September of 2018 to the end of January of 2019. It was
run at three randomly selected institutions, which were as follows: National
Pedagogical Drahomanov University (NPDU), Bogomolets National Medical
Baseline
Study
•Obtaning
consent from
the Board of
Academics of
the
institutions to
run the study
•Examining
the e-courses
using a
checklist
•Drawing
conclusions
First
pilot
•Running the
tutor-
moderated e-
courses at
three
institutions
•Monitoring
the variables
through pre-
testing and
post-testing
•Data analysis
and
interpretation
Core
Experiment
•E-course in
General
Pedagogics
automation
•Monitoring
the variables
through pre-
testing and
post-testing
•Studying the
perceptions
different
stakeholders
of education
Analytical
stage
•Data
processing
•Drawing
conclusions
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IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.19 No.5
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 2020) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 5 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the May 2020 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 19 NUMBER 5 May 2020 Table of Contents Social Pedagogy as a Necessary Basis for Teachers Training in Greece ..........................................................................1 Vassilis Pantazis and Despoina Styla Game-Based Learning Platform and its Effects on Present Tense Mastery: Evidence from an ESL Classroom ......13 Mohd Iskandar Idris, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said and Kim Hua Tan Effectiveness and Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the Integration of Automated E-Learning Courses into Vocational Education Programmes in Universities in Ukraine.......................................................................................................... 27 Valentyna I. Bobrytska, Tatyana D. Reva, Svitlana M. Protska and Oksana M. Chkhalo Implementation of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Approach in Chemistry Instructional with Context of Tofu Liquid Waste Treatment ...................................................................................................................................................... 47 Momo Rosbiono Kartamiharja, Wahyu Sopandi and Dini Anggraeni Ready or Not: The Experiences of Novice Academic Heads in School Leadership..................................................... 78 Gilbert S. Arrieta and Inero V. Ancho Action Research in Hadith Literacy: A Reflection of Hadith Learning in the Digital Age ......................................... 99 Tedi Supriyadi, J. Julia, Ani Nur Aeni and Elan Sumarna Perception of TPET Lecturers’ on the Effect of Global Partnerships in Developing Students’ Career Human Capital .................................................................................................................................................................................. 125 James Edomwonyi Edokpolor and Vero Iyalekhue Abusomwan Development of the Innovative Smart Orbital (ISO) Medium to Improve the Cognitive Skills on the Heat Transfer Concept ................................................................................................................................................................................ 141 Firmanul Catur Wibowo, Esmar Budi, Lari Andres Sanjaya, Dina Rahmi Darman, Mohamad Syarif Sumantri and Dinas Kurnia Robby Junior High School Students' Experiences of High Technology Based Learning in Indonesia ................................ 153 Supardi Supardi and Enung Hasanah Factors that Influence Learning Strategy Use among Senior High School Economics Students in Ghana: A Quantitative Approach ...................................................................................................................................................... 167 Anthony Akwesi Owusu and Cosmas Cobbold Teachers’ Efforts in Understanding the Factual, Conceptual, Procedural and Metacognitive Assessment Using the Revised 2013 Curriculum................................................................................................................................................... 186 Hermayawati . The Impact of Specialty, Sex, Qualification, and Experience on Teachers’ Assessment Literacy at Saudi Higher Education............................................................................................................................................................................. 200 Sabria Salama Jawhar and Ahmad M. Subahi
  • 6. Enhancing Students’ Academic Performance in University System: The Perspective of Supplemental Instruction ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 217 Oyinlola Omolara Adebola, Cias T. Tsotetsi and Bunmi Isaiah Omodan Aesthetic Education as a Topical Direction of Preparation of a Modern Specialist ................................................... 231 Olena F. Sbitnieva, Liudmyla M. Sbitnieva, Hanna E. Ovcharenko, Victoria S. Furkalo and Svitlana S. Bondar Pedagogical Training System of Future Social Workers in Ukraine: Experimental Study ....................................... 245 Hanna A. Ridkodubska, Oksana Ya. Romanyshyna, Oksana Y. Karabin, Nataliia V. Kazakova and Halyna S. Tarasenko Potential of the Use of Social Networks in Teaching a Foreign Language in Higher Educational Institutions ..... 260 Iryna M. Zvarych, Natalia M. Lavrychenko, Nataliya H. Zaitseva, Olena M. Chaika and Oksana M. Skorobahata Development of Social Intelligence in Preschool Children by Art Therapy: Case Study of Oyna Educational Centre ................................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Akhmetzhan S. Seitenov, Rakhila Zh. Aubakirova, Alyona A. Kostyunina, Ekaterina V. Mishchenko, Natalya B. Shevchenko Application of Cloud Educational Technologies for Teacher Competence Development........................................ 289 Iurii L. Mosenkis, Liudmyla V. Lukianyk, Oleksandr M. Strokal, Vira A. Ponomarova and Hanna V. Mykhailiuk Using U-NO-ME Card Game to Enhance Primary One Pupils’ Vocabulary.............................................................. 304 Brenda Ak Lukas, Finola Iba Ak Patrick, Gloria Chong, Nursuriati Binti Jaino and Melor Md. Yunus Academic Reading and Writing Needs of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Research ...................................... 318 Reynold C. Padagas and Bonjovi H. Hajan Perspectives on Mentoring Support During Teaching Practicum in Local & International Settings ...................... 336 Rohaya Abdullah, M. Ali Ghufron, Yunita Puspitasari Puspitasari and Norlida Ahmad Peer Tutorial: Championing Students at Risk................................................................................................................. 352 Joel B. Tan and Esterlina B. Gevera Malaysian Public University Lecturers’ Perceptions and Practices of Formative and Alternative Assessments ..379 Tajularipin Sulaiman, Sedigheh Shakib Kotamjani, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul Rahim and Muhammad Nazrul Hakim Enhancing Mathematical Language through Oral Questioning in Primary Schools................................................. 395 Muhammad Sofwan Mahmud, Aida Suraya Md. Yunus, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub and Tajularipin Sulaiman STEM Education in Malaysia towards Developing a Human Capital through Motivating Science Subject.......... 411 Fazilah Razali, Umi Kalthom Abdul Manaf and Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub
  • 7. 1 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 1-12, May 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.1 Social Pedagogy as a Necessary Basis for Teachers Training in Greece Vassilis Pantazis Department of Early Childhood Education University of Thessaly, Greece https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0915-7752 Despoina Styla Department of Early Childhood Education University of Thessaly, Greece https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9354-7125 Abstract. This paper aims to examine the importance of social pedagogy theory and practice throughout teachers’ continuing training in Greece. Teaching is a demanding job that cannot be complete, unless the teacher is scientifically trained and that’s why we argue, according to relevant scientific researches, that social pedagogy theory, through practical application, can be very constructive, for this purpose. Thus, the authors initially attempt to go through a general overview of social pedagogy, to inform teachers about what social pedagogy is, about the theory, the content and objectives of social pedagogy. Moreover, the research method of the study is a systematic review and a thematic analysis of sociological and other scientific studies relevant to social pedagogy and teachers training, conducted/found on the Web. According to the results, first of all, considering the major responsibility of classroom teachers for continuing training, it’s important for teachers to be social pedagogues, since the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them with the ability to deal with problems and difficulties raised in the classroom. Secondly, that importance is growing, if we consider that teachers attempt for a holistic teaching/didactic approach, following social pedagogy’s principles, is reflected in children’s ability for social and emotional development, for healthy relationships, for achieving wellbeing and becoming complete citizens. Finally, the necessity of this research is growing, if we consider that especially nowadays in Greek society, students face many social problems, the majority of which occur due to the current economic crisis (such as bullying, poverty, racism) and that’s why the spread of social pedagogy’s theory and practice in Greek teaching/educational community, is of high essentiality and can be achieved through teachers continuing training. Keywords: teachers; continuing training; social pedagogy; social pedagogues; Greek society
  • 8. 2 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The founding of Social Pedagogy in Germany depicts the enormous socio- economic problems that this country was experiencing in the 19th century due to the industrial revolution, which gave birth to the need for "resistance" from society and especially from the lower social class, so that social changes can take place. Thus, more emphasis was placed on the social functioning of education (Hämäläinen, 2003). As a scientific field, social pedagogy appeared in the 20th century, when the German philosopher Paul Natorp (1854-1924), published, in 1899, the book ‘Sozialpädagogik: Theorie der Willensbildung Auf der Grundlage der Gemeinschaft’ (Social Pedagogy: The Theory of Educating the Human Will into a Community Asset) (Eriksson, 2010). Specifically, Natorp (1904, p.94) as mentioned in Kornbeck and Jensen (2012, p.201) argued that “teachers should always consider the interaction between the social aspects of education and the educational aspects of social life”. There are some theorists of the 19th and 20th century whose philosophy affected Social Pedagogy such as Karl Mager (1810-1858) and Friedrich Distersweg (1790- 1866) who believe in education’s social mission and Herman Nohl (1879-1960) who argued that pedagogical intervention should focus on social help, based on love (Schugurensky & Silver, 2013). Social pedagogy΄s relationship with the area of education is narrow, according to what Moss and Petrie (2019 p. 402) say about that issue. They claim that social pedagogy is capable of ‘’spanning and infusing’’ all the areas that work with people of all ages, including schools of all levels. Also, in some European countries, social pedagogy is the subject of undergraduate and postgraduate studies (Petrie, 2013). In Greece, at this point, there have also been developed higher education study programs, dealing with the subject of social pedagogy, such as: 1) the undergraduate course called ‘introduction to social pedagogy’ at the University of Thessaly, Department of Early Childhood Education, 2) the undergraduate course called ‘Socio-educational approaches in primary school’ at the University of West Macedonia, Department of Primary Education, 3) the postgraduate course, called ‘Social Neuroscience, Social Pedagogy and Education’ at National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (EKPA) (Kontogianni, 2019). However, there is a great need that the range of those education programs about social pedagogy should become wider. Moreover, although Greek university students start becoming familiar with social pedagogy theory (to clarify the theoretical basis, such as learning a theoretical introduction to social pedagogy, including a history of ideas, basic concepts, etc.), during their studies at the university, there is no research evidence (research studies) that they continue with this, during their continuing training. We argue, that there is a great need, that teachers around the world rediscover the concept of social pedagogy, during their continuing training. And this is very crucial, especially for Greek teachers, as Greek society is currently affected by an economic crisis that also translates into a social crisis (Kyridis, Christodoulou, Vamvakidou & Paulidis-Korres, 2015). Thus, this paper aims, through literature review, to emphasize the importance of the social pedagogy theory and practice, throughout continuing training of teachers and especially Greek teachers.
