Waste Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel Replacement


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Waste Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel Replacement

  1. 1. Waste Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel ReplacementAbstractIn the past, waste edible oils and fats were often used in the production of animal feeds. However due to links betweenBSE and this practice, the use of waste fats for animal feed is not as common as it once was and this has resulted insurplus quantities becoming available. This has led to significant disposal problems.Waste oils and fats can be used as renewable fuel resources. Conversion of waste oils and fats to biodiesel fuel is onepossibility but poses some difficulties such as in the use of toxic or caustic materials and by-product disposal. Conversionto biodiesel may also decrease the economic attractiveness of using waste oils as fuels.An alternative to the use of biodiesel is the use of vegetable oils or rendered animal fats as a fuel.Using relatively unmodified oils or fats eliminates the problems associated with toxic and caustic precursor chemicals andresidual biodiesel alkalinity as the oil is used without altering its chemical properties.This paper discusses the use of waste vegetable and animal oils and fats as unmodified fuels in compression ignitionengines.IntroductionWaste edible oils and fats pose significant disposal problems in many parts of the world. In the past much of these wasteproducts have been used in the production of animal feeds. However due to possible links between BSE and this practice,the use of waste edible animal fats for animal feed is not as common as it once was, resulting in disposal problems. As itis often difficult to prevent the contamination of waste vegetable oil with animal products during cooking, waste vegetableoil often must be treated in a similar manner as is waste animal fats.One possibility for the disposal of these products is as a fuel for transport or other uses. Conversion of waste oils and fatsto biodiesel fuel has many environmental advantages over petroleum based diesel fuel. However it is not commerciallyavailable in Australia and the µback-yard¶ production of biodiesel may present serious risks as the process uses methanol,a toxic and flammable liquid, and sodium or potassium hydroxide, both of which are caustic. By-product disposal maypresent further difficulties and environmental considerations may preclude production in sensitive areas.An alternative to the use of biodiesel is the use of vegetable oil or rendered animal fats as fuel.Using unmodified oils not only eliminates problems such as residual biodiesel alkalinity by-product disposal, but alsoincreases the economic viability of using the oil or fat.While the use of vegetable or animal oils and fats as fuels may be somewhat surprising at first, when examined in anhistorical context we can see that the compression ignition engine, first developed to a usable level of functionality by theFrench-born Rudolf Diesel near the end of the 19th century, was originally designed to operate on vegetable oil.In 1900, Rudolf Diesel demonstrated his new compression ignition engine at the World Exhibition in Paris running onpeanut oil. In 1911 he wrote ³The engine can be fed with vegetable oils and would help considerably in the developmentof agriculture in the countries that use it.´ [1]It was about this time that new drilling technology and exploration techniques were developed and together these usheredin the age of cheap and plentiful fossil fuels. Consequently, the use of vegetable and animal oils and fats as fuels has onlybeen used for a few special purposes such as in racing fuels or in environmentally sensitive areas where petroleum spillstend to cause more serious problems than do spills of animal and/or vegetable derived fuels.
  2. 2. After some one hundred years of using liquid petroleum fuels, we are now finding that there are unforeseen sideeffects, the foremost perhaps being the so-called Enhanced Greenhouse Effect.In Australia, transport use contributes some 16% of Australia¶s greenhouse gas emissions. Of this, diesel fuel contributedabout 17% or 11,705,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent. An additional 1,622,000 tonnes is released from diesel fuel used forelectricity generation. [2] On top of greenhouse gas emissions is the vexing question of how little ± or much ± is left.However oils of vegetable and animal origin, unlike fossil fuels, have to potential to be produced not only on a sustainablebasis but also could be greenhouse gas neutral, or at the very least, emit substantially less greenhouse gases per unitenergy than do any of the fossil fuels.Properties of Triglycerides as FuelsA large amount of research has gone into examining Diesel¶s dream of using raw vegetable oils as fuels and when onespeaks of growing crops for liquid fuels it is often assumed that the oil will be used after only basic extraction