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BIO FUEL is new generation fuel. read the slide for more info.

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  1. 1. BIO-FUEL BY: K. PRAMOD E11-0031
  2. 2. WHAT IS BIO FUEL? • Bio fuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. • Bio fuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion as well as solid biomass, liquidfuel and solid biomass
  5. 5. FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS –They are also called as conventional biofuel. • The first generation biofuels refer to the fuels that have been derived from sources like starch, sugar, animal fats and vegetable oil. The oil is obtained using the conventional techniques of production.
  7. 7. -This is mostly used in european countries. -It is mineral acid and chemically known as fatty acid methyl. -this oil is formed after mixing methanol and sodium hydroxide. - It is very commonly used when it is mixed with mineral oil.
  9. 9. GREEN-DIESEL: - It is also called as renewable diesel. -is a form of diesel fuel which is derived from renewable feedstock rather than the fossil. -Green diesel feedstock can be sourced from a variety of oils including canola, algae, jatropha and salicornia in addition to tallow
  10. 10. “Green Diesel” as commonly known in Ireland should not be confused with dyed green diesel sold at a lower tax rate for agriculture purposes, using the dye allows custom officers to determine if a person is using the cheaper diesel in higher taxed applications such as commercial haulage or cars
  11. 11. BIO-ETHERS: - they are also called as oxygenated fuel -cost efficency and act as octane rating enhancers. -They reduce engine wear and toxic exhaust emissions. -Greatly reducing amount of ground level ozone. -bio-ether lab
  12. 12. BIO-GAS: -It is methane produce by the anarobic Digestion of anerobes. -It can be produced either from biodegradable Waste materals are by the use of energy crop Fed into anerobic disasters. -Biogas can be recovered from mec. biologica Treatment waste processing systems. -Farmers can produce biogas from manure from their cows by using an anaerobic digeste
  13. 13. Syn-gas: - It is a gas that is produced after the combined process of combu- -tion,gassification and pyrolysis. - Biofuel used in this process is conver into carbon monoxide and then into energy by pyrolysis. - in this process materails are converte into carbonmonoxide and hydrogen. - the resultant syn-gas can be used in various purposes.
  14. 14. Syn gas while forming:
  15. 15. : SECOND GENERATION BIO-FUEL: -Second generation biofuels are biofuels produced from sustainable feedstock. - Sustainability of a feedstock is defined among others by availability of the feedstock, impact on GHG emissions and impact on biodiversity and land use.
  16. 16. EXAMPLES OF SECOND GENERATION BIO-FUEL: Many second generation biofuels are under development such as Cellulose ethanol,algae fuel, biohydrogen,bioethanol,bioethanol,DMF,Bio DMF,Fisher tropesh disel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.
  17. 17. BIOFUEL PRODUCTION: Biofuel: -There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use, which have been discussed in the popular media and scientific journals. -
  18. 18. Bioethanol conventional production – Bioethanol is the most common biofuel, accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. Conventional production is a well known process based on enzymatic conversion of starchy biomass into sugars, and/or fermentation of 6-carbon sugars with final distillation of ethanol to fuel grade. Ethanol can be produced from many feedstocks, including cereal crops, corn (maize), sugar cane, sugar beets, potatoes, sorghum, cassava. Coproducts (e.g animal feed) help reduce production cost. If sugar cane is used, conversion into sugar is easier. Crushed stalk (bagasse) can be used to provide heat and power for the process and for other energy applications. The world’s largest producers of bio-ethanol are Brazil (sugar-cane ethanol) and the United States (corn ethanol). Ethanol is used in low 5%-10% blends with gasoline (E5, E10) but also as E-85 in flex-fuel vehicles. In Brazil, gasoline must contain a minimum of 22% bioethanol.
  19. 19. BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA: Biofuel development in India centers mainly around the cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are very rich in oil (40%). The drivers for this are historic, functional, economic, environmental,moral and political. Jatropha oil has been used in India for several decades as biodiesel for the diesel fuel requirements of remote rural and forest communities; jatropha oil can be used directly after extraction (i.e. without refining) in diesel generators and engines. Jatropha has the potential to provide economic benefits at the local level since under suitable management it has the potential to grow in dry marginal non-agricultural lands,
  21. 21. Production in india: - Presently Seven states in india are producing biofuel : - they are Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Orissa and Jharkhand - Chhattisgarh has decided to plant 160 million saplings of jatropha in all its 16 districts during 2006 with the aim of becoming a bio-fuel self-reliant state by2015Chhattisgarh plans to earn Rs.40 billion annually by selling seeds after 2010. The central government has provided Rs.135 million to Chhattisgarh this year for developing jatrophanursery facilities.
  23. 23. Advantages and disadvantages of bio fuel: -The most important advantage of using liquid as fuel is that they can be easily pumped and can also be handled easily. This is the main reason why almost all the vehicles use liquid form of fuels for combustion purpose. -Biofuels are the best way of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gases. They can also be looked upon as a way of energy security which stands as an alternative of fossil fuels that are limited in availability. Today, the use of biofuels has expanded throughout the -globe. Some of the major producers and users of biogases are Asia, Europe and America. Theoretically, biofuel can be easily produced through any carbon source; making the photosynthetic plants the most commonly used material for production. Almost all types of materials derived from the plants are used for manufacturing biogas. One of the greatest problems that is being faced by the researchers in the field is how to covert the biomass energy into the liquid fuel.
  24. 24. DISADVANTAGES OF BIO-FUEL: Disadvantages of using biodiesel produced from agricultural crops involve additional land use, as land area is taken up and various agricultural inputs with their environmental effects are inevitable. Switching to biodiesel on a large scale requires considerable use of our arable area. ransportation & storage of biodiesel require special management. Some properties of biodiesel make it undesirable for use at high concentrations. For example, pure biodiesel doesn't flow well at low temperatures, which can cause problems for customers with outdoor storage tanks in colder climates. A related disadvantage is that biodiesel, because of its nature, can’t be transported in pipelines. It has to be transported by truck or rail, which increases the cost.
  25. 25. · Biodiesel is less suitable for use in low temperatures, than petrodiesel. The “cloud point” is the temperature at which a sample of the fuel starts to appear cloudy, indicating that wax crystals have begun to form. At even lower temperatures, the fuel becomes a gel that cannot be pumped. The “pour point” is the temperature below which the fuel will not flow. As the cloud and pour points for biodiesel are higher than those for petroleum diesel, the performance of biodiesel in cold conditions is markedly worse than that of petroleum diesel. At low temperatures, diesel fuel forms wax crystals, which can clog fuel lines and filters in a vehicle’s fuel system. Vehicles running on biodiesel blends may therefore exhibit more drivability problems at less severe winter temperatures than do vehicles running on petroleum diesel.
  26. 26. 1) 2) 3) Bio ethanol fires information .net 4) Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol
  27. 27. ANY QUARIES