  • 9. 3 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 2. Methodology A systematic review was used in the collection of texts, included in this study. Systematic review is ‘’a form of literature review, which involves identifying, synthesising and assessing all available evidence, quantitative and/or qualitative, in order to generate a robust, empirically derived answer to a focused research question’’ (Mallett, Hagen-Zanker, Slater & Duvendack, 2012, pp. 445-446). Moreover, according to Green, Johnson and Adams (2006, p.104) “authors of systematic reviews attempt to obtain all original research studies published on the topic under study by searching in multiple databases, performing hand searches and contacting authors of previously published research’’. After examining the offered possibilities for selecting open accessed articles, on- line books, conferences proceedings, dissertations/theses and reports relevant to social pedagogy, we decided to limit the research to the Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC), to Google Scholar database, to Scopus database, to Web of Science (WoS), to Research Gate network and Akademia.edu network of professionals and scientists. Great effort has been made to perform a scientific procedure, to meet academic standards of high quality. The following inclusion criteria were conducted, to select texts in the review: (1) deal with social pedagogy (which were the first Keywords search), (2) deal with teachers training (which were the second Keywords search), (3) be published in peer-reviewed journals, (4) be published during the period 2000-2020, (5) written and published in the English Language, (6) the terms ‘social pedagogy’ or ‘social pedagogues’ must appear clearly in the titles, (7) the term ‘teachers training’ must appear in the titles, separate or combined to the social pedagogy term, (8) avoid texts referring to social work and social workers, a distinct/separate scientific field (9) avoid comparative studies of social pedagogy and social work, as they are irrelevant to our study’s topic. Using the above search criteria on Web (our study’s query run between September 2019 and December 2019) we obtained 85 articles, 3 on-line books, 3 theses, 4 reports, that were eligible for thematic analysis, which is a method for identifying, analysing, organizing, describing, and reporting themes found within a data set (Bryman, 2012). To use only those of the 85 articles that correspond to our main research goal, the following exclusion criteria were used: (1) exclude journals that include no references to the social pedagogy’s connection to practice and the general benefits occurred by this connection, (2) to exclude studies referring to teachers training and to the increase of their professionalism, which are the majority of studies appearing, when one types on the Web the Keywords ‘teachers training’, (3) to exclude the major number of studies that examine the history of social pedagogy in different countries, which is irrelevant to our study. To continue to literature review, we first analyse the term social pedagogy, because when the discussion comes to what social pedagogy is, there is a great misunderstanding, as it is a complex field. A field which tries to combine the principles of social, psychological, educational, etc. sciences (Cameron & Moss, 2011), to prevent and fight mostly social problems (such as social exclusion), in different spaces and ages (as schools of all levels, institutions of old age fostering, supporting domes for youth, etc.). Social pedagogy doesn’t give prescriptions for
  • 10. 4 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. the solutions, but tries to deal holistically with the situation, with an emphasis on strengthening human relationships and promoting the idea of how to develop/promote a healthy way to deal with life, to gain a mental and psychological balance, to become complete personalities, ready to stand on their feet. That’s why, social pedagogues cooperate with all the factors that affect one's life (such as the parents, the family, the topical residence, the doctors, etc.). 3. Literature review 3.1. Social pedagogy as a concept The term pedagogy is derived from the Greek word ‘pais’, meaning child and the word ‘agein’, meaning to bring up (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011). Τhe concept of social pedagogy concerns the relationship between society and education and the way one affects the other (Petrie, Boddy, Cameron, Wigfall & Simon, 2006). According to ThemPRA (2019) some of the main foundations of social pedagogy theory are the following: raise the feeling of empathy, emphasize the need for protection of human rights, enable people to achieve self-autonomy and self – reflection, to be able enough to change and improve their own lives and generally speaking, to understand the enormous necessity for the protection of vulnerable social groups. Moreover, taking into consideration Hämäläinen (2003) claim that social pedagogy is not a strict teaching method, we understand that an education system with a social pedagogical orientation does not only care for the strict education and cognitive performance of their students, with strict teaching prescriptions, but also pursues to educate all individuals related to the school community (students, parents, teachers, topical society etc.) to strive for a better world, for a better society, with less social discriminations (Pantazis, 2012). Additionally, the drafters of the ‘Radisson Report’ (Social Education Trust, 2001, pt. 4.1) provide a list of nine characteristics of Social Pedagogy. Some of these are: social pedagogues/educators view a child’s situation holistically, education cares for social competencies and morals values learning, putting in the center the development of healthy human relations. Through prosperity and learning, it aims at complete development and integration of each individual, within his social context, considering as a given that all human beings have the potential to be valuable and responsible members of society, as long as society caters to their inclusion, rather than exclusion. That is why social educators deal with a wide range of ages, from the first years of life to old age, and social pedagogy can be applied to different contexts, such as early childhood, family support, drug-addicted support, elderly support, teenagers support, disability services, support for imprisoned, etc. with priority the active participation of those involved (Petrie & Cameron, 2009). Furthermore, according to Eichsteller and Bradt (2019), there are various reasons why social pedagogy is suitable for educational and social practices, such as the following: it gives attention to the enhancement of human relationships, believes that every human being has capabilities and talents and should have the opportunities to unwrap those, emphasizes dialogue and civilized communication, strikes at human problems, such as poverty, offers a specific framework that can be very helpful to a broad range of professionals, raises the
  • 11. 5 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. motivation of professionals. We should add here that the last reason is extremely crucial for teachers’ jobs, as according to Carson and Chase (2009), teacher’s motivation is an essential factor that affects and enforces classroom effectiveness. To summarize the substance of all the above references, can be compacted in Boddy, Cameron, Moss, Mooney, Petrie and Stathams (2005) following words: ‘’Social pedagogy is an approach: in which learning, care, health, general wellbeing, and development are viewed as totally inseparable, a holistic idea summed up in the pedagogical term ‘upbringing’. The pedagogue as practitioner sees herself as a person in relationship with the child as a whole person, supporting the child’s overall development’’ (Boddy et al, 2005, p. 3). 3.2. Social pedagogy’s Connection to Practice As Hämäläinen (2003) claims we can see social pedagogy both as a practice and a democratic philosophical approach. To understand the connection of social pedagogy to practice we should bring to mind two metaphorical parallelisms of social pedagogy, firstly as a tree and secondly as a diamond. According to Eichsteller and Holthoff (2012) social pedagogy as a tree finds its roots in the works of scientists in different scientific fields, such as education, philosophy, sociology, and psychology. The trees flourishment depends on the gardeners (social educators/pedagogues) who use many tools for this purpose (a person’s well-being) such as teamwork, communication, etc. The Diamond Model (Figure1) is another metaphor parallelism of social pedagogy. The image of the diamond symbolizes the idea that there is a diamond within all of us, that we are all precious and have a rich variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities. The Diamond Model outlines four aims of social pedagogical practice: to enhance well- being and happiness, to enable holistic learning, to develop relationships, and to increase a sense of empowerment. These aims are brought to life through positive experiences (Thempra, 2019; Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011). Figure 1: The Diamond Model (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011) Social pedagogy in practice offers a set of organized pedagogical actions that seek to influence and change social and educational mechanisms (Petrie et al., 2006; Hämäläinen, 2012; Stephens, 2013).
