U33113118

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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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U33113118

  1. 1. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118113 | P a g eProduction of gasoline-like fuel obtained from waste lubricationoil and its physicochemical propertiesJuhi Sharaf*, Beena Mishra*, R B Sharma***Scholar, M Tech Automobile Engineering, RJIT, BSF Academy, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., India**HOD, Mechanical Engineering, RJIT, BSF Academy, Tekanpur, Gwalior, M.P., IndiaABSTRACTIn this study, our main focus is onfinding alternative fuel resources and utilizingthem to eliminate their negative effects. Becauseof the limitations of petroleum products, the usedengine oils can be used in engine as engine oilafter purifying it. Production of gasoline like fuelfrom used engine oil is involving chemicalfiltrations and blending process. The GLF isproduced from waste engine lubrication oil(WLO) using the pyrolitic distillation method.Firstly, the WLO collected in a tank wasparticulates removed by a refining process. Therefined lubrication oil samples were taken into areactor and blended with some catalysts, andpurified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metalparticles, gum-type materials and otherimpurities. A fuel production system mainlyconsisting of a seven main parts using are wasteoil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, aproduct storage tank, thermostats and controlpanel. The characteristic such as density,viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulphurcontent and distillation of the GLF aredeliberated. The gasoline like fuel can be used ingasoline engine without any problem andincreases the engine performance.Keywords: Waste oil; Gasoline fuel; Gasolineengine; properties; pyrolitic distillation method;Engine performanceIntroductionLubricant oils are a common element in ourdaily lives, as they are needed to allow manyengines and mechanisms to function. The EUconsumed in 2006 roughly 5.8 million tones a year.However, through their use, they loose theirproperties, become contaminated and at some pointthey cease to be fit for the use they were originallyintended. These used oils are then replaced by freshlubricating oils and we are left with some waste oils.Some 50% of what is purchased will become wasteoils (the rest is lost during use, or through leakages,etc.) That leaves us with approximately 3 milliontones’ of waste oil to manage every year in the EU.Lubricating oil creates a separating film betweensurfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize directcontact between them, decreasing heat caused byfriction and reducing wear, thus protecting theengine. In use, motor oil transfers heat throughconvection as it flows through the engine by meansof air flow over the surface of the oil pan, oil coolerand through the buildup of oil gases evacuated bythe Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system.In petrol (gasoline) engines, the top piston canexpose the motor oil to temperatures of 160 °C(320 °F). In diesel engines the top ring can exposethe oil to temperatures over 315 °C (600 °F). Motoroils with higher viscosity indices thin less at thesehigher temperatures.Waste oils are hazardous waste as theydisplay some hazardous properties. Waste oils thatare found in rivers, lakes and streams threatenaquatic life. Indeed, a liter of waste oil cancontaminate a million liters of water. Furthermore,severe soil contamination can result from waste oilsbeing left on the ground.Waste oils are governed by the WasteFramework Directive 2008/98/EC, especially byArticle 21, which stipulates that Member Statesshall take the necessary measures to ensure that:(a) Waste oils are collected separately, where this istechnically feasible;(b) Waste oils are treated in accordance withArticles 4 (waste hierarchy) and 13 (protection ofthe environment and human health);(c) Where this is technically feasible andeconomically viable, waste oils of differentcharacteristics are not mixed and waste oils are notmixed with other kinds of waste or substances, ifsuch mixing impedes their treatment.Thus, it is crucial to collect as much aspossible this very valuable resource, in order toavoid the contamination of the environment and tobe able to profit from the very high recoverypotential of this waste stream. Industries,consumers, garages and do-it-yourselfers have toparticipate, by not dumping these precious liquidsbut by handing them to authorized collectors thatwill ensure their adequate recovery.The aim of this experimental study was toinvestigate effects of the fuel obtained from wastelubricant engine oil and named as gasoline-like fuel(GLF) and its blend with different amounts ofcatalysts on performance of SI engine and itsexhaust emission.