andfiltering. [3,4,5]Work has been conducted to examine these oils as fuel replacements or additives. For example in the late 1970¶s and early1980¶s, research was undertaken at Murdoch University (Perth, Australia) into the use of eucalyptus and other plant oilsas a fuel component. [6] In New Zealand, there are considerable problems with the disposal of surplus tallow from theprocessed meat industry and a large amount of work was conducted in the early 1980¶s on the use of tallow as a fuel. [7]Experience has shown that the use of unsaturated triglyceride oils as a fuel may cause significant problems thatcan affect the viability of their fuel use. [8] But this is not always the case and in many circumstances theseproblems can either be dealt with or are acceptable to the user.While power output and tailpipe emissions using plant or animal oils are in most cases comparable with those whenrunning on petroleum diesel fuel, the main problem encountered has due to the higher viscosity of the triglyceride oils andtheir chemical instability. These can cause difficult starting in cold conditions, the gumming up of injectors and thecoking-up of valves and exhaust. [3]The viscosity of plant and animal fats and oils varies from hard crystalline solids to light oils at room temperature. In mostcases, these µoils¶ or µfats¶ are actually a complex mixture of various fatty acids triglycerides, often with the variouscomponents having widely varying melting points. This may give the oil or fat a temperature range over whichsolidification occurs, with the oil gradually thickening from a thin liquid, through to a thick liquid, then a semi-solid andfinally to a solid.High melting points or solidification ranges can cause problems in fuel systems such as partial or complete blockage asthe triglyceride thickens and finally solidifies when the ambient temperature falls. [3] While this also occurs withpetroleum based diesel, particularly as the temperature falls below about ~ -10 to -5r C for µsummer¶ formulations and ~ -20 to -10r C for µwinter¶ diesels, it is relatively easy to control during the refining process and is generally not a majorproblem.Many vegetable oils and some animal oils are µdrying¶ or µsemi-drying¶ and it is this which makes many oils such aslinseed, tung and some fish oils suitable as the base of paints and other coatings. But it is also this property that furtherrestricts their use as fuels.Drying results from the double bonds (and sometimes triple bonds) in the unsaturated oil molecules being broken byatmospheric oxygen and being converted to peroxides. Cross-linking at this site can then occur and the oil irreversiblypolymerises into a plastic-like solid. [9]
  3. 3. In the high temperatures commonly found in internal combustion engines, the process is accelerated and theengine can quickly become gummed-up with the polymerised oil. With some oils, engine failure can occur in aslittle as 20 hours. [10]The traditional measure of the degree of bonds available for this process is given by the µIodine Value¶ (IV) andcan be determined by adding iodine to the fat or oil. The amount of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oilis then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds) the oil and thehigher is the potential for the oil to polymerise.While some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, themajority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which may cause problems if used as a neat fuel. Generally speaking, anIV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used for long term applications in unmodified diesel engines andthis limits the types of oil that can be used as fuel. Table 1 lists various oils and some of their properties.The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogenbreaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil which reduces the tendency ofthe oil to polymerise. However this process also increases the melting point of the oil and turns the oil intomargarine.As can be seen from Table 1, only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any potential problemsin an unmodified diesel engine. However, with a melting point of 25rC, the use of coconut oil in cooler areaswould obviously lead to problems. With IVs of 25 ± 50, the effects on engine life are also generally unaffectedif a slightly more active maintenance schedule is maintained such as more frequent lubricating oil changes andexhaust system decoking. Triglycerides in the range of IV 50 ± 100 may result in decreased engine life, and inparticular to decreased fuel pump and injector life. However these must be balanced against greatly decreasedfuel costs (if using cheap, surplus oil) and it may be found that even with increased maintenance costs that thisis economically viable.Table 1 Oils and their melting point and Iodine Values [11]Oil Approx. melting Iodine point rC ValueCoconut oil 25 10Palm kernel oil 24 37Mutton tallow 42 40Beef tallow 50Palm oil 35 54Olive oil -6 81Castor oil -18 85Peanut oil 3 93Rapeseed oil -10 98Cotton seed oil -1 105