  • 12. 6 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Taking into consideration the above literature review, at this point of our study, we suggest some of the following application examples of social pedagogy in a school classroom, such as: a) Humanitarian action that promotes the development of students emotional and social skills, b) the fight of critical incidents (e.g. violence and victimization, racism in the classroom) with the development of socio-educational programs, in cooperation/collaboration with social institutions and special scientists/experts, c) the organization of experiential seminars for the parents about social issues, d) the participation in experiential socio-educational programs (topical or international) carried out in schools, organized by the government, aiming at highlighting the socio-pedagogical dimensions (of the many forms) of the heterogeneity, the uniqueness and identity of each person (in collaboration with other teachers/colleagues), e) the organization of educational activities inside and outside the school, f) the group meetings and events with parents (celebrations, etc.), g) the student visits to various institutions (some Greek institutions are: the Refugee Hospitality Centers, the Child's Smile, the SOS Villages, etc.) that develop social pedagogical activity. The application of the above actions requires teachers with emotional stability, emotional abilities, and emotional intelligence in pedagogical interaction, as it is emphasized by many studies. When the relationship between teachers and students is charged with negative emotions, for various reasons, communication is disrupted and students get disappointed (Konstantinou, 2004). Moreover, the role of the modern teacher is demanding. Essentially, in terms of the cognitive part of teaching, the teacher must help in the synthesis and analysis of knowledge, expand students’ critical thinking, and their productivity. But most important of all, the teacher must possess emotional intelligence, as according to Rogers (1983) respect, empathy, and authenticity are the three basic elements of communication with the student. Similarly, Fontana (1994) and Brown (2004) argue a teacher must take on modern roles as: • mediator between knowledge and the student, • humanist and democrat, • counselor and discreet driver, • psychologist, sociologist, educator. Moreover, Jacobs (2001), in a common context, believes that the human skills a teacher should own, are divided into the following categories: A) Counseling skills: 1. help others solve problems, 2. to build trust and be open with their fellow human beings, 3. to give advice effectively, 4. help others better understand themselves. B) Communication skills: 1. to present ideas with objective way, 2. to present ideas and information comprehensively, 3. to manage the speech accurately. C) Leadership skills: 1. to inspire confidence and respect in others, 2. to organize effective groups, 3. to be able to cooperate with "difficult" people. D) Educational skills:1. help others gain knowledge and different skills, 2. activates others to present them.
  • 13. 7 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. To summarize, according to Anderberg (2020) the review shows the global differences as it comes to the role of social pedagogues in schools (about their missions, goals, status, roles, functions, tasks, activities). The central mission in most countries is to fight the exclusion of pupil groups or individuals with problems. Another frequent mission is the prevention of serious problems such as bullying, violence, and drug use. Moreover, there is an orientation towards upbringing with a democratic manner and active social participation, of all students. 3.3. Teachers continuing training At this point in the literature review, we find it necessary to refer to the meaning of teachers’ continuing training. First of all, training is defined as: “The set of measures and activities adopted and implemented to improve and develop academic, practical and personal or professional knowledge, skills, abilities, and interests of teachers during their career” (Mavrogiorgos, 1996, p. 86). Moreover, according to OECD (2010): “These activities can be very heterogeneous: dissemination conferences, workshops (preparation to new subject-matter content), school-based activities (study groups, courses), personal teacher development (individual activities outside of schools)” (OECD, 2010, p.7). Additionally, according to Papadopoulou and Bagakis (2015), as it is mentioned in Law 3879/2010 (The Development of Life-long Learning), a teacher’s training can be evolved through: “a) access to opportunities for continual professional development, b) the creation of flexible learning paths, c) development of open education and e-learning, d) branching out into non-formal and informal forms of learning, e) use of new teaching and learning technologies from educational and research institutes and other providers, f) creation of networks for innovation at both a local and regional level, g) activities for the development of all the educational staff, h) individualized programs “any time and at any place” (Papadopoulou & Bagakis, 2015, p.427). Many studies place importance to in-service training that can take place in the school environment, as according to Mavrogiorgos (1999), the in-school training is more reliable than the out-of-school training, because it meets teachers’ needs, combines the theory with the practice, raises the school’s quality level and contributes to the school collaboration with the other schools and with the field of scientific research. According to Eurydice (2019) formal continuing training of teachers of all levels is usually done by expertized institutions (inspected by the government for their quality) with high standards, at a national level, aiming at teachers’ professional development, career evolution, acquisition of competencies and development of capabilities to cope with change, difficulties and unpredictable situations during their careers.
  • 14. 8 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. In summary, in Greece, according to Asimaki, Sakkoulis and Vergidis (2016), Papagueli - Vouliouris (1999), Papastamatis and Panitsidou (2008), in-service teacher training can be tacked in the following periods: a) 1880 - 1977: the establishment of the “Didaskaleion”, a training institute, b) 1977 - 1992: the period of professional teacher training schools for elementary and secondary teachers called “SELDE-SELME’’, c) 1992 - 1995: the Regional Training Centres (known as PEKs), d) 1995 - 2011: the "European" period, the implementation, under Law 2986/2002, of the Teacher Training Agency (known as OEPEK), which today is replaced by the Institute of Education Policy (known as IEP). 3.4. The value of teachers’ continuing training Especially nowadays, at the end of one’s studies, there is an enormous need for lifelong learning, since the field of human knowledge is not static, but is in dynamic development (Papadopoulou & Bagakis, 2015). Teachers’ professional development should begin during their studies and continue during their life. The continuing training of teachers should be characterized by flexibility and adaptability, as new pedagogical and socio-cultural data are constantly emerging and teachers should be upgraded. We argue that even if they have received a quality initial teacher education, they need to be trained continually, to know how to manage the difficulties and problems to which they are faced. Therefore, it is beneficial for teachers to improve/update their skills, because benefits are enormous according to the results of different researches. For example, according to Ajokou (2013), in-service continuing training: 1) enforces teachers Mental Health to be able to tolerate the disturbances that may occur in a classroom, 2) broadens their social contacts as they have many chances to socialize with other colleagues during their training, 3) grows the willingness to know more about the profession, to catch up with the new and latest findings in education, 4) gives opportunities for advancement on the job. Everybody wants to get a better position, such as becoming headmasters, counselors etc. All these positions are possible only for those who go on and strive to update through continuing training. Moreover, we embrace the point of view of Boudersa (2016) that teacher continuing training and professional development should be democratic enough, so as not to impose on the consolidation of teachers' perceptions and established knowledge about a given teaching methodology. Teacher training and professional development should aim at the fundamental change of teachers’ practices, which, in turn, will lead to the improvement of their educative effectiveness. Teachers at all levels of education need to be always trained if they are to improve their practices in their classes. Such training programs will help teachers to improve their knowledge of the subject they teach and the social skills they need in the classroom. There is no doubt that teachers will benefit from professional development only if that development contains activities that focus on high- quality content. And those activities should be organized by scientists/experts, during the training programs and courses, so that the teachers' demands get satisfied and raise their willingness to keep walking on this long life- learning path.
  • 15. 9 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 4. The results of the analysis The results of the thematic analysis can be detected in the following points. First of all, it seems that Greek teachers get some information about social pedagogy theory and practice during their university studies, but in Greece we argue that there is a crucial/substantial need for those programs to be expanded, as the official number of those university studies, mentioned above (see part 1. Introduction) is extremely poor. Secondly, is of great importance for teachers to come up with those principles of social pedagogy throughout their whole career, especially nowadays in modern Greek society, where students face many social problems, the majority of which occur due to the current economic crisis such as bullying, the poverty the economic crisis brings, racism (due to cultural differences that refugees face), etc. That importance is growing, if we consider that teachers attempt for a holistic teaching/didactic approach, following social pedagogy’s principles, is reflected in children’s ability for social and emotional development, for healthy relationships, for achieving wellbeing and becoming complete citizens (see 3.1). Thirdly, as the role of the modern teacher is demanding and as according to Rogers (1983) it’s very important that teachers not only possess knowledge, but emotional intelligence too (see 3.2) it seems to be a grave need to update and gain more familiarity with the social pedagogy principles during their continuing training and professional development and not only during their university studies. This is because, according to Kyriakou, Stephens, Avramidis and Werlers (2011) student teachers, although tend to be open-minded to new initiatives, they often have second thoughts about how prepared they are to concur to school’s progress and the application of innovative methods. In short, according to the citation of the above bibliography social pedagogy theory and practice it’s an ideal situation and an opportunity for all teachers to enhance their emotional and social skills. Moreover, considering the major responsibility of classroom teachers for continuing training (as we mention above at 3.4), teachers, among other things, throughout their training and professional development, should be or become social pedagogues, since the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them with the ability to deal with problems in the classroom (Eurydice, 2019). Generally speaking, the main principles of social pedagogy can supply them with the ability to contribute to the improvement of the Greek education system. Especially in Greece, unfortunately, that education system: ‘’Is made to create collegialities through "suppressive" actions and practices primarily attributed in the range of assessment and school competition’’ (Kyridis, Papadakis, Tourtouras, & Lytrivi, 2016, p. 12) and we agree with Kyridis, Christodoulou, Vamvakidou and Paulidis-Korres (2015) who argue that: ‘’We need more holistic educational activities, such as those that social pedagogy proposes, which are gentler than those of the formal education system’’ (Vamvakidou & Paulidis-Korres, 2015, p.31). At this point, we cannot skip the sad truth that in Greece there is a need to obtain a wider social pedagogy network (composed of experts), and take as an example the UK, where we find a wide social pedagogy network. Where, for instance, somebody can meet the following: a) the ThemPra, which is a social pedagogical
  • 16. 10 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. enterprise, supporting the development of social pedagogy through scientific actions (http://www.thempra.org.uk/), b) the Social Pedagogy Professional Association-SPPA, which aims to support vulnerable social groups (https://sppa-uk.org/) and c) the Social Pedagogy Development Network- SPDN, which tries to unite the social pedagogues and organize relevant activities (http://www.thempra.org.uk/spdn/). 5. Discussion and conclusion In this current paper we stress the need for teachers to get acquainted with the theory and practice of social pedagogy and attain consideration of the main principles of social pedagogy, during their training, their journey of discovery, because teachers are one of the three groups of adults involved in the education of children (the other two groups are the family members and other professional such as social workers, psychologists, etc.). Especially, teachers have the potentiality to guide children to become complete citizens and integrated personalities (Kyriakou, Avramidis, Stephens & Werler, 2011). Moreover, there is a feeling, that more than ever in Greece, we need open-minded teachers who will adopt and will be scientifically trained and able to apply social pedagogy in their classrooms, and this can only be achieved, throughout their continuing training, by expertized educators and trainers. Coming to the end of our study we can summarize the substance of the above literature review and analysis, to the argument that there is a diamond within all of us, we are all precious and have a rich variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities (Eichsteller & Holthoff, 2011). This is an encouraging aspect, that teachers should have in mind during their lifelong learning path. Finally, the present study has some important limitations, such as the lack of interviews (or other research methodologies) conducted with Greek teachers, to examine the way they think about social pedagogy and to examine if they feel prepared for the direct practice of the main principles of social pedagogy in education. We hope that these limitation, will be the trigger for further studies and research. 6. References Anderberg, M. (2020). In search of a social pedagogical profession in schools. Missions and roles under reconsideration. International Journal of Social Pedagogy, 9(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.444.ijsp.2020.v9.x.001 Ajoku, L. I. (2013). Development of Teachers, Action Planning, and Utilizing 21st Century Skills in Nigerian Schools. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(15). Asimaki, A., Sakkoulis, D., & Vergidis, D. (2016). Searching for pedagogical practices for success at school for “all” the students: a sociological approach (in Greek). Step of Social Sciences, IZ(67). Boddy, J., Cameron, C., Moss, P., Mooney, A., Petrie, P., & Statham, J. (2005). Introducing Pedagogy into the Children’s Workforce: Children’s Workforce Strategy: A response to the consultation document. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit. Boudersa, N. (2016). The Importance of Teachers’ Training and Development Programs in the Algerian Educational Context: Toward Informed and Effective Teaching Practices. Expériences Pédagogic, 1.
