WHAT IS BIO FUEL?
• Bio fuel is a type of fuel whose
energy is derived from biological
• Bio fuels include fuels derived from
biomass conversion as well as solid
biomass, liquidfuel and solid biomass
COMMON EXAMPLES OF
2) VEGETABLE OIL
3) ANIMAL FATS
4) GREEN DIESEL
CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-FUEL
- FIRST GENERATION BIO-
- SECOND GENERATION BIO
FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS
–They are also called as
• The first generation biofuels refer to
the fuels that have been derived from
sources like starch, sugar, animal fats
and vegetable oil. The oil is obtained
using the conventional techniques of
-This is mostly used in european
-It is mineral acid and chemically
known as fatty acid methyl.
-this oil is formed after mixing methanol
and sodium hydroxide.
- It is very commonly used when it is
mixed with mineral oil.
- It is also called as renewable diesel.
-is a form of diesel fuel which is
derived from renewable feedstock
rather than the fossil.
-Green diesel feedstock can be
sourced from a variety
of oils including canola, algae, jatropha
and salicornia in addition to tallow
“Green Diesel” as commonly known
in Ireland should not be confused with dyed
green diesel sold at a lower tax rate for
agriculture purposes, using the dye allows
custom officers to determine if a person is using
the cheaper diesel in higher taxed applications
such as commercial haulage or cars
- they are also called as oxygenated fuel
-cost efficency and act as octane rating enhancers.
-They reduce engine wear and toxic exhaust emissions.
-Greatly reducing amount of ground level ozone.
-It is methane produce by the anarobic
Digestion of anerobes.
-It can be produced either from biodegradable
Waste materals are by the use of energy crop
Fed into anerobic disasters.
-Biogas can be recovered from mec. biologica
Treatment waste processing systems.
-Farmers can produce biogas from manure
from their cows by using an anaerobic digeste
- It is a gas that is produced after
the combined process of combu-
-tion,gassification and pyrolysis.
- Biofuel used in this process is conver
into carbon monoxide and then into
energy by pyrolysis.
- in this process materails are converte
into carbonmonoxide and hydrogen.
- the resultant syn-gas can be used in
-Second generation biofuels are
biofuels produced from sustainable
- Sustainability of a feedstock is
defined among others by availability of
the feedstock, impact
on GHG emissions and impact on
biodiversity and land use.
EXAMPLES OF SECOND
Many second generation biofuels are under
development such as Cellulose
DMF,Fisher tropesh disel, biohydrogen
diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.
-There are various social, economic,
environmental and technical issues with
biofuel production and use, which have been
discussed in the popular media and scientific
Bioethanol conventional production –
Bioethanol is the most common biofuel, accounting for
more than 90% of total biofuel usage. Conventional
production is a well known process based on enzymatic
conversion of starchy biomass into sugars, and/or
fermentation of 6-carbon sugars with final distillation of
ethanol to fuel grade. Ethanol can be produced from
many feedstocks, including cereal crops, corn (maize),
sugar cane, sugar beets, potatoes, sorghum, cassava. Coproducts
(e.g animal feed) help reduce production cost.
If sugar cane is used, conversion into sugar is easier.
Crushed stalk (bagasse) can be used to provide heat and
power for the process and for other energy applications.
The world’s largest producers of bio-ethanol are Brazil
(sugar-cane ethanol) and the United States (corn
ethanol). Ethanol is used in low 5%-10% blends with
gasoline (E5, E10) but also as E-85 in flex-fuel vehicles.
In Brazil, gasoline must contain a minimum of 22%
BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA:
Biofuel development in India centers mainly around the
cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are
very rich in oil (40%). The drivers for this are historic,
functional, economic, environmental,moral and political.
Jatropha oil has been used in India for several decades as
biodiesel for the diesel fuel requirements of remote rural and
forest communities; jatropha oil can be used directly after
extraction (i.e. without refining) in diesel generators and
engines. Jatropha has the potential to provide economic
benefits at the local level since under suitable management it
has the potential to grow in dry marginal non-agricultural
Production in india:
- Presently Seven states in india are
: - they are Chhattisgarh, Andhra
Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Orissa and
- Chhattisgarh has decided to plant 160
million saplings of jatropha in all its 16 districts
during 2006 with the aim of becoming a bio-fuel
self-reliant state by2015Chhattisgarh plans to earn
Rs.40 billion annually by selling seeds after 2010.
The central government has provided Rs.135
million to Chhattisgarh this year for developing
Advantages and disadvantages
of bio fuel:
-The most important advantage of using liquid as fuel is
that they can be easily pumped and can also be handled
easily. This is the main reason why almost all the vehicles
use liquid form of fuels for combustion purpose.
-Biofuels are the best way of reducing the emission of the
greenhouse gases. They can also be looked upon as a way
of energy security which stands as an alternative of fossil
fuels that are limited in availability. Today, the use of
biofuels has expanded throughout the
-globe. Some of the major producers and users of biogases
are Asia, Europe and America. Theoretically, biofuel can be
easily produced through any carbon source; making the
photosynthetic plants the most commonly used material for
production. Almost all types of materials derived from the
plants are used for manufacturing biogas. One of the
greatest problems that is being faced by the researchers in
the field is how to covert the biomass energy into the liquid
DISADVANTAGES OF BIO-FUEL:
Disadvantages of using biodiesel produced from
agricultural crops involve additional land use, as land
area is taken up and various agricultural inputs with their
environmental effects are inevitable. Switching to
biodiesel on a large scale requires considerable use of
our arable area.
ransportation & storage of biodiesel require special
management. Some properties of biodiesel make it
undesirable for use at high concentrations. For example,
pure biodiesel doesn't flow well at low temperatures,
which can cause problems for customers with outdoor
storage tanks in colder climates. A related disadvantage
is that biodiesel, because of its nature, can’t be
transported in pipelines. It has to be transported by truck
or rail, which increases the cost.
· Biodiesel is less suitable for use in low
temperatures, than petrodiesel. The “cloud point” is the
temperature at which a sample of the fuel starts to
appear cloudy, indicating that wax crystals have begun
to form. At even lower temperatures, the fuel becomes
a gel that cannot be pumped. The “pour point” is the
temperature below which the fuel will not flow. As the
cloud and pour points for biodiesel are higher than
those for petroleum diesel, the performance of biodiesel
in cold conditions is markedly worse than that of
petroleum diesel. At low temperatures,
diesel fuel forms wax crystals, which can clog fuel lines
and filters in a vehicle’s fuel system. Vehicles running
on biodiesel blends may therefore exhibit more
drivability problems at less severe winter temperatures
than do vehicles running on petroleum diesel.
3) Bio ethanol fires information .net
4) Breaking the Biological Barriers to