  4. 4. Sunflower oil -17 125Soybean oil -16 130Tung oil -2.5 168Linseed oil -24 178Sardine oil 185All of these problems can be at least partially alleviated by dissolving the oil or hydrogenated oil in petroleum diesel.µDrying oils¶ such as linseed oil for example, could be mixed with petroleum diesel at a ratio of up to about 1:8 to give anequivalent IV in the mid-twenties. Likewise coconut oil can be thinned with diesel or kerosene to render it less viscous incooler climates. Obviously the solubility of the oil in petroleum also needs to be taken into account. [7]Another method is to emulsify the oil or fat with ethanol. Goering [12] found that eight parts of soybean oil, whenemulsified with two part ethanol and five parts of 1-butanol as stabiliser, performed as well as diesel fuel and was able tostart a cold engine. The cost was calculated (in 1981) to be $0.40 a litre as compared to $0.30 ± 0.35 per litre for diesel.Trans-esterifying triglyceride oils and fats with monohydric alcohols to form biodiesel largely eliminates the tendency ofthe oils and fats to undergo polymerisation and auto-oxidation and also reduces the viscosity of the oil to about the sameas petroleum diesel.However as previously mentioned, the µback-yard¶ production of use of does pose some risks, particularly to those whoare not familiar with the handling of toxic and highly flammable liquids.In many cases, it is possible to use a variety of triglyceride fats and oils as a fuel. While engine wear and maintenancemay be increased, in some circumstances these problems are not serious enough to prevent the use of the triglycerides as afuel.Conversion of a vehicle to operate on Waste Cooking OilAn alternative to the use of biodiesel is the use of vegetable oil or animal fats as a fuel. The differences amongst fats andoils, whether of animal or vegetable origin, relate mainly to the level of saturation in the carbon chain. Generallyspeaking, the lower the number of double bonds, the higher the melting point of the triglyceride and the greater thestability of the triglyceride to polymerisation and spontaneous oxidation. From an engine use point of view, it is preferableto use saturated fats as fuels as they are more stable and less resistant to oxidation, particularly under the elevatedtemperatures and pressures as found in an engine environment. However due to their higher melting points, difficulty maybe encountered in starting the engine without pre-heating of the fat.In order to test the viability of using relatively unsaturated oils in engines, a 1990 Mazda with a 2.0 litre indirect injectionOHC diesel was obtained with a view of running it on various types of triglyceride oils and fats. At that time of purchase,the vehicle had covered 222,000 km.The previous owner stated that the engine head had been overhauled, but no further details were provided. Since thepurchase, and prior to the conversion to operate on triglyceride oils, the injector pump was overhauled. Fuel consumptionof the vehicle on diesel was stable at about 6.9 L/100 km.The vehicle is used as a family vehicle in a 2-car household. At the time of conversion (October 2000), the vehicle hadcovered 231,000 km.
  5. 5. Waste palm oil (a solid fat) was used initially but the time delay in melting this oil prevented use of the oil on shortjourneys. Consequently, waste canola oil was tried and has been used exclusively for the last 7,500 km.At about 80 cSt (at 20r C), the viscosity of used canola oil is significantly greater than that of diesel which has a viscosityin the range of 2 to 4.5 cSt. [7, 13] However, as canola oil is warmed, its viscosity falls quite significantly and at about 70rC the viscosity is about 5 to 10 cSt. Thus the viscosity is sufficiently low to allow its use as a replacement fuel for dieselwith out too much difficulty.Table 2 Comparison of properties of diesel, canola oil and commercial US biodiesel. [7, 13, 14] Diesel Canola Oil BiodieselDensity kgL-1 @ 15.5r C 0.84 0.92 0.88Calorific value MJL-1 38.3 36.9 33 ± 40Viscosity mm2s-1 @ 20rC 4-5 70 4±6Viscosity mm2s-1 @ 40rC 4-5 37 4±6Viscosity mm2s-1 @ 70rC 10Cetane number 45 ~ 40 - 50 45 ± 65The vehicle was fitted with an additional 17 litre fuel tank under the bonnet together with the necessary fuellines, additional filter and a solenoid valve to control the fuel source. Electrical connections to a thermostat,glow plug, run-on timer, switches and the solenoid valve were also installed.The oil tank was fitted with a heat exchanger comprising one metre of 12 mm copper tube. This was connected to theengine coolant system and pre-heats the oil in the tank. The tank was located in the engine bay to maximise heat transferto the tank and to keep the coolant lines short. The finished tank had a useable capacity of seventeen litres. This gave arange of up to 240 km between refuelling.Additional filtering was installed with an internal preheater. The pre-heater, a 24 V diesel glow plug, together with a