  • 17. 11 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Brown, R. (2004). Social identity theory: past achievements, current problems, and future challenges. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 745-778. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cameron, C., & Moss, P. (2011). Social pedagogy: current understandings and opportunities. In C. Cameron & P. Moss (Eds.), Social pedagogy and working with children and young people: where care and education meet (pp. 7-32). UK: Jessica Kingsley. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2012.660337 Carson, R. L., & Chase, M. A. (2009). An examination of physical education teacher motivation from a self-determination theoretical framework. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14, 335–353. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408980802301866 Eichsteller, G., & Holthoff, S. (2011). Conceptual Foundations of Social Pedagogy: A Transnational Perspective from Germany. In C. Cameron, & P. Moss, Social Pedagogy and Working with Children. UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Eichsteller, G., & Holthoff, S. (2012). The Art of Being a Social Pedagogue: Developing Cultural Change in Children’s Homes in Essex. International Journal of Social Pedagogy, 1, 30-45. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.444.ijsp.2012.v1.1.004 Eichsteller, G., & Bradt, L. (2019). Social Pedagogy as a Meaningful Perspective for Education and Social Care. Insight Report. Beaumaris: ThemPra. Eriksson, L. (2010). Community development and social pedagogy: Traditions for understanding mobilization for collective self-development. Community Development Journal, 46(4), 403-420. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsq008 Eurydice/Eurybase, (2019). Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education. Retrieved from: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/nationalpolicies/eurydice/content/continuing- professional-development-teachers-working-early-childhood-and-school- education-61_en Fontana, D. (1994). Managing Classroom Behaviour. USA: BPS Books. Green, B. N., Johnson, C. D., & Adams, A. (2006). Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets of the trade. Journal of chiropractic medicine, 5(3) 101-117. Hämäläinen, J. (2003). The Concept of Social Pedagogy in the Field of Social Work. Social Work and Society, 1(1), 69–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017303003001005 Hämäläinen, J. (2012). Social Pedagogical Eyes in the Midst of Diverse Understandings, Conceptualizations and Activities. International Journal of Social Pedagogy, 1(1), 3– 16. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.444.ijsp.2012.v1.1.002 Jacobs, R. L. (2001). Using human resource functions to enhance emotional intelligence. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.), The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (pp. 159- 181). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Κonstantinou, Ch. (2004). School Reality and Socialization of the student (in Greek). Athens: Gutenberg. Kontogianni, E. (2019). Studies at social pedagogy. Retrieved from: https://www.socialpedagogy.gr/tag/academic-studies/ Kornbeck, J., & Jensen, N. R, (2012). Social pedagogy for the entire lifespan. Bremen: Europäischer Hochschulverlag GmbH & Co. Kyriakou, Ch., Avramidis, E., Stephens, P., & Werler, T. (2011). Social pedagogy in schools: student teacher attitudes in England and Norway. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(2), 192–204. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2011.629689 Kyridis, A., Christodoulou, A., Vamvakidou I., & Paulidis-Korres, M. (2015). Fighting Corruption: Values Education and Social Pedagogy in Greece in the middle of the
  • 18. 12 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Crisis. International journal of social pedagogy, 4(1), 24-42. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.444.ijsp.2015.v4.1.003 Kyridis, A., Papadakis, N., Tourtouras, Ch., & Lytrivi, I. (2016). Social values, tansparency, and the Greek educational system in the era of the crisis. Attitudes of Greek university students. In the Proceedings of 1st international Conference in contemporary Social Sciences, Crisis and the Social sciences: new challenges and perspectives. Greece: University of Crete. Mallett, R., Hagen-Zanker, J., Slater, R., & Duvendack, M. (2012) The benefits and challenges of using systematic reviews in international development research, Journal of Development Effectiveness, 4(3), 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2012.711342 Mavroyiorgos, G. (1999). Training of teachers and training policy in Greece. In A. Reppa, S. Anthopoulou, & S. Katsoulaki (Eds), Human Resource Management (pp. 123-131). Patra: Hellenic Open University. Moss. P., & Petrie, P. (2019). Education and social pedagogy: What relationship?. London Review of Education, 17(3), 393–405. https://doi.org/10.18546/LRE.17.3.13 OECD. (2010). Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care. France: OECD Publications. Pantazis, V. (2012). Human Rights Education: Theory - Research. Athens: Diadrasis Editions. Papadopoulou, M., & Bagakis, G. (2015). Professional development of teachers in secondary education in Greece. An open and flexible learning environment or a confined and rigid education system. In the Proceedings of 3rd International Conference, ISNITE 2015, New Issues on Teacher Education (pp. 426-432). Papagueli-Vouliouris, D. (1999). Evaluation of Teacher Education in Greece- a political demand of our time. Education Research Centre, Athens, TNTEE Publications, 2(2). Papastamatis, A., & Panitsidou, E. (2008). Educators & professionalism in adult education: the KEE case. In the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Scientific Association of Adult Education: Adult Educators: their training and professionalization. Greecce: Scientific Association of Adult Education (in Greek). Petrie, P. (2013). Social Pedagogy in the UK. Gaining a firm foothold. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(37), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v21n37.2013 Petrie, P., & Cameron, C. (2009). Importing Social Pedagogy? In J. Kornbeck & N. Rosendal Jensen (eds.), The Diversity of Social Pedagogy in Europe: Studies in Comparative Social Pedagogies and International Social Work and Social Policy, Vol. 7 (pp. 145–168). Bremen: Europäischer Hochschulverlag. Petrie, P., Boddy, J., Cameron, C., Wigfall, V., & Simon, A. (2006). Working with children in care: European perspectives. UK: Open University Press. Schugurensky, D., & Silver, M. (2013). Social pedagogy: historical traditions and transnational connections. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(35). Social Educational Trust (2001). Social Pedagogy and Social Education: Formerly known as the Radisson Report. A Report of two Workshops held on 11th - 12th July 2000 and 14th - 15th January 2001 at the Radisson Hotel, Manchester Airport. Stephens, P. (2013). Social Pedagogy: Heart and head. Germany: Europäischer Hochschulverlag. ThemPRA (2019). Social Pedagogy Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.thempra.org.uk/social-pedagogy/key-concepts-in-social- pedagogy/thempras-diamond-model/
  • 19. 13 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 13-26, May 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.2 Game-Based Learning Platform and its Effects on Present Tense Mastery: Evidence from an ESL Classroom Mohd Iskandar Idris, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said and Kim Hua Tan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Bangi, 43600 Selangor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6445-2725 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2891-327X https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3787-5006 Abstract. In the 21st century, gamified learning is found to be essential for educators to assist students in achieving mastery of English grammar because the English language proficiency of Asian students, including Malaysians, remains at an unacceptable level. However, the literature on the effects of gamification on the learning of English tenses is somewhat limited. To address this issue, this study aims to examine the effectiveness of Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform, in reinforcing simple present tense verb learning amongst young English- as-a-second-language (ESL) learners. A total of 31 Year 3 students (aged 9) at a national primary school in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia were involved in the study. A one-group pre-test post-test research design was employed with an intervention programme that spanned four weeks. Results analysed using paired sample t-test revealed that the performance of pupils in the post-test improved significantly (M =5.61, SD=2.04) with the application of Kahoot! as compared with that in the pre-test (M=3.35, SD=1.89). Discussion of the main findings revealed that gamification, through its captivating features, was responsible for lowering the learners’ affective filter during grammar lessons and subsequently increasing their learning motivation. The implications of the findings suggest that Kahoot! is a relevant teaching tool for the current generation of learners and educators may explore the possibilities which Kahoot! has to offer with other grammatical components. Keywords: gamification; grammar; Kahoot!; present tense; ESL 1. Introduction The use of technology has been improving and increasing tremendously in the Fourth Industrial Revolution to the extent of penetrating the educational field. In Malaysia, the Education Ministry has proposed a 21st-century learning approach
  • 20. 14 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. to accomplish the main objective of the National Philosophy of Malaysian Education, which is to produce a holistic individual through education (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2013). Students in Malaysia are exposed to approximately 11 years to 13 years of formal English language education before furthering their studies at the tertiary level. Nevertheless, a study conducted by Singh et al. (2017) has indicated that most students still have problems with mastering English grammar. Nearly 30% of the grammatical errors made by diploma students in Malaysia involve the use of verb tenses, including present tense verbs. In reality, students have been taught grammar since primary school, yet they still struggle to form grammatical sentences (Darus & Kaladevi, 2009) Stapa & Izahar, 2010) which are partly due to limited vocabulary in the language (Misbah et al., 2017; Ang & Tan, 2018). Thus, this issue must be addressed immediately. In parallel with the existing trends in the Malaysian curriculum, the incorporation of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools is valuable. Learners are driven towards the relaxing atmosphere of learning with the inclusion of ICT in teaching and learning (Azmi, 2017). Yunus (2018) claims that educators are ‘forced’ to change their pedagogical practices in consideration of ever-changing technology. The concept of gamification, which was introduced by Pelling (2002), has accordingly resulted in the invention of interactive applications, namely, Kahoot!, Socrative, Quizzes, Quizlet and Plickers. Kapp (2012) defines gamification as the application of game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking for the purpose of captivating people which will, in turn, motivate their action, promote active learning, and eventually solve problems. It is also the process of transforming typical academic components into gaming themes. Researchers in different parts of the world report that gamification has shown positive outcomes in aiding the motivation, engagement and enjoyment of learners in learning for the past decades (Cheong et al., 2013; Denny, 2013; Dong et al., 2012; Li et al., 2012, Tan & Tan 2020). Despite the extensive literature on the use of Kahoot! to enhance English grammar learning, limited Malaysian studies can be found that discuss how Kahoot! influences present tense verb learning, especially amongst young English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners. Most of the studies were conducted abroad in either high school or tertiary-level students. Thus, such research must be carried out with local research participants. Present tense verb learning is relatively difficult to be mastered by young ESL learners because one may be confused as to when to add ‘s’ to verbs, mainly when the grammar system of their native language does not require so. This rule is somehow intertwined with plural forms, in which the letter ‘s’/‘es’ is needed to be incorporated into nouns. The participants of this study are also found to be facing this issue as indicated by their past performance through grammatical mistakes of such nature in written assignments.