  2. 2. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118114 | P a g eFor this purpose, three main tests, namelycharacteristics tests, performance tests exhaustemission tests were performed in this study.Alternative energy resources are becoming moreimperative because there is an increasing demandfor clean transport fuels. Many researchers areconcentrating on developing alternative andrenewable sources of liquid fuels, which are newenergy resources to replace commercial petroleumproducts for the future. Large and increasingvolumes of used lubricating oil are produced eachyear that, after use, are considered hazardouswastes. This is so because waste oils typicallyconsist of a mixture of un degraded base oil andadditives which high concentrations of metals,varnish, gums, and other asphaltic compoundscoming from overlay on bearing surface sanddegradation of the fresh lubricant component Theused oil is disposed in many ways includingincineration, land spreading, and dumping on theground and into water. All used oil eventuallycreates environmental hazards.MethodologyThe GLF was obtained from wastelubrication oil (WLO) using the pyrolitic distillationmethod. Firstly, the WLO collected in a tank wasparticulates removed by a refining process. Therefined lubrication oil samples were taken into areactor and blended with some catalysts. Theblended samples were heated in the reactor and thendistilled to decrease sulphur and to produce fuelsamples. Distillation tests and characteristics of theproduced fuel such as density, flash point and lowerheating value were examined.Pyrolysis is a thermo chemicaldecomposition of organic material at elevatedtemperatures without the participation of oxygen. Itinvolves the simultaneous change of chemicalcomposition and physical phase, and is irreversible.The word is coined from the Greek-derivedelements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating”.Pyrolysis is a case of thermolysis, and is mostcommonly used for organic materials, being,therefore, one of the processes involved in charring.The pyrolysis of wood, which starts at 200–300 °C(390–570 °F), occurs for example in fires wheresolid fuels are burning or when vegetation comesinto contact with lava in volcanic eruptions. Ingeneral, pyrolysis of organic substances producesgas and liquid products and leaves a solid residuericher in carbon content, char. Extreme pyrolysis,which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is calledcarbonization. The process is used heavily in thechemical industry, for example, to produce charcoal,activated carbon, methanol, and other chemicalsfrom wood, to convert ethylene dichloride into vinylchloride to make PVC, to produce coke from coal,to convert biomass into syngas and bio char, to turnwaste into safely disposable substances, and fortransforming medium-weight hydrocarbons from oilinto lighter ones like gasoline. These specializeduses of pyrolysis may be called various names, suchas dry distillation, destructive distillation, orcracking. Pyrolysis also plays an important role inseveral cooking procedures, such as baking, frying,grilling, and caramelizing. In addition, it is a tool ofchemical analysis, for example, in massspectrometry and in carbon-14 dating. Indeed, manyimportant chemical substances, such as phosphorusand sulfuric acid, were first obtained by this process.The most important advantage of this method Is thatit does not pollute the environment when carried outin an Appropriate way, because pyrolysis productssuch as gases, liquidOils and carbonaceous residuecan be used as fuels. However, the Pyrolized oil canbe polymerized again since it consists of a lot ofunsaturated hydrocarbon. By applying the thermalprecipitation Method to the waste engine oils andplastics at a process temperature of 300e385 C, atype of fuel that can be used in ship engines hasbeen obtained. Millions of tons of used oils aredisposed through dumping onthe ground or in water,land filling, or non-energy-recovery .The used orwaste oils can be refined and treated to producefuels or lubricating oil base stock. On the otherhand, the waste oils posean environmental hazarddue to both their metal content and othercontaminants. The high-volume waste oils can beturned into valuable fuel products by refining andtreating processes. Converting of the waste oils intodiesel and gasoline like fuels to be used in engineswithout disposing is very important. Utilization ofthe diesel and gasoline-like fuels produced from thewaste lubricant oils, and blending of the producedfuels with gasoline or turpentine decreaseconsumption of petroleum based fuels, protectingenvironment from toxic and hazardous chemicals. Italso saves of foreign exchange, reduces greenhousegas emissions and enhances regional developmentespecially in developing countries. Other advantagesare:a) It is a renewable and environmentally friendlyalternative liquid fuel;b) Its heating value and viscosity are higher thanthose of gasoline;c) It can be used in any spark ignition (SI) enginesas an additive to the Gasoline or gasoline-like fuel(GLF);d) Its self-ignition and boiling temperatures arehigher than those of gasoline.Experimental SetupThe purified and parolytic distillationsystem was designed and manufactured in industryto purify waste lubricant engine oil (WLO) fromcontaminants and to produce Gasoline-Like Fuel(GLF). A schematic diagram is shown in Fig. Thesystem consists mainly of the parts are as waste oil