relayand thermostat was installed so that if a solid fat was used for fuel, any solidified fat in the filter chamber could be quicklymelted. The filter used (Ryco Z30) provides filtration to 30 micron.A vacuum gauge was fitted after the fuel filter and it was found that at start-up with cold canola oil, fuel flowwas insufficient causing a vacuum in the fuel line and filter. An extra in-line fuel pump was added before thefilter and this alleviated this problem and has increased fuel filter life.The heated oil fuel line was one metre of 5/16´ semi rigid nylon tube encased in a 5/8´ rubber coolant pipe.Brass fittings were used to ensure minimal corrosion and leakages of coolant.The three port, 12 Vdc solenoid valve was mounted in close proximity to the fuel pump to minimise changeover lag. Thefuel return line to the diesel tank was redirected to the fuel pump suction side between the solenoid valve and fuel pump.This was done to prevent the oil in the return line going to the diesel tank. A disadvantage of this is that the fuel systembecame rather intolerant of air in the system.A run-on timer was installed using a modified µturbo timer¶. After the solenoid valve is switched back to diesel,the timer keeps the engine running for a period of time, even if the vehicle is parked and the key removed from
  6. 6. the ignition. During this period, the oil in the injector pump is gradually replaced by diesel and after severalminutes, only diesel remains in the fuel pump, filter, fuel lines and injectors. The correct time was found by atrial and error. A manual override switch was also installed to allow emergency, or short duration stopping ofthe engine.The supplier of the used oil (a fast food outlet) filters the oil and puts it into containers for collection. To ensure that theoil is clean, the oil is heated and additionally filtered through a 5 micron bag filter. It was found that the used oil usuallybecomes cloudy and this was found to be a combination of the oil starting to solidify due to partial de-unsaturation of theoil from use and minor water content. If water content is suspected of being excessive, the oil is heated above 100¶C toevaporate the moisture.Use of the oil and preliminary resultsTo date, the vehicle has been driven over 7500 km using canola oil. In the morning, the oil in the tank is cold and quiteviscous and a particular start-up routine must be used. In addition, if, at the end of the trip, the vehicle will not be restartedagain for several hours, then a shutdown sequence must be followed in order to allow easy restarting.Glow plugs are used for all starts. When starting cold, the engine is started on diesel and the journey commenced. Whenthe engine temperature has reached µnormal¶ as shown on the engine temperature gauge, the fuel solenoid is operated, andthe journey continues using vegetable oil. For hot or warm starts, the engine is started using the vegetable oil.Shutdown: In the cooler months, at about 5 km from the end of each journey, the fuel solenoid is released. At the endof the journey, the ignition switch is turned off. If the time delay has not expired, the engine continues to idle, until theend of the delay. During warmer periods, the shutdown delay override switch is used to stop the engine for all stops,except for the last journey of the day.Comparison of performance and economyUsing records of fuel consumption and distance travelled, there has been no noticeable difference in fuel consumption orengine power when operating on diesel, palm or canola oil. The fuel consumption has been found to be approximately 6.9L/100 km, regardless of what fuel is being used. It is planned that full testing of performance will be carried out in thenear future, taking into account different driving conditions and different fuels.ProblemsCold starting with canola oil: If the engine has been allowed to cool completely (eg overnight) and the shutdownroutine not followed, then the engine may be very difficult to restart. It has been found that heating the injectors by, forexample, pouring hot water over them or using a hair dryer, will allow the engine to restart with no difficulty.Saturated oils: The use of saturated (solid) fats in cooler months would require significant improvements to the heatexchanger in the oil tank. Palm oil tended to solidify in the filter (prior to a glow plug heater being installed) and in thefront half of the tank while travelling, reducing useable capacity. This may be less of a problem if a 6 port solenoid valvewere to be used, circulating heated oil back to the tank, and improving the heating of the oil in the tank.Carbon build up causing wear: Reports have been made of accelerated engine wear due to increased carbon deposits incombustion chambers. [3, 4, 7] As the engine condition at the start of the test was not accurately measured, no properevaluation of the wear can be made. However, at the end of the vehicle life, the engine will be dismantled and evaluatedfor any abnormal evidence of wear or damage.
