Bionic µFuel Catalytic Microwave Depolymerisation

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Bionic's µfuel catalytic MWDP (microwave depolymerization) process is a 2nd generation biomass/waste-to-fuel process ready for commercialization in 2011.

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Bionic µFuel Catalytic Microwave Depolymerisation

  1. 1. MWDP REVISION 2014/2 Catalytic Microwave Depolymerization efficient conversion of organic feedstock into fuels 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 1 µfuel
  2. 2. BIONICS GUIDING PRINCIPLE Direct conversion of Biomass and Waste Materials into Electric Power and Transportation Fuel offer the most realistic immediate response to  Depletion of fossil resources,  Rising demand in the developing world and  Over boarding mountains of Waste. Climate Change and exploding Fuel Prices require a bold response. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 2
  3. 3. FOSSIL FUEL RESERVES ARE LIMITED… 2007 Consumption ??? 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 3
  4. 4. …AND UNEQUALLY DISTRIBUTED 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 4
  5. 5. CLIMATE CHANGE IS HERE 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 5
  6. 6. A SOLUTIONS THAT WORKS TODAY  Many technologies are discussed, but few are directly available.  Many solutions proposed require a complete system change of technologies, infrastructure, and lifestyle with severe consequences.  The time required for that kind of change is simply not available to avert a major global disaster.  Mankind needs solutions NOW that can later be merged with the implementation of long term plans and technologies.  The global fleet of traditionally powered vehicles is still increasing with a life cycle horizon of 20-25 years.  Only a creative mix of all possibilities available short term can tackle the imminent threats.  It is the time NOW to initiate a first wave of change while continued preparations for a long term shift to complete sustainability occur.  BIONIC energy solutions stand for a fast track change with a unique, highly flexible technology that is ready for commercial implementations.  Technically efficient  Environmentally clean  Financially sound 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 6
  7. 7. BTL/WTL TECHNOLOGIES  First Generation approaches not efficient enough  Plant oils  Biodiesel  Biogas  Bioethanol  Traditional pyrolysis  Second Generation approaches mostly in pilot stage  Gasification and FT proving challenging  Direct liquefaction (Advanced pyrolysis)  Catalytic MWDP  Synthetic fuels including bio-synthesis  Cellulosic ethanol 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 7
  8. 8. MWDP = DIRECT LIQUEFACTION = DEPOLYMERISATION  For thousands of years it was known that under certain conditions biomass converts into gas, oil and char. Today the process is called pyrolysis or sometimes thermal depolymerisation. It requires energy input (heat) and an oxygen-free environment. Scientists explain the formation of fossil fuels with the natural occurrence of a similar process.  In the 1920s it was established, that in the presence of metal catalysts this process becomes more efficient and controllable. For that reason we now call it thermo catalytic depolymerisation or TCDP. A similar process is used successfully since the early forties to improve refinery yields in the production of Diesel and Petrol.  BIONIC has, for the first time, combined TCDP with the independent depolymerisation capabilities of advanced microwave radiation. The combination resulted in Bionic’s unique MWDP (microwave depolymerization) process which overcomes many fundamental engineering issues of TCDP applications.  Very efficient catalysts are available today in the form of “designer zeolites” facilitating the development of an effective and economical MWDP process and plant design.  Compared to other pyrolysis technologies Bionic’s MWDP design is extremely versatile converting many types of feedstock into proven high quality liquid and solid drop-in fuels. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 8
  9. 9. Microwave Depoly- merization (MWDP) Catalytic Depolymerization Catalytic Flash PyrolysisFlash Pyrolysis Traditional Methods • Very short residence time (seconds) • High temperatures (600 – 900°C) • Elevated pressure Advanced Methods • Medium residence times (45-60 min) • Low temperatures (280 – 350°C) • Low pressure µfuel Catalytic MWDP Next Generation Hybrid Depolymerization Method Microwave Fast Pyrolysis + MWDP WITHIN DIRECT LIQUEFACTION TECHNLOGIES