  3. 3. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118115 | P a g etank, pump and filters, reactor, mixer, condenser andcontrol unit. Functions of all the system componentsare briefly explained in this section.The waste oil tank was used to collectWaste Lubricants Oil having several hazardousmaterials within it. The Waste Lubricants Oil(WLO) was pumped from the tank to the reactor,and then it was flowed through the filters having 20μm mesh size. While the Waste Lubricants Oil(WLO) was flowed through the filters, it waspurified from the oil from small dust, carbon soot,small metal particles and some gum type and othermaterials. The most important part of the system isthe reactor in which thermal treatment of the WasteLubricants Oil (WLO) was carried out. It has acylindrical shape with dimensions of 30 cm indiameter and 40 cm in height. It has a capacity thatwill be able to produce 20 lt of fuel. It is assumedthat such a volume will suffice for all measurementsand tests, since tests for thermal and physicalcharacteristics, distillation of the produced fuel, andalso several engine performance tests may berequired for the same produced fuel. The reactorwas isolated with glass wool having a thickness of 5cm to minimize heat loss from the reactor. Electricalheaters with a total heating capacity of 5 kW wereused to heat the oil and were placed around thereactor container. The electrical heaters have specialresistance heaters which can heat the waste oilsample up to 600 °C. The heating rate can becontrolled by the control unit adjusting voltage tokeep temperature of the oil at desired levels.Temperature measurement was performed by meansof thermocouple. It was placed in locations wheretemperature measurement was needed.Purified and distillation systemPhysicochemical propertiesPetrol or gasoline is used as fuel in sparkignition (SI) engines. Gasoline is a hydrocarbonwith different chemical compositions. Here are theproperties that a gasoline should possess to qualifyfor being used as fuel in SI engines. Petrol orgasoline is usually used as fuel for spark ignition(SI) engines. Gasoline is a mixture of a number oflow boiling point paraffins, naphthenes, andaromatics of varying proportions. There are certainproperties that a particular gasoline should have toqualify as SI engine fuel. These propertieshavebeendiscussedbelow:Viscosity:-Viscosity is technically defined as thefluid friction of an oil to put it more simply, it is theresistance an oil offers to flowing Heavy-bodied oilis high in viscosity and pours or flows slowly.flash point:- The flash point is the lowesttemperature at which the lubricating oil will flashwhen small flame is passed across its surface .whenthe oil is heated ,it reaches a temperature which ,if asmall flame is brought near it ,a flash spreads acrossthe oil .it happens due to the volatilization of thelight particles of the oil the flash point of the oilshould be sufficiently high so as to avoid flashing ofoil vapours at the temperature occurring in commonuse.Fire point: - If the oil is heated further after the fire
  4. 4. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118116 | P a g epoint has been reached, the lowest temperature atwhich the oil burn continuously is a called the firepoint .the fire point also must be high in alubrication oil, so that the oil does not burn inservice.Cloud point: - The oil change from liquid state to aplastic or solid state when subjected to lowtemperature. In some cases the oil start solidifyingwhich makes it to appear cloudy. The temperature atwhich this takes place is called the cloud point.Pour Point :-The pour point of an oil is thetemperature at which the oil will just flow withoutdisturbance when chilled.Oiliness: - it is the characteristics properties of oil.An oil is said to be oil when it is has oiliness .thisproperty is highly desirable in helping the lubricantsto adhere to the cylinder walls.Colour: - Colour of a oil is not of so much importantfor its properties its property as a test for checkingthe uniformly of any given grads or brand of oil.Physical stability: - oil must be stable physical at thelower and highest temperatures between which theoil is to be used. At lowest temperature there shouldnot be any separation of solid, and at the highesttemperature it should not vaporize beyond a certainlimit.Chemical stability :- A lubrication oil should alsobe stable chemically .There should not be any faultyfor oxide formation ,the oxidation product beingsticky ,clog the working part case the faulty pistonrings and valve action the oil should also