  7. 7. Galvanised Fuel tank: The oil tank was made from scrap galvanised steel sheet metal. It was found that the oil reactedwith the zinc plating and this resulted in globules of reacted oil blocking the fuel filter on many occasions. The oil tankwas consequently removed, cleaned and acid etched to remove the zinc coating. No reacted fuel globules have beenobserved since.Costs:The tank was made using scrap materials and consequently was of negligible cost. It was estimated that ifprofessionally made using new materials, it would have cost approximately $400. Other expenses were: filter -$30, filter elements - $5, heated fuel line - $120, solenoid valve - $95, sundry items - $100. The total cost was$250. Operating costs are $5 per 10,000 km for new filter elementsExhaust emissions:At this stage no exhaust emission tests have been done. The level of particulates as gauged by simple visibility checksappears about the same whether running on diesel or canola oil. However, as the oil contains no sulphur, SO2 emissionsare not present when running on triglyceride oils. Furthermore, the pungent smell typical of diesel exhaust is not present.Rather the smell is similar to that of a BBQ.Life-cycle CO2 emissions are substantially reduced. Studies done by Sheehan et al, Beer et al etc indicate that reductionsby as much as 80 to 90% compared to fossil diesel fuel can be expected, given the renewable nature of the oil, and thatthis is a re-use of a spent product. [14, 15, 16, 17]Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions would most likely be similar or slightly elevated by ~10% as compared to fossil diesel.In addition to atmospheric nitrogen, most vegetable and animal oils contain small quantities of nitrogen containingproteins, which upon combustion, release various nitrogen oxides. [14, 15, 16, 17]Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions may or may not be increased. Previous research has shown that this is very dependent ofthe vehicle¶s state of tune, age and the specific properties of the oil. [7, 14, 16, 17]Cost efficiency:Using free waste canola oil, fuel costs have been only for the diesel fuel used in the start-up and shutdown periods. Fuelpurchase records for 10,000 km show the vehicle has used 240 litres of diesel. Driving this distance on diesel only wouldnormally require approximately 690 litres of fuel. This represents a fuel cost saving of 65%. The conversion has paid foritself with savings in diesel purchases in excess of $400.Different usage patterns would give obviously give different results. Usage patterns for this vehicle show mainly shorttrips, with one or two longer (>20 km) journeys per week.As vehicle use increases, the diesel fuel savings would also be expected to increase. The only requirement for diesel, isthat the motor must be allowed to reach operating temperature before operating on triglyceride oils, and that the oil mustbe diluted or purged from the fuel pump before shutdown.Due to higher fuel usage larger vehicles would be able to have greater fuel cost savings which would more than offset theincreased costs of a remotely located oil tank.
  8. 8. Obviously, if there were to be a greater demand for used and waste cooking oil, the oil may not be available free and thecost of purchasing waste oil must then be taken into account. While this would extend the pay-back period, as long asthere was a reasonable difference between the cost of the waste oil and diesel fuel and any extra maintenance costs werenot too excessive, it would probably still be economically viable to undertake the modifications and operate on used oil.Possible improvementsSolenoid Valve: The use of a six port solenoid valve and an alterative fuel line set-up would reduce the shutdown delayrequirement, as the return line would not be fed back into the fuel pump.Fuel filter: The provision of a heated fuel filter, using filter elements giving 5 micron filtration would protect the fuelpump from the possible 5 ± 30 micron particles not removed by the Ryco Z30 filter. Filter heating would be mosteffective if heated by engine coolant.Biodiesel: Starting the vehicle on biodiesel would further enhance the environmental benefits obtainable.ConclusionMany vegetable and animal oils can be used as diesel replacement fuels. The two ways of doing this are to either use theoil as a straight fuel or to convert the oil to a methyl or ethyl ester (biodiesel). Both of these ways have various advantagesand disadvantages. One of the authors (Clark) converted a Mazda 626 to operate on straight vegetable oil and has doneover 7500 km using this method. The other author (Calais) has been using biodiesel in an unmodified Toyota Corolla forover 20,000 km.In converting the Mazda 626 to operate on straight oil, a small tank was fitted under the bonnet of the vehicle. In order tominimise fuel µcold-plugging¶ problems due to high fuel viscosity, both the tank, filter and fuel lines are heated. Thevehicle is first started on diesel and then when the engine has reached normal operating temperature and the oil has beenheated, a solenoid valve is operated which switched the fuel system over to the oil.To date there has been no