  10. 10. SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS  Second generation biofuels overcome practically all environmental and social issues raised the first generation.  The complete plant or biomass waste is used instead of only extracted plant oils. Valuable plant oils can be returned to the food chain or higher value bio-products.  The catalysts used are easy to produce or naturally available in abundance across the globe.  The new technologies have positive energy balances saving 60% -90% of GHG emissons compared to fossil energy sources.  In certain situations a Bionic µfuel system can become carbon negative due to near indefinite carbon sequestration in the soil.  New agricultural and agriforestry technologies are being developed to supply feedstock sustainably. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 10
  11. 11. OTHER CONCEPTS COMPARABLE TO MWDP  Main representatives of second generation biofuels:  Fischer-Tropsch-Process  Complex, two stage process  Low energy efficiency, unsolved technical issues  Various types of Pyrolysis  Numerous technology vaiants  Technical engineering issues, high temperatures  Major upgrading issues of pyrolysis oil  Thermo Catalytic Depolymerisation  Technical engineering issues, feedstock limitations  Cellulosic Ethanol Processes  Not commercially ready  Emzymatic Bioreactor technologies  Not ready, scaling issues, no drop-in fuels 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 11
  12. 12. IMPACT OF MWDP The MWDP process modifies the moelcular composition of the energy contained in the carbo hydrates of the feedstock by converting them into oil, char and gases, all with an exceptionally high energy content. In other words: Solid fuel contained in biomass and waste is converted to liquid and coke which are storable for an indefinite time. The resulting prooducts can be burned later for heat or power or upgraded to transportation fuels including jet fuel. Toxic organic materials contained in some plastic waste are mostly transformed into salts and thus neutralized. Minerals contained in the feedstock remain unchanged and are ready for further processing or direct use. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 12
  13. 13. THE PRINCIPLE BEHIND MWDP Irradiation of the feedstock with advanced microwaves in the presence of certain catalysts creates mechanically unstable hydrocarbon molecules causing a vibrating movement. This phenomenon results in the eventual breakdown (cracking) of larger molecules. They evaporate from the reaction mass as an oil vapour. The oil vapours are then condensed and cleaned. Where required, additional petrochemical upgrading is added to meet applicable fuel standards. The final product is a high quality fuel with the properties of diesel or jet fuel. That fuel is storable and cold resistant. It can be used as transportation fuel, heating oil or blended with mineral oils. It is also a valuable intermediate raw product for the petro chemical industry. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 13 C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H 2 x C16 H32 1 x C32 H64
  14. 14. KEY MWDP APPLICATION AREAS  Biomass to bio-crude:  Decentralized conversion of energy crops  Forestry and agriculture waste  Decentralized processing of press cakes  Processing of sugar beet and molasses  Waste materials to gasoil:  Processing of high calorific waste fractions (HCF, RDF)  Processing of MSW  Processing of scrap tires  Processing of organic hazardous waste  Processing of fossil hydrocarbons:  Refinery residue cleanup  Soil decontamination and cleanup of oil spills  Processing of tar sands and oil shale 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 14
  15. 15. ENERGY FROM WASTE Valuable energy products can be extracted through the intelligent use of waste materials. Typcally more than 70% of MSW (municpal solid waste) drymass can be converted into fuel with the MWDP process. Instead of landfills or destroying waste through enormously expensive and complex incineration still producing large amounts of greenhouse gases, the MWDP technology allows for a much more efficient disposal. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 15
  16. 16. ENERGY FROM BIOMASS 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 16 Wood Wood chips Wood pellets Most Biomass can be chopped and pelletized Brushes Grasses To achieve optimal results most feedstock types are first shredded or grinded. Humid materials should be dried. Materials are then mixed with the catalyst and pelletized before they are fed into the reactor. This approach has many advantages by standardizing size and consistency for further processing when entering the microfuel reactor. Processing of scrap tires is the one exception to that rule.