decomposeat high temperature to form carbon ,which makesspark plugs and valve to function.Sulphur content :- If the sulphur is presents inconsiderable amount in the lubrication oil .Itpromotes corrosion .the carrion test shows theamount of sulphur contents .Specific gravity: - Specific gravity is a measure ofthe density of oil. It is determined by hydrometerswhich float in the oil. And the gravity is read on thescale of the hydrometer at surface of the oil.Cleanliness : - oil must be clean. It should notcontain dust and dirt particles these impurities maybe either be filtered out or removed with thechange of oil at periodic interval, further the oilmust contain agent called detergents which removethe impurities from the engine parts during oilcirculation.Volatility:- The gasoline should be volatile; a certainpart of it should vaporize at room temperature toallow easy starting of the engine. Bettervaporization of the fuel facilitates its evendistribution inside the cylinders, which in turn leadsto better acceleration of the vehicle.Antiknock qualities of the fuel: Abnormal burningor detonation of the fuel inside the engine leads tothe effect known as engine knock. Duringdetonation large amounts of heat is released insidethe engine which excessively increases thetemperature and pressure inside the engine,drastically reducing its thermal efficiency. The fuelshould have the tendency to avoid creating thesituation of detonation; this quality of the fuel is theantiknock property of the fuel.The antiknock property of the fuel depends greatlyon the self-ignition properties of the fuel, the fuelschemical composition, and its chemical structure.The fuel most suitable for the SI engines is the onethat has highest antiknock property, enabling theengine to work with high compression ratios of fuel,which in turn leads to higher fuel efficiency andhigher power production.Gum deposits formed from the fuel: When gasolineis stored for longer periods of time, it has thetendency to oxidize and form gummy, solidsubstances. When used with an engine, suchgasoline will cause sticky valves and piston rings,carbon deposits in the engine, gum deposits in themanifold, clogging of carburetor jets, and enlargingof cylinders and pistons. The gasoline used in theengine should have a tendency to form lower gumcontent and have a lower tendency to form gumduring storage.Low sulfur content: Hydrocarbon fuels may containsulfur in various forms like hydrogen sulfide andother compounds. Sulfur is corrosive in nature and itcan cause fuel line corrosion, carburetor parts,injection pumps, etc. Sulfur also promotes knockingof engine; hence its content in the gasoline fuelshould be kept to a minimum.Calorific value: It can be defined as the amount ofheat liberated in KJ or Kcal by the completecombustion of 1 Kg of fuel. There are two types ofcalorific values Higher calorific value (HCV) = It isthe total heat liberated in KJ or Kcal by thecomplete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel. Lowercalorific value (LCV) = It is the difference of Highercalorific value and heat absorbed by watervapors.LCV = (HCV – x.588.76) Kcal/Kg; Where‘x’ is the fraction of water vapours.Octane rating: When a mixture of gasoline (petrol)and air is compressed inside an engine cylinder itheats up. If the compression of the engine is highenough, and if the fuel is able to ignite easilyenough, the air-fuel mixture may spontaneouslyignite before the spark plug is fired at the optimumignition moment. This is called prematuredetonation, better known as knocking.Gasoline fuel can be modified in manufacture, orthrough the addition of additives, so that it is lessprone to spontaneously ignite. This ignitioncharacteristic is known as its Octane Rating. Theless easily the fuel ignites, the higher the octanerating. Higher compression engines are moresusceptible to engine knock, so they use fuels with ahigher octane rating, that is, fuels that ignite lessreadily.There are two different methods used to measure theoctane rating of a fuel, which result in the ResearchOctane Number (RON), and the Motor Octane
  5. 5. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118117 | P a g eNumber (MON). The MON number is usually about10 points lower than the RON number. Both aremeasurements of a fuels resistance to knock, orpremature detonation, but the MON is a bettermeasure of how the fuel behaves when under load.In most countries, including the whole ofEurope and much of the rest of the world, the RONrating is the one that is usually displayed on thepump at filling stations. In the USA and Canada,and some other countries, the displayed fuel rating isan average of the RON and the MON rating.Consequently, whatever the rating may be called atthe pump, the rating number for identical fuels willon average be about 5 points higher in Europe thanthey will appear to be in the USA.There is a popular belief that higher octanerated fuels will give improved performance in carsthat are designed to run on lower octane rated fuels.Although