evidence of increased engine wear, lubricating oil dilution or other problems. However theexperience of others has shown that increased engine wear may occur but as yet it is still too early to determine whether ornot this will occur in this example. Even so, the economic benefits obtained by using waste canola oil may more thanoffset any extra engine maintenance costs.It is hoped that continuing research on this project may provide more information about this in the future.References 1. Tickell, J. The Great American Veggie Van Adventure, http://veggievan.org/ 2. Australian Greenhouse Office Australia¶s State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventory ± Western Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 1999 3. Pullan, C. et al Research Priorities for Transport Fuels from Biomass and Other Sources for Western Australia, Energy Advisory Council of WA, Perth, 1981 4. Parker, A.J. et al Transport Fuels from Biomass. Research Opportunities Symposium Proceedings, March 1980, Perth. 5. Australian Greenhouse Office Alternative Fuels Program ± Issues Paper, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 1999
  9. 9. 6. Barton, Alan (Prof) Personal communication, Murdoch University, 1999 7. Sims, R. Yields, Costs and Availability of Natural Oils/Fats as Diesel Fuel Substitutes, Report No LF2021 for the Liquid Fuels Trust Board, Wellington (NZ) 1982 8. SECWA (Now Western Power), Evaluation of Rapeseed and Sunflower oil in a Stationary Diesel Generator, NERDDC Project No 80/0294, Januar 1984 Perth 9. Cole, A.R.H, Watts, D.W. & Bucat, R.B. Chemical Properties and Reactions University of Western Australia Press, Perth, 1978 10. Duke, J. A. Handbook of Energy Crops, (written 1983) Unpublished on paper but available from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html 11. Lide, D.R. et al Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Edition, CRC Press, Boco Raton, USA, 1996 12. Goering, B. USDOE Seminar II. Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuel, Oct. 21, 22, 1981 13. Environment Australia (National Heritage Trust) (2000b). Setting National Fuel Quality Standards ± Paper 2 - Proposed Standards for Fuel Parameters (Petrol and Diesel), Canberra 14. Beer, T., Grant, T., Brown, R., Edwards, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H., Williams, D. (2000) Life-Cycle Emission Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles. CSIRO, Australia 15. Calais P. & Sims, R. A Comparison Of Life-Cycle Emissions Of Liquid Biofuels And Liquid And Gaseous Fossil Fuels In The Transport Sector, Proceedings of Solar 2000, Brisbane 2000 16. Beer T. et al Comparison of Transport Fuels, Report EV45A/2/F3C for the Australian Greenhouse Office, 2001 17. Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Graboski, M., Shapouri, H. (1998). An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles. NREL, Golden, Colorado.BibliographyDepartment of Energy Alternatives to Traditional Transport Fuels 1996, Energy Information Administration, USDepartment of Energy, Washington DC, 1997Environment Australia (National Heritage Trust) (2000a). Setting National Fuel Quality Standards ± Proposed Standardsfor Fuel Parameters (Petrol and Diesel), CanberraPeterson, C.L. & Reece, D. On-Road Testing of Biodiesel ± A report of past research activities, Department ofAgricultural Engineering, University of Idaho, 1996Quick, G.R. A summary of some current research in Australia on vegetable oils as candidate fuels for diesel engines.Seminar II, USDA, Peoria, IL., 1981Sims, R., (1996). The Potential for Biodiesel in New Zealand. Proceedings of Conference µApplications ofBioenergy Technologies¶ Rotarua, pp 139 ± 148 EECA.Sims, R., (1995). The Biodiesel Research Program of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Second BiomassConference of the Americas, Oregon, pp 849 ± 858, NREL.s, R., (1995). The Biodiesel Research Program of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Second BiomassConference of the Americas, Oregon, pp 849 ± 858, NREL.
  10. 10. See Plant Drivehttp://plantdrive.comVEGETABLE OIL Cars and Converting Your Car to VEGETABLE OILhttp://plantdrive.comhttp://www.greasecar.comhttp://www.vegpoweredsystems.comhttp://www.goldenfuelsystems.comhttp://www.goodgrease.comhttp://www.vegpower.comhttp://www.elsbett.comhttp://biocar.dehttp://www.enviofuel.comhttp://www.frybrid.comhttp://www.vegiecars.comhttp://www.theorganicmechanic.orghttp://www.fattywagons.comhttp://greasebenz.comhttp://www.vtvegcar.comhttp://www.vegengine.blogspot.comhttp://www.greenconversion.nethttp://www.alaskavegoil.orghttp://www.ehow.com/how_2004136_vegetable-oil-fuel.htmlhttp://www.vegdvw.comhttp://www.greendiesel1.comhttp://vegwerks.wordpress.comhttp://www.vegiecars.comhttp://vegetablepowersystems.comhttp://danalinscott.netfirms.comhttp://www.bebioenergy.comhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Biotour.org-Waste-Vegetable-Oil-Conversion-Diesel-/DVD LIQUID GOLD 2Learn the Do͛s and Don͛ts of Gathering and using Waste Vegetable oil as a fuel. Perfect for anyone who is currentlyusing, or planning on using SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) or Bio Diesel as a fuel!