  • 21. 15 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Various educational applications can be utilised by educators to transform tedious and complicated parts of grammar learning into fun and relevant ones for learners, particularly the young ones. The low memory retention of students in learning present tense verbs should be considered. Rote learning, in which students are given the rules of present tense verbs and asked to memorise them, may be adopted. However, in most situations, students tend to be confused with when to add ‘s’/’es’ to verbs. They can hardly differentiate between present tense verbs and plural nouns. Hence, before deciding on the right method and approach to teaching present tense verbs, educators should be aware and comprehend that two types of memory exist, namely, declarative and procedural memory. Declarative memory refers to the ‘learning and storing of facts and events, including arbitrary information’ (O’Grady, 2006). This type of memory is often linked to a lexicon or mental dictionary, in which the mind works when the learner can relate to the new knowledge obtained, including its meaning, pronunciation and use. However, the information kept in this memory requires one’s conscious awareness upon retrieval. By contrast, procedural memory focuses on the use of a broad range of motor and cognitive skills, particularly the ones involving sequencing (Pinker & Ullman, 2002). This memory type helps the computations and symbol manipulation concerning grammar components, such as syntax, nonlexical semantics, morphology and phonology. This memory runs through unconsciousness. That is, learners may not be aware of and realise what enables them to form or interpret sentences, especially in first language acquisition. Declarative memory is involved in learning the grammar of a second language. Here, educators must ensure that the lesson employed triggers this part of mind in learning present tense verbs. Does the use of Kahoot! reinforce the present tense verb learning of young ESL learners? This study aims to examine the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in reinforcing present tense verb learning amongst young ESL learners. The findings of this research are expected to assist educators who are in the quest for a practical approach to teaching grammar, mainly present tense verbs. The rest of this article is structured as follows. Firstly, the literature reviews on Kahoot!, gamification and present tense are presented. Then, the research methods and procedures used in this study are described. Subsequently, the findings are discussed and summarised. Lastly, implications, limitations and directions for future research are provided. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Kahoot! and Previous Studies Digital games have gained recognition from many educators due to the significant role of technology in language education. For example, Kahoot!, which was developed in 2006 at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, is a popular game-based student response system. It aims to make learning pleasurable and entertaining across all languages and subjects via a free online game-based learning platform. Various digital devices can be used to launch this learning platform. Kahoot! is versatile because it can be tailored to accommodate the needs of learners. A good and stable Internet connection is mandatory for this method to work effectively. The gaming experience is
  • 22. 16 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. presented by the embedded graphical and audio elements. These features have the potential to promote motivation and learning among learners. Kahoot! has become a popular online game used by educators as a stimulating platform to check the understanding of learners and enhance their participation in learning. It adopts gamification as a means to involve learners actively and motivate them eventually. Gamified learning, such as Kahoot!, facilitates the achievement of learners concerning the pre-test and post-test conducted (Bullard & Anderson, 2014; Wichadee & Pattanapichet, 2018). Learners show improved performance after the interventions due to their engagement in the games (Poondej & Lerdpornkulrat, 2016). Learning through a fun environment enhances the retention of the lesson learnt. These studies have revealed the effectiveness of using online language games in improving the grammar skills of learners. In another perspective of grammar learning, the outcomes from a survey conducted by Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) have revealed that 70% of the participants feel motivated and inspired to learn grammar after having a session with Kahoot!. Here, Kahoot! has a high potential to elevate the enthusiasm and motivation of students to learn. Kahoot! has benefited learners of all ages since its first debut. Students must register at https://kahoot.it. A unique game PIN number is given. Then, they have to key in the username of their choice (anonymous feature). The activities on Kahoot! are real-time, and quizzes are presented on a screen using an overhead projector. Students can monitor their progress or scores right after the game. The total score for each question is 1,000 points. The ratings they receive are based on how fast they answer the right item (Byrne, 2013). The overall number of scores gained by each player is displayed on the screen at the end of the quiz. 2.2 Gamification The notion of computer technologies has enabled other principles, such as gamification, to emerge. According to Deterding et al. (2011), gamification or gamified learning has been defined as the use of game design elements in nongame settings to increase motivation and attention on a task. It also refers to the integration of game elements in nongame ones to solve the task at hand effectively (Khaleel et al. 2016). The difference between teaching through a gamified pedagogical method and instruction via the use of authentic games, which has been found to be a practical approach to teaching lessons, such as grammar, must be considered (Tuan & Doan, 2010; Yolageldili & Arikan, 2011). Gamification encourages grammar learning to be entertaining, enjoyable and lasting because the game successfully delivers a meaningful context for communicative grammar practice. Unlike teaching with games, gamified instruction is the incorporation of gaming principles, and this method of teaching and learning is earning popularity in the field of education (Caponeto, Earp & Ott, 2014; Domíngues et al., 2013). Gamification in the language classroom involves the dynamic participation of students, which gradually offers a solid platform for learners to learn grammar effectively and positively in ESL (Leaning, 2015). Students acquire more words and learn the right structures
  • 23. 17 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. of English when they are engaged in gamified learning. It promotes a remarkable learning experience where students keep looking forward to learn new words (Rao, 2014). A better version of the English language is offered on online language games , other than engaging students in ESL learning (Mullins & Sabherwal, 2018). Besides, students gain vocabularies in a difference way, whereby they acquire more words based on online games, compared to the chalk and talk method (Castaneda & Cho, 2016). These findings indicate that in assisting grammar learning, gamification has high potential to be adopted. Educators can generate situations which allow unconscious learning to occur through games because the attention of learners is not on the language but on the message itself (Cross, 2000). Learners eventually acquire the language unconsciously, in the same manner, they learnt their first language because they are focusing on the game as an activity. For this study, this element of unconscious learning is appropriately observed. According to Hussein (2015), gamification benefits learners through four key domains. Two out of the four domains are closely related to young learners. Firstly, children perceive this approach as entertaining and fun, thus reducing their affective filter and maintaining consistent engagement. Secondly, gamification permits learners to reflect upon their learning. Young learners are said to have a short attention span. Within 10 min to 20 min of the lesson, their minds wander off. They lose their interest and motivation when dealing with grammar lessons due to the confusing rules and memorisation. On the contrary, high levels of engagement and motivation can be achieved with the elements of fun and competitiveness embedded in Kahoot!. The outcomes from a study conducted by Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) revealed that 70% of the participants became motivated to learn grammar after learning via Kahoot!. The motivation is attributed to four reasons, namely, desire to win, master own knowledge, play with others and determine the purpose of the game, which include revising, checking and consolidating knowledge. Besides, 80% of the respondents believed that this application positively influenced their learning motivation because they were well aware of its purposes, which were to check, consolidate and review their knowledge on the content learnt. Kahoot! is packed with the elements of gamification, such as leaderboards, points, feedback, performance graphs and social element/community collaboration (Flores, 2015). The ‘Leaderboard,’ as one of the main elements embedded in Kahoot!, shows the rankings of game players based on their accomplishment levels. The leaderboard, points and scores are closely related, and Kahoot! has all these features. Learners are granted with points based on their performance (Flores, 2015). A total of 1,000 points are offered for any correct response answered in under 0.05 s. From this feature, extrinsic motivation is evident, particularly when the students attempt to answer the questions by themselves. The integration of technical elements, such as music, graphics and colours, also helps retain the acceptance of Kahoot! amongst the users.