some premium fuels also have higherenergy ratings, this is largely a myth. Higherpowered engines usually have a higher compressionratio, so require the generally more expensive higheroctane fuels to prevent premature detonation. Higheroctane does not in itself mean higher energy output,so a fuel designed for a high compression enginewill not necessarily deliver any more power in alower compression engine. Engines perform bestwhen used with the fuel that has the enginemanufacturers recommended octane rating.ConclusionIn this work, the method of production ofgasoline like fuel (GLF) produced from wasteengine oil and ite various properties has beenstudied. In order to carry out the investigation, a fuelnamed as GLF was produced by using pyroliticdistillation method. Its characteristics such asdensity, viscosity, flash points, heating value, waterand sulfur amount, and distillation tests of the GLFare discussed. This study is useful to information ofthe various properties of fuel which can be producedfrom waste engine oil. Hence , an alternative fuelmay be produced for the engine.References[1] Phan AN, Phan TM. Biodiesel productionfrom waste cooking oils. Fuel2008;87:3490e6.[2] Fuentes MJ, Font R, Gómez-Rico MF,Martín-Gullón I. Pyrolysis andcombustionof waste lubricant oil fromdiesel cars: decomposition and pollutants.Journal of Analytical and AppliedPyrolysis 2007;79:215e26.[3] Bhaskar T, Uddin MA, Muto A. Recyclingof waste lubricant oil into chemicalfeedstock or fuel oil over supported ironoxide catalysts. Fuel 2004;83:9e13.[4] Sakata Y, Uddin MA, Muto A.Degradation of polyethylene andpolypropylene into fuel oil by using solidacid and non-acid catalysts. Journal ofAnalytical and Applied Pyrolysis999;51(2):135e55.[5] Lazaro MJ, Moliner R, Suelves I, HerodAA, Kandiyoti R. Characterisation of tarsfrom the co-pyrolysis of waste lubricatingoils with coal. Fuel 2001;80:179e94.[6] Kim SS, Kim SH. Pyrolysis kinetics ofwaste automobile lubricating oil. Fuel2000;79:1943e9.[7] Poutsma ML. Fundamental reactions offree radicals relevant to pyrolysis reactions.Journal of Analytical and AppliedPyrolysis 2000;54:5e35.[8] Arvanitoyannis IS, Tserkezou P. Cerealwaste management: treatment methods andpotential uses of treated waste. WasteManagement for the Food Industries;2008:629e702.[9] Daniel M, Otto J, Centereach NY. Methodand apparatus for recycling wastelubrication oil for reuse as fuel. USAPatent No: 5507307, 2004.[10] Research Triangle Institute. Toxicologicalprofile for used mineral-based crankcaseoil. In: Prepared for US Department ofHealth and Human Services; 1997.[11] Nerin C, Domeno C, Moliner R, LazaroMJ, Suelves I, Valderrama J. Behavior ofdifferent industrial waste oils in a pyrolysisprocess: metals distribution and valuableproducts. Journal of Analytical andApplied Pyrolysis 2000;55: 171e83.[12] Demirbas A, Demirbas I. Importance ofrural bioenergy for developing countries.Energy Conversion and Management2007;48:2386e98.[13] Yumrutas¸ R, Alma MH, Özcan H, Kas¸ kaÖ. Investigation of purified sulfateturpentine on engine performance andexhaust emissions. Fuel 2008;87: 252e9.[14] Karthikeyan R, Mahalakshmi NV.Performance and emission characteristicsof a turpentineediesel dual fuel engine.Energy 2007;32(7):1202e9.[15] Karthikeyan R, Mahalakshmi NV.Performance and emission characteristicsof turpentineediesel dual fuel engine andknock suppression using water diluents.International Journal of Energy Research2007;31:960e74.[16] Karthikeyan R, Mahalakshmi NV. Internalcombustion engine division of ASME 2005fall technical conference, ICEF2005.Ottawa, Canada: Crowne Plaza Hotel;11e14 September 2005.[17] ASTM D86-07 Standard test method fordistillation of petroleum products atatmospheric pressure, vol. 05.01.
  6. 6. Juhi Sharaf, Beena Mishra, R B Sharma / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.113-118118 | P a g e[18] ASTM D1298-99 Standard Test Methodfor Density, Relative density (Specificgravity), or API Gravity of Crudepetroleum and liquid petroleum products.[19] ASTM D4809-00 Standard Test Methodfor Heat of Combustion of LiquidHydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter,Vol 05.01.[20] Heywood JB. Internal combustion enginefundamentals. New York: McGraw- Hill;1989.[21] Öz IH, Borat O, Sürmen A. Internalcombustion engines, _Istanbul; 2003.[22] Holman JP. Experimental techniques. TataMcGraw Hill Publications; 2003.[23] Al-Ghouti MA, Al-Degs YS, Amer M.Determination of motor gasolineadulteration using FTIR spectroscopy andmultivariate calibration. Talanta2008;76:1105e12.[24] Najafi G, Ghobadian B, Tavakoli T,Buttsworth DR, Yusaf TF, FaizollahnejadM. Performance and exhaust emissions of agasoline engine with ethanol blendedgasoline fuels using artificial neuralnetwork. Applied Energy 2009;86:630e9.[25] Koç M, Sekmen Y, Topgul T, Yucesu HS.The effects of ethanoleunleaded gasolineblends on engine performance and exhaustemissions in a sparkignitionengine.Renewable Energy 2009;34:2101e6.

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