  11. 11. These questions and more are answered on this DVD:ͻ The legality of collecting waste vegetable oil and burning it as a fuel.ͻ Overview of how diesel engines burn waste vegetable oil as fuel.ͻ How to identify good waste vegetable oil.ͻ How to identify bad waste vegetable oil.ͻ How to ask a restaurant for their waste vegetable oil.ͻ How to fuel up on the fly with the automated One Shot Filtration Unit.ͻ How to setup your own waste vegetable oil accounts.ͻ How to collect large quantities of oil for later filtration at home.ͻ How to filter waste vegetable oil using filter bags.ͻ How does salt, sugar and animal fats affect waste vegetable oil for fuel?ͻ How to tell if there͛s water in the oil?ͻ How to filter the oil once it͛s been gathered.ͻ Cold Weather gathering techniques and tips.http://www.goldenfuelsystems.comDVD S.V.O. Seminar 2006Lately theres been a lot of talk about the effects of Global warming due to our love of gas guzzling vehicles and ourdependency on foreign oil. Scientists and entrepreneurs around the world are busy developing what they hope will beour answer to cleaner burning vehicles. What many people dont realize is that this technology already exists and itsbeen around for quite some time now.This DVD was Shot during a seminar on Straight Vegetable Oil at Ecoversity in Santa Fe, New Mexico and is packed with2.5 hours of valuable information. Listen along while many of the most frequently asked questions about this technologyare discussed and answered.These questions and more are answered on this DVD:ͻ The History of Straight Vegetable Oilͻ Different Alternative Fuelsͻ Straight Vegetable vs. Biodieselͻ Straight Vegetable Oil Facts and Fictionͻ Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Enginesͻ How a Straight Vegetable Oil System Worksͻ The Importance of a Vehicles Air Filterͻ Increase Power and Economy/Computer Modsͻ Oil Gathering 101ͻ Filtering on the Fly with the One Shotͻ Using Filter Bags
  12. 12. ͻ What to do with leftover Nasty Oilͻ Diesels Available in the USAhttp://www.goldenfuelsystems.comDVD GREASY RIDERPicture a cross-country road trip powered by vegetable oil in a 1981 Mercedes-Benz. Greasy Rider follows the twofilmmakers, Joey Carey and JJ Beck, as they meet with fellow Greasecar drivers, friends, and critics. Traveling as far southas New Orleans and as far north as Seattle, the car is fueled by used cooking grease collected at restaurants along theway.Interviews include Morgan Freeman who is opening up a Biodiesel plant in Mississippi. Political analyst Noam Chomsky,͞Youre supposed to believe we would have liberated Iraq even if its main product was pickles,͟ appears along side YokoOno, ͞This whole world is now ruled by corporations and their greed,͟ and Tommy Chong, ͞You guys figured it out. Yougot your little bio-car, and there you go.͟ Additional interviews include the founders of the four major vegetable oilconversion kit companies, Greasecar, Greasel, Neoteric, and Frybrid, as they discuss the reality of vegetable oil as a fuel.The heat is felt in this political documentary as Americas energy consumption continues to grow. With gas prices on therise and the reality of global warming setting in, Greasy Rider points to vegetable oil as one part of the solution to ourenergy problems.http://www.goldenfuelsystems.comJOURNEY to FOREVERhttp://www.journeytoforever.orgThe Film: FUELhttp://thefuelfilm.comFUEL is an insightful portrait of America͛s addiction to oil and an uplifting testament to the immediacy of new energysolutions. Director, Josh Tickell, a young activist, shuttles us on a whirlwind journey to track the rising domination of thepetrochemical industry Ͷ from Rockefeller͛s strategy to halt Ford͛s first ethanol cars to Vice President Cheneyspetrochemical company sponsored energy legislation Ͷ and reveals a gamut of available solutions to "repowerAmerica" Ͷ from vertical farms that occupy skyscrapers to algae facilities that turn wastewater into fuel.Tickell and a surprising array of environmentalists, policy makers, and entertainment notables take us through America͛scomplicated, often ignominious energy past and illuminate a hopeful, achievable future, where decentralized,sustainable living is not only possible, it͛s imperative.