  • 24. 18 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Kahoot! also encourages learners to compete to be placed amongst the high ranks, therefore making the learning experience fun and meaningful to them, especially amongst nine-year-old children. This learning platform is convenient for educators because it allows them to evaluate the progress of their pupils formatively. It enables future intervention to be made because the data can be made available right away. It also allows learners to continue trying to place themselves on board with the lessons without feeling scared of making themselves seem stupid. This condition is supported by the feature which only displays the top three scorers in the final leaderboard. As a result, those who do not perform well need not reveal their performance to others. These learners can learn at their own speed without incurring any negative feelings. This situation eventually contributes to meaningful learning. 2.3 Present Tense Verbs Numerous scholars have defined and described the use and form of the simple present tense. The simple present tense, also known as the present simple, is considered the significant tense used in English to talk about things in general (Murphy, 1998). It is not merely about the present. It is also used to express that something happens repeatedly, all the time or in general. It is not about whether an action is happening at the time of speaking. For instance, ‘Aminah goes to school by bus’ and ‘The doctors treat patients in the hospital’. On the contrary, to Murthy (2003), present-tense verbs are used to demonstrate that action occurs at present. This definition is reflected in the sentence ‘She speaks Arabic very well’. Similarly, Swan (2000) has indicated that such verbs are used for permanent situations or actions that happen regularly or all the time (not now). An example is ‘My mother goes to the market about twice a week.’ In a different view, Azar (2006) has claimed that the simple present expresses events or situations that usually happen, always, sometimes and habitually; they happen now, have happened previously and perhaps will happen again. The abovementioned definitions imply that the simple present tense refers to events or actions which are always executed by a subject. It does not entail impermanent time. It is meant to be used wherever and whenever. Few past studies have been conducted on students’ mistakes or errors in using the simple present tense. The omission, misformation, misordering and addition errors are the types of mistakes that students tend to commit in using the simple present tense. Amongst all of the mistakes, misformation is the most common error made by students (Siswoyo, 2016). In another similar study, omission errors have been found as the frequent errors made by students (Masruddin, 2019). From these studies, students are still struggling with present tense verb learning. Thus, educators must find ways and methods to overcome this situation.
  • 25. 19 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 3. Methodology This research employed a pre-experimental method (one-group pre-test–post- test design). The data were collected exclusively from a comparison of pre-test and post-test data. The study was conducted in a primary school in Puchong, Selangor, where the main researcher is teaching. Convenient sampling was considered based on the information of researchers on the population of interest, the availability the sample and the objectives of the study. It involved manipulating an independent variable without random assignment of conditions or condition orders to participants. The sample of this study consisted of 31 Year 3 pupils (male n=14; female n=17) without any control group. All of them are nine years of age studying in the same class. The total number of the participants was acceptable as a sample size of 15 students is considered acceptable when implementing classroom research (Dörnyei, 2007). The data were analysed quantitatively because the purpose of this research was to measure the effect of Kahoot! on present tense verb learning. The pre-test was administered at the beginning of the study. The final score in the post-test would indicate the learning progress. It was used as the benchmark to ascertain the effect of Kahoot! on the present tense verb learning of Year 3 pupils. The present tense verb test was the only instrument used for this research and was given before and after the application of Kahoot!. As a means to measure the internal consistency of the item, reliability analysis was adhered using the IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23 software platform. The split-half reliability test was used to measure the internal consistency. It is commonly used for multiple-choice tests. The reliability of the instrument is almost acceptable with a reading of 0.774 based on the standard rule of thumb for interpreting split-half readings. The intervention length was four weeks, which was equivalent to 12 contact hours. A prominent psychologist, Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885), concluded that students forgot approximately 56% of what they learnt within one hour, 66% forgot within one day, and 75% forgot within six days. Thus, he created ‘the forgetting curve’. Current researchers still refer to this measure of how much people forget. From this finding, students would have forgotten nearly all of the pre-test questions and answers to replicate the same responses in the post-test taken after four weeks (28 days). Here, the intervention length was sufficient because the students would not have an opportunity to memorise or try to remember the exact questions and answers in the pre-test. Any outcomes made between the two tests are likely due to the influence of the intervention programme. 3.1 Research Procedure The research flow is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Research flow PRE-TEST ON PRESENT TENSE VERBS KAHOOT! SESSION POST-TEST ON PRESENT TENSE VERBS RESPONDENTS X Y Z
  • 26. 20 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 3.2 Pre-Intervention The researcher firstly selected the targeted verbs. Thirty common verbs were chosen based on their standard frequencies in English language learning, as stated in the Year 3 syllabus. They were then transferred into Kahoot!. An appropriate image was inserted for each question to assist learning. The researcher felt that exposing the nine-year-old pupils to more than 30 verbs may lead to confusion and fatigue. Therefore, 30 common verbs, as shown in Table 2, were selected to support the research aim and examine the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in reinforcing present tense verb learning amongst the young ESL learners. Table 2: Targeted verbs Ask Call Come Do Feel Get Give Go Help Like Live Make Play Put Run See Take Talk Tell Think Use Want Work Wake Eat Sleep Cycle Jump Drink Learn At the initial stage, the pupils were administered with the pre-test, consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions. The researcher believed that the number of items was sufficient due to the age and their level of English proficiency of the pupils. The duration of the pre-test session was 30 min (equivalent to 1 period of English lesson). The researcher was present to monitor the course closely and to ensure that no one had a chance to copy from another classmate. The pupils were not informed about the purpose of the test. Before the test, the researcher gave them a short briefing by instructing them to read each question carefully, underline the correct answer and write the answer in the blank. 3.3 Intervention After the pre-test, the pupils had the first lesson about the rules of present tense verbs and the introduction of all the targeted verbs. For future reference, they were instructed to write down the wordlist in their exercise book. The pupils were then familiarised to Kahoot!. The researcher also inserted a YouTube video about present tense verbs to enhance learning and to attract the attention of the learners. The quiz on present tense verbs was launched, and the pupils were instructed to answer it in pairs and individually, as illustrated in Figure 1 and 2. Figure 1: Kahoot! Interface
  • 27. 21 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Figure 2: Kahoot! Session 3.4 Post-Intervention The same questions were distributed in the post-test for the participants to answer on the final day of the experiment. The duration of the post-test session was 30 min (equivalent to 1 period of English lesson). The researcher was present to monitor the course closely to ensure that no one had a chance to copy from another pupil. Before the test, the researcher gave the pupils a short briefing by instructing them to read each question carefully, underline the correct answer and write the answer in the blank. The pupils were not informed about the purpose of the test. 3.5 Data Analysis The researcher marked all scripts. The marks scored by the respondents in the pre-test and the post-test were tabulated. Next, a statistical analysis was executed by recording the scores of the participants’ in both tests on the statistical software, IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The paired sample t-test was used to describe the difference in the mean before and after the use of Kahoot!. The result from the data was crucial in verifying the effectiveness of Kahoot! in reinforcing the respondents’ learning and understanding of English present tense verbs. 4. Findings and Discussions Ten multiple-choice questions were included in both tests, as mentioned in the earlier section. The percentage was calculated for both tests to determine any differences before moving on to the statistical analysis. The researcher must identify any improvement in post-test scores in comparison with the pre-test scores. 4.1 Research Question: Does the use of Kahoot! reinforce the present tense verb learning of young ESL learners? The data revealed that the value of sig (p) paired sample t-test was 0.000, which was less than 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. That is, their scores increased after the treatment of Kahoot!. Besides, 22 respondents or 64.5% managed to obtain at least five correct answers out of the ten questions in the post-test compared with only 7 or 22.6% in the pre-test. This finding is shown in Figure 3.