  17. 17. THE MICROFUEL PROCESS WITH WOOD CHIPS 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 17 Wood chips are first pressed into pellets MWDP Conversion * µcrude is a ready blendstock, a direct fuel for CHP use or upgradable into standard Diesel fuel products ** µchar is a highly valuable product for long term soil improvement and carbon sequestration or as a solid fuel Conversion of wastewood into Diesel and Biochar (Plus distilled water and light gases for internal use) Products: Bionic µcrude* & µchar**
  18. 18. MWDP VS. TYPICAL PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUES  MWDP and typical pyrolysis are building on a similar chemo-physical principle: - Thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons under absence of oxygen -  Significant differences are setting MWDP apart:  Very low temperature requirement of around 280°C, equal to torrefaction (which does not produce any liquid phase) implies a high energy efficiency of MWDP.  Significantly higher energy content of µcrude and µchar than any fast/flash pyrolysis technology known (crude: 40-45 MJ/kg, char: 25-30 MJ/kg).  MWDP bio-crude quality greatly supersedes any typical pyrolysis oil even from flash pyrolysis, thus making it usable directly for heavy oil applications and as a blendstock while also upgradable to ASTM diesel and bio jetfuel (SPK).  MWDP yields (crude: 30-35%wt, char: 30-50%wt, gas: 10-30%wt) are incomparable with pyrolysis yields, due to factors like water and energy content and chemical composition.  MWDP oil yields for comparable feedstock are always better than those from other pyrolysis processes.  MWDP char quality is superior for technical applications. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 18
  19. 19. CURRENT MICROFUEL REACTOR PROGRAM Bionic currently offers 4 reactor lines:  The standard continuous reactor model MF480 has an output capacity of up to 1200 l/h.  A reduced version of the standard reactor MF192 with an output volume of approx. 500 l/h (upgradable to MF480).  A downscaled continuous MF60 with an output capacity of up to 150 l/h.  Semi-mobile, mountable in container frames  Intended for special applications and as a demonstrator and test bed  A lab batch reactor for feedstock testing and analysis, R&D, scientific use and small demonstrations. (NB: Above mentioned output volumes are approximate and exemplary for common, dry biomass feedstock. They can vary widely depending on feedstock properties like energy content) 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 19
  20. 20. COMPLEMENTARY R&D ACTIVITIES The following additional developments are close to approaching their commercialization status:  µCTL - A microwave driven process for clean liquefaction of coal and char.  Innovative petrochemical processes for µcrude upgrading with the distinct capability for economical conversion of smaller quantities of crude feeds into clean fuels meeting the highest clean fuel standards like ultra low sulfur diesel.  µsoil - An integrated organic soil enhancer and fertilizer production system based on a patented process licensed by Bionic to be used to upgrade the bionic char product with plant nutrients. 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 20
  21. 21. A MICROFUEL LAB REACTOR Inside First Distillation Raw Distillate4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 21
  22. 22. CONTINUOUS REACTOR (PRINCIPLE DETAIL) 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 22
  23. 23. PILOT REACTOR COMPONENTS 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 23
  24. 24. FULLY OPERATIONAL MF60 PROTOTYPE 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 24 The status in March 2014 At Brno industry fair receiving an award: “innovative product of the year” • Since August 2013 this µfuel prototype is under rigorous testing directly at the manufacturing site. • Many modifications and upgrades have been implemented. • Extended test runs further increase operational robustness. • External certification is being performed.
  25. 25. THE LATEST MF480 DESIGN 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 25
  26. 26. A 4xMF480 CLUSTER 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 26
  27. 27. MICROFUEL PLANT 4X CLUSTER 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 27
  28. 28. MICROFUEL PLANT PROCESS FLOW 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 28
  29. 29. FROM ORGANIC WASTE TO FUEL AND CHAR Market Diesel Fuel Vegetable Oil Crude Oil Refined Oil catalyst 5000 Ltr/hr capacity 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 29 µchar Making efficient use of palm oil milling waste
  30. 30. FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO FUEL Diesel fuel municipal waste Bionic µfuel plant >60% efficiency 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 30
  31. 31. CONTACT INFORMATION 4/19/2014 © 2008-2013 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY 31 Bionic Laboratories GmbH Helwigstr. 41 64521 Gross-Gerau, Germany +49 1525 33 40 500 info@bionic-lab.de Visit our website at www.bionic-world.net

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