  13. 13. DVD : Biodiesel #2Filmed at the National Biodiesel Board Conference and Expo in Palm Springs, CA, this 45 minute video helps qualify theemissions benefits of biodiesel and illustrates how biodiesel can reduce cancerous diesel emissions.http://fryertofuel.comDVD: Biodiesel 101In this 45-minute presentation, biodiesel author Josh Tickell provides an economic, social and practical context forbiodiesel. "Biodiesel 101" goes deep into the technical world of the biodiesel production, showing how the fuel ischemically formed. This video also examines current data and trends within the biodiesel industry to illustrate growthpatterns and future potential.http://fryertofuel.comConvert GAS Cars to Plug-In ELECTRIC Autoshttp://www.electroauto.com http://www.kta-ev.com http://www.nedra.com http://www.evparts.comhttp://www.sourceguides.com/energybook: Convert It; by Michael Brown and Shari PrangeDVD: Convert It http://www.electroauto.com`Convert HYBRID Cars to Plug-In ELECTRIC Autoshttp://www.calcars.org http://www.hybrids-plus.com http://www.rqriley.com/xr3.htm http://www.eaa-phev.org/wiki/PriusPlus http://www.hybridplugs.com http://www.hybridconceptcars.comhttp://www.afstrinity.com http://www.a123systems.com/hymotion http://www.hybridconsortium.orghttp://www.energycs.comLOCAL Groups Supporting ELECTRIC AUTOmobileshttp://www.nicecarcompany.co.uk http://www.greenvehicles.comhttp://www.zapworld.comhttp://www.sourceguides.com/energyhttp://www.green-car-guide.comElectric MOTORCYCLEShttp://www.solarmobil.nethttp://www.e-max-ltd.comhttp://www.topmotorx.comhttp://www.patente-erfindungen.de/erfindungen_fahrraeder.htmhttp://www.zeromotorcycles.comhttp://www.sourceguides.com/energyElectric BICYCLES
  14. 14. http://nycewheels.comhttp://www.myebike.comhttp://www.cyclone-tw.comhttp://www.powacycle.co.ukhttp://www.electricbikesales.co.ukhttp://egovehicles.comhttp://www.electricbicycle.com.auhttp://www.evehicle.com.auhttp://www.electric-bicycle.cnhttp://www.greenspeed.ushttp://www.sourceguides.com/energyTAX CREDITShttp://www.dsireusa.orgHOME POWERhttp://www.homepower.comSOLAR TODAYhttp://solartoday.orgSolar Industry NEWShttp://www.seia.orghttp://www.solarbuzz.comSolar Industry MAGAZINEhttp://www.solarindustrymag.comRecharge your Electric Auto with RENEWABLE ENERGYhttp://www.bergey.com http://www.bwea.com http://www.vestas.com http://www.awea.comhttp://solarenergy.org http://greendragonenergy.co.uk http://www.lowimpact.orghttp://www.scoraigwind.com http://www.greenempowerment.org http://www.grupofenix.orghttp://www.solarliving.org http://www.arthaonline.com http://www.the-mrea.org http://www.txses.orghttp://www.irenew.org http://www.nmsea.org http://www.azsolarcenter.comhttp://www.microhydropower.com http://www.newenergycorp.ca http://www.canyonhydro.comhttp://wattsun.com http://www.lorentz.de http://www.etsolar.dehttp://www.solargenix.com http://solar.sharpusa.com http://solren.com http://www.spirecorp.comhttp://www.windpower.orghttp://www.sourceguides.com/energyhttp://www.i2p.orghttp://www.ises.org http://www.firstsolar.comhttp://www.rmi.orghttp://www.sourceguides.com/energyDo not bend over and allow Big Oil to molest your Family, Friends and CommunityVOTE SOLAR
  15. 15. VOTE SOLARhttp://votesolar.orghttp://www.seia.orghttp://www.blackboxvoting.orghttp://valparaiso.indymedia.org/news/2006/09/8723.phpDVD: Uncounted; Director: David EarnhardtDVD: Hacking Democracy; Director: Simon Ardizzonebook: What Went Wrong In Ohio; by Congressman John Conyersbook: What Happened in Ohio; by Bob FitrakisIS YOUR CONGRESSMAN IN BED with BIG OIL?How much bribes (campaign contributions) did your congressman take from the sleazy OIL Companies?CAMPAIGN FINANCE INFORMATION CENTERWhere does the money come from?http://www.campaignfinance.org/statesCENTER FOR PUBLIC INTEGRITYstop the Fat Cats from BRIBING your politicianshttp://www.publicintegrity.orgPOLLUTION and RACISM, INJUSTICEbook: Confronting Environmental Racism; by Robert Bullardbook: Environmental Injustices; by David Camachobook: Environmentalism and Economic Justice; by Laura Pulidobook: Pollution and the Death of Man; by Francis Schaefferbook: From the Ground Up, Environmental Racism; by Luke Colebook: Struggle for Ecological Democracy; by Daniel Faberbook: No Safe Place, Toxic Waste and Community Action; by Phil BrownFREE eBook on Oil Spills: Not One Drophttp://www.scribd.com/doc/31483843/Not-One-DropBig Oil¶s Dirty Secretshttp://bigoil101.insanejournal.com