  • 28. 22 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Figure 3: Comparison of result The results of the pre-test and the post-test were keyed into SPSS Statistics Version 23 to determine the mean, standard deviation, t- and significant values for supporting the data. The outcomes for the abovementioned statistics are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Comparison of pre-test and post-test results N Mean Std. Dev t-value Sig. Pre-test score 31 3.35 1.889 −5.550 .000 Post-test score 31 5.61 2.044 A significant difference was observed between the scores of the pupils’ before and after the learning session via Kahoot! with (t) 30 = −5.550, p <0.05. A substantial change in the mean scores between the pre-test (mean = 3.35, s.d = 1.889) and the post-test (mean = 5.61, s.d = 2.044) was also found (t = −5.550, p = .000). The result from this table revealed a difference in terms of the means for the post-test. These statistics ascertained that the pupils’ performance was improving over the treatment of Kahoot!. The value of sig (p) paired sample t- test was 0.000, which was less than 0.05. The effect size using Cohen’s d was large, that is, Cohen’s d = (5.61 − 3.35) / 1.968027 = 1.148. Based on the results of the t-test and Cohen’s d, the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. The statistical analysis indicated a significant difference in terms of the performance of the pupils after the use of Kahoot! in learning present tense verbs. The respondents were able to reinforce their learning via Kahoot!. The results confirmed that Kahoot! reinforced the present tense verb learning of young ESL learners. The features embedded and the relevance of the application to young learners could be related to the effectiveness of Kahoot! in reinforcing the respondents’ learning of present tense verbs; Kahoot! features the elements of gamification, 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Pre-test Post-test Number of students Pre-test vs Post-test Score Score < 50% Score > 50%
  • 29. 23 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. such as leaderboards, points, feedback, performance graphs and social elements/community collaboration (Flores 2015). Bullard and Anderson (2014) and Wichadee and Pattanapichet (2018) further stated that gamified learning, such as Kahoot!, manages to improve the achievement of learners concerning the pre-test and post-test carried out. Besides, Zarzycka-Piskorz (2016) determined that Kahoot! could motivate learners to learn grammar. Concerning to the study by Rao (2014), he states that the effectiveness of using games to improve learners’ achievement, lies in the engagement of learners towards learning and playing at the same time. Online language games are valuable to the 21st- century learning as students are able to improve their grammar in ESL with the assistance of the online language games (Mullins & Sabberwal, 2018; Leaning, 2015). Moreover, it can be said that students love something different in their typical classroom setting. Their learning motivation will increase too (Castaneda & Cho, 2016). This study also verified the statement made by Hussein (2015). He stated that this accomplishment might also be driven by the lowered affective filter triggered by the notion of gamification because learning grammar is somehow distressing to most second language learners. 5. Conclusion In the context of the present study, Kahoot! has been indicated to have a positive effect on grammar learning, in which a significant difference exists between the scores of the pupils before and after the learning session on the present tense, leading to the discussion of several implications. The findings suggest that gamification can enhance the teaching and learning experience and is thus, a suitable tool for ESL lessons. It provides thought-provoking ideas into the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in teaching grammar for young learners. Although the findings cannot be generalised to the entire population, they offer an exciting insight into the effectiveness of using Kahoot! in teaching grammar. Based on the findings, the following recommendations are offered for future research. This study serves as a starting point for subsequent research on different grammatical items, particularly for young learners at the age of 7 or 8 with large sample size. However, future studies may consider including a control group whenever possible to reduce external threats and to strengthen the research design. The study has also discussed infrastructure readiness as a main concern. A secure and stable Internet connection is crucial to execute the lesson successfully. Every school, either in rural or urban areas, should be well-equipped with a computer laboratory/room to meet the demands of 21st-century learning. Kahoot! maybe an inappropriate online learning platform for schools in rural areas due to poor Internet connectivity and the lack of information and technology infrastructure. Educators may further explore the possibilities which Kahoot! has to offer to deal with 21st-century learners, but they should carefully develop the content of the lessons in terms of the degree of difficulty and the nature of their students when considering this method. While such recommendations are made, interested parties must be aware that educators, learners and governments play a significant role in generating conducive, contemporary and relevant learning environments suited for the current generation.
  • 30. 24 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 6. Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to the administrators of SK Puchong for allowing us to carry out the study, the Sponsorship Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia for the scholarships awarded. Much thanks are also due to the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia Grant FRGS/1/2018/SS09/UKM/02/1. 7. References Ang, L. H., & Tan, K. H. (2018). Specificity in English for Academic Purposes (EAP): A Corpus Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Academic Writing. 3L The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 24(2), 82–94. https://doi.org/10.17576/3l- 2018-2402-07 Azar, B. S. (2006). Understanding and Using English Grammar. Pearson Longman. Azmi, N. (2017). The Benefits of Using ICT in the EFL Classroom: From Perceived Utility to Potential Challenges. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 7(1), 111-118. https://doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2017.v7n1p111 Bullard, S. B., & Anderson, N. (2014). “I’ll Take Commas for $200: An Instructional Intervention Using Games to Help Students Master Grammar Skills.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 69(1), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077695813518778 Byrne, R. (2013, November 4). Kahoot - Create Quizzes and Surveys Your Students Can Answer on Any Device. Free Technology for Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.freetech4teachers.com/2013/11/kahoot-create-quizzes-and- surveys-your.html#.VLnc78buzuU Caponetto, I., Earp, J., & Ott, M. (2014). Gamification and Education: A Literature Review. In Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL) (pp. 50-57). Berlin: Academic Conferences and Publishing International. Castaneda, D. A., & Cho, M. H. (2016). Use of a game-like application on a mobile device to improve accuracy in conjugating Spanish verbs. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(7). Cheong, C., Cheong, F., & Filippou, J. (2013, June). Quick Quiz: A Gamified Approach for Enhancing Learning. In PACIS (p. 206). Cross, D. (2000). A Practical Handbook of Language Teaching. Longman. Darus, S., & Subramaniam, K. (2009). Error Analysis of the Written English Essays of Secondary School Students in Malaysia: A Case Study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3), 483-495. Denny, P. (2013, April). The effect of virtual achievements on student engagement. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 763-772). Paris, France. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). In the Proceedings of the CHI '11: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery. Vancouver BC, Canada. Dong, T., Dontcheva, M., Joseph, D., Karahalios, K., Newman, M., & Ackerman, M. (2012, May). Discovery-based games for learning software. In the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2083-2086). Texas, USA. Dörnyei, Z. (2007) Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methodologies. Oxford University Press.
  • 31. 25 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). About memory: studies on experimental psychology. Duncker & Humblot. Flores, J. F. F. (2015). Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning. Digital Education Review, 27(21), 32-54. Hussein, B. (2015). A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Project Management: A Model for Active Participation and Involvement: Insights from Norway. Education Sciences, 5(2), 104-125. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci5020104 Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: game-based methods and strategies for training and education. John Wiley & Sons. Khaleel, F. S., Ashaari, N. S., Meriam, T. S., Wook, T., & Ismail, A. (2016). The Architecture of Dynamic Gamification Elements Based Learning Content. Journal of Convergence Information Technology (JCIT), 11(3), 164-177. Leaning, M. (2015). A Study of the Use of Games and Gamification to Enhance Student Engagement, Experience and Achievement on a Theory-Based Course of an Undergraduate Media Degree. Journal of Media Practice, 16(2), 1-16. Li, W., Grossman, T., & Fitzmaurice, G. (2012, October). GamiCAD: a gamified tutorial system for first time autocad users. In the Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (pp. 103-112). United States. Masruddin, M. (2019). Omission: Common Simple Present Tense Errors in Students’ Writing of Descriptive Text. Ethical Lingua: Journal of Language Teaching and Literature, 6(1), 30-39. Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2013). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 (Preschool to Post-Secondary Education). Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. Misbah, N. H., Mohamad, M., Yunus, M. M., & Ya’acob, A. (2017). Identifying the Factors Contributing to Students’ Difficulties in the English Language Learning. Creative Education, 8(13), 1999-2008. Mullins, J. K., & Sabherwal, R. (2018). Beyond Enjoyment: A Cognitive-Emotional Perspective of Gamification. In the Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Science. Waikoloa Village, Hawaii: USA. Murphy, R. (1998). Essential Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press. Murthy, D. J. (2003). Contemporary English Grammar. Shivam Printers. O’Grady, W. (2006). The Problem of Verbal Inflection in Second Language Acquisition. In the Proceedings of the 11th Conference of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics. Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 2003. Kangwon National University, Korea, July 27-29, 2006. Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11), 456-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6613(02)01990-3 Poondej, C., & Lerdpornkulrat, T. (2016). The development of gamified learning activities to increase student engagement in learning. Australian Educational Computing, 31(2), 1-16. Rao, R. K. (2014). Enhancing Student’s Grammar by using Games: A Practical Classroom Experience. International Journal of Academic Research, 1(3). Singh, C. K. S., Jageer Singh, A. K., Abd Razak, N. Q., & Ravinthar, T. (2017). Grammar Errors Made by ESL Tertiary Students in Writing. English Language Teaching, 10(5), 16. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n5p16 Siswoyo. (2016). Students’ Error in Using Simple Present Tense Mastery. English Education: Jurnal Tadris Bahasa Inggris, 9(2), 461-479. Swan, M. (2000). Practical English Usage. Oxford University Press. Stapa, S. H., & Izahar, M. M. (2010). Analysis of errors in subject-verb agreement among Malaysian ESL learners. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language
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  • 33. 27 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 27-46, May 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.5.3 Effectiveness and Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the Integration of Automated E-Learning Courses into Vocational Education Programmes in Universities in Ukraine Valentyna I. Bobrytska National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv, Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1742-0103 Tatyana D. Reva Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3367-5931 Svitlana M. Protska National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv, Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9212-8700 Oksana M. Chkhalo Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8874-4674 Abstract. The purpose of this research was to identify whether the integration of the automated vocational e-courses into vocational education could bring the students to the same academic achievements as the tutor-moderated ones, and whether the stakeholders of education perceive the automation of e-learning positively or negatively, and what impact factors triggered their perceptions. The baseline study used the e- course evaluation checklist to assess the e-course structure and content from eight randomly selected universities. Four hundred and four students and thirty-one instructors participated in the baseline study, first pilot, and core experiment. The instruments utilised to monitor the variables in the pilots were as follows: the sampled students’ academic records, a Criteria Cognitive Aptitude Test, a Rasch Measurement Model, and the Kolb’s Learning Style Questionnaire. The IBM SPSS Statistics 5.0.0.1. Software package was used to process the data drawn for the above measurements. The above measurements were followed by the focus group and nine education stakeholders’ perceptions analyses using the Triangle Assessment Method. The study provided new evidence that automated e-course delivery can lead to approximately the same statistically significant improvements in the students’ vocational competence, academic motivation, and learning styles proving that it
  • 34. 28 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. might be considered to be a feasible instructional tool. Additionally, it suggested that the use of automated educational e-course assisted by a virtual agent had been a more cost-efficient option. Keywords: vocational education programme; e-courses automation; vocational competence; academic motivation; learning styles 1. Introduction The integration of the automated e-learning courses in the vocational education is gradually becoming a preferred cost-efficient option for tertiary institutions worldwide and in Ukraine, but an instructional challenge for the teachers (Latchem, 2017; Diachenko et al., 2019; Katambur, 2019). This trend is consistent with the fifth-generation distance education model (The Intelligent Flexible Learning Model) that is featured with the tools of interactive, internet-based, technology-mediated communication (Moller, Robison & Huett, 2012). The model can provide the learners with the conventional-like quality of education for a significantly lower cost (Mirrlees & Alvi, 2020). The greatest challenge for the educators who have been recently forced to design and deliver the distance courses is a struggle to create and work online learning environment caused by a lack of computer skills. The teachers are supposed to apply more constructivists pedagogies based on new tools, approaches, and methods (Iskander, Kapila & Karim, 2010). Additionally, instructors are reluctant to shift to the use of the distance learning models, especially automated ones, as this shift entails teachers and institutions getting rid of traditional classroom instruction followed by losing jobs by teachers (Dovbenko et al., 2020). It is also a trend-driven innovation (CommLab India, 2020) that meets the principles of the current educational policy of Ukraine (Bobrytska, 2015; Bobrytska, 2017; Reva, 2017) and requirements associated with education accessibility, affordability, and effectiveness (Chivu et al., 2018). Besides, it is consistent with the ideas of both a new paradigm of 21st-century education (Cunningham, 2019) and robotics-based education (Alimisis, 2020). Interestingly, the recent developments in Speech and Language Technology (SLT), AuthorIT & TutorIT technologies have made it possible to substitute a human-run learning environment losing no instructional quality and ensuring high-cost effectiveness (Delić et al., 2019; Cernak, Asaei & Hyafil, 2018; Scandura, 2010; Scandura, 2016). The letter inspired this study and created a research gap as the study found insufficient limits of information on the use of virtual tutor’s assistants in the course delivered on the Moodle platform. Literature review The literature review found that theory, methods, quality assurance and effectiveness issues of vocational education in universities in Ukraine are thoroughly investigated and revealed (Bobrytska, 2015; Bobrytska, 2017) in terms of reshaping and adjusting it to the international job market, and making it more ‘real life-friendly.’ (Tsymbaliuk, Shkoda & Artiushyna, 2019). The literature review found an extensive body of research revealing the use of technology in educational settings. The relevant and credible works show that there is the relationship between the use of information communication technology (ICT) and
  • 35. 29 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. students’ academic performance, educational self-efficacy determined by the ability to navigate in the flow of information, to acquire new knowledge, to self- develop professionally (Bobrytska, 2015; Bobrytska & Protska, 2017; Bobrytska & Protska, 2018; Chkhalo, n.d.; Saxena, 2017; Balali, Ahmadi, Tabatabaei & Hassani, 2018; Basri, Alandejani & Almadani, 2018). The irruption of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity (A.L.I.C.E.) gave rise to emerging breaking educational projects (Smutny & Schreiberova, 2020; Laurillard, 2013; Holotescu, 2016; Garrett, 2017; Fadhil & Villafiorita, 2017) based on the use of the Facebook Messenger (Smutny & Schreiberova, 2020). Furthermore, educational projects to teach learners a language are coming into practice. They are using a conversational chatbot substituting a teacher and based on Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) systems used as a media (Shawa, 2018). The chatbot can reproduce a standardized dialogue by using a series of written or verbalised messages that can substate the human teacher's lesson delivery. After such a class (a lecture or a presentation, or a lab explainer) the chatbot can assign a student with a multiple- choice test or quiz, immediately check it and forward the results to the teacher or the course moderator. It reduces the teacher’s workload and helps the one to engage students in the learning and collaboration process. A chatbot also can track students’ information inquiries to be further used to update the content of the e- course (Farkash, 2018). Though this research problem is quite trendy, it is underrepresented in the literature, specifically from a pedagogical perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify whether the integration of automated educational courses into vocational education programmes in universities in Ukraine could be effective and perceived positively by education stakeholders. The research questions were as follows: 1) what delivery structure of the vocational e-courses at universities are commonly used at universities in Ukraine; 2) whether that structure is appropriate to train students’ vocational competence; 3) how the automated educational e-courses integrated into vocational disciplines influences students’ vocational competence, academic motivation, and learning styles; 4) how the stakeholders of education perceive the automation of e-learning and what factors trigger their perceptions. 2. Research methodology The study attempted to answer the research questions in the course of the core experiment that was proceeded by a baseline study and a pilot study. It was divided into four stages to have used different designs and methods (see Fig. 1). Research Design A descriptive research design was employed to complete a baseline study, which was the first stage of the research by utilising quantitative methods. A quasi- experimental research design relying on pre-testing‒post-testing procedures was utilised in the first pilot and the core experiment. The latter both relied on a mixed- methods approach to monitor changes in the dependent variables and perceptions. The fourth stage was analytical that used statistical methods to process data, interpret the results, and draw conclusions. The sampled students’ vocational competence, academic motivation, and learning styles were the
  • 36. 30 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. dependent variables for the pilot study. The above-outlined variables were kept under systematic review in the core experiment and perceptions of different stakeholders were examined after completing the intervention. The perceptions of automated educational e-course delivery were studied in the core experiment. Figure 1: Abstract Research Design Research Participants and Procedure The baseline study was conducted at eight leading and highly-rated universities in Ukraine from January to the end of May of 2018. Those were National Pedagogical Drahomanov University (NPDU), Bogomolets National Medical University (BNMU), Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University (BGKU), Kyiv National Economic University (KNEU), Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design (KNUTD), Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture (KNUCA), Lviv Polytechnic National University (LPNU), and V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (KKNU). The consent for running the study was obtained from the Institutional Scientific Review Boards of all universities prior to the intervention. The purpose of the study was to analyse scientific and methodological approaches used to develop e-courses in different vocational tertiary schools, to examine (mutually considered) best practices of organising and administrating online component of the vocational training, and to specify the structure of e-courses placed on the MOODLE platform. To meet the purpose of the study, two existing online course checklists developed by Federation University (Australia) (n.d.) and Winthrop University (USA) (n.d.) were adapted and refined for the use in this study to evaluate the structure of the course and instructional methods. They were chosen because they comply with Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG), Articles: 1.2 (Design and approval of programmes), 1.3 (Student-centred learning, teaching, and assessment), 1.6 (Learning resources and student support) (ESG, 2015). The first pilot lasted from September of 2018 to the end of January of 2019. It was run at three randomly selected institutions, which were as follows: National Pedagogical Drahomanov University (NPDU), Bogomolets National Medical Baseline Study •Obtaning consent from the Board of Academics of the institutions to run the study •Examining the e-courses using a checklist •Drawing conclusions First pilot •Running the tutor- moderated e- courses at three institutions •Monitoring the variables through pre- testing and post-testing •Data analysis and interpretation Core Experiment •E-course in General Pedagogics automation •Monitoring the variables through pre- testing and post-testing •Studying the perceptions different stakeholders of education Analytical stage •Data processing •Drawing conclusions