29 88-96

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Wimax technology has reshaped the framework of broadband wireless internet
service. It provides the internet service to unconnected or detached areas such as east South
Africa, rural areas of America and Asia region. Full duplex helpers employed with one of
the relay stations selection and indexing method that is Randomized Distributed Space Time
are used to expand the coverage area of primary Wimax station. The basic problem was
identified at cell edge due to weather conditions (rain, fog), insertion of destruction because
of multiple paths in the same communication channel and due to interference created by
other users in that communication. It is impractical task for the receiver station to decode
the transmitted signal successfully at the cell edges, which increases the high packet loss and
retransmissions. But Wimax is a outstanding technology which is used for improving the
quality of internet service and also it offers various services like Voice over Internet
Protocol, Video conferencing and Multimedia broadcast etc where a little delay in packet
transmission can cause a big loss in the communication. Even setup and initialization of
another Wimax station nearer to each other is not a good alternate, where any mobile
station can easily handover to another base station if it gets a strong signal from other one.
But in rural areas, for few numbers of customers, installation of base station nearer to each
other is costlier task. In this review article, we present a scheme using R-DSTC technique to
choose and select helpers (relay nodes) randomly to expand the coverage area and help to
mobile station as a helper to provide secure communication with base station. In this work,
we use full duplex helpers for better utilization of bandwidth.

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29 88-96

  1. 1. Randomized – Distributed Space Time Selection Scheme for Full Duplex Relay Helpers in Development of Next Generation Wimax Network Naveen Chauhan1 , A. L. N. Rao2 and Vineet Sharma3 1 Amity School of Engineering & Technology, Noida, India. Email: rscholar_naveen@live.com 2 G.L.B.I.T.M., Greater Noida, India. 3 K.I.E.T. Ghaziabad, India. 2 Email: drrao.nit@gmail.com 3 Email: drvineetsharma.cse@gmail.com Abstract— Wimax technology has reshaped the framework of broadband wireless internet service. It provides the internet service to unconnected or detached areas such as east South Africa, rural areas of America and Asia region. Full duplex helpers employed with one of the relay stations selection and indexing method that is Randomized Distributed Space Time are used to expand the coverage area of primary Wimax station. The basic problem was identified at cell edge due to weather conditions (rain, fog), insertion of destruction because of multiple paths in the same communication channel and due to interference created by other users in that communication. It is impractical task for the receiver station to decode the transmitted signal successfully at the cell edges, which increases the high packet loss and retransmissions. But Wimax is a outstanding technology which is used for improving the quality of internet service and also it offers various services like Voice over Internet Protocol, Video conferencing and Multimedia broadcast etc where a little delay in packet transmission can cause a big loss in the communication. Even setup and initialization of another Wimax station nearer to each other is not a good alternate, where any mobile station can easily handover to another base station if it gets a strong signal from other one. But in rural areas, for few numbers of customers, installation of base station nearer to each other is costlier task. In this review article, we present a scheme using R-DSTC technique to choose and select helpers (relay nodes) randomly to expand the coverage area and help to mobile station as a helper to provide secure communication with base station. In this work, we use full duplex helpers for better utilization of bandwidth. Index Terms— Randomized-Distributed Space Time Code, Co-channel Interference, Relay Assisted Communication. I. INTRODUCTION Wimax i.e. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access system is a standard technology of IEEE family. The IEEE 802.16 standard for broadband wireless internet service is known as WIMAX. A working group of broadband wireless access developed and deployed the standard (802.16) in 1999, used to provide wireless mobile internet service (which broadend the bandwidth usage) across the cities and rural areas, DOI: 02.ITC.2014.5.29 © Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers, 2014 Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing, ITC
  2. 2. 89 facilitate its services and features in telecommunication sector which supports for voice over internet protocol, internet protocol TV, video conferencing, High definition video clarity and prime connection for acquiring services such as cloud computing. IEEE 802.16m Wimax standard amended as an enhancement of advanced techniques and services to support extended or better cell coverage area and higher system capacity. In order to achieve higher performance gathered by subscribers at cell edges, the concept of [1] mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) system has been defined. It specifies architecture for multi-hop transmission. Basically in conventional single relay transmission network only fixed relays are used, those are dedicated and static device. The relays stations work on decode and forward (DF) strategy. In this strategy, source station sends its signal [2], [3] to air, relay station first receive it and apply the DF strategy to decode the signal successfully and then regenerate the same received source signal to transmit through multi hops to the destination. Wimax cannot deliver 70 Mbps data rate over a distance of 31 Miles; it can operate at higher bit rate or over a long coverage but both the factors are not possible simultaneously. Due to this type of operating disadvantage i.e. at above distance of 31 Miles Wimax results in delivering very low data rate or maximum packet loss. On the other hand by reducing the distance between base station and destination station below 1 Km allows a subscriber to operate at very high bit rate. This problem is faced at cell edges of Wimax coverage area. For the solution of this problem either we have to compromise at cell coverage area or go with another alternate i.e. cooperative relaying. A vivid range of prior literature on cooperative relaying exists in multi-hoping communication network. However this review article differs from prior work by selecting the relay stations randomly, there is no prior requirement of helpers before initiation of signal transmission. Cooperative communications have been proposed to achieve high throughput at cell edges similar to that of MIMO (Maximum input maximum output) system. It replaces the conventional direct communication architecture or single hop communication system into multi-hop transmission model [4]. In below presented figure 1, we presented direct communication architecture between base station and subscribers; mostly subscribers are taken as mobile nodes. Wimax i.e. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access system is a standard technology of IEEE family. The IEEE 802.16 standard for broadband wireless internet service is known as WIMAX. A working group of broadband wireless access developed and deployed the standard (802.16) in 1999, used to provide wireless mobile internet service (which broadend the bandwidth usage) across the cities and rural areas, facilitate its services and features in telecommunication sector which supports for voice over internet protocol, internet protocol TV, video conferencing, High definition video clarity and prime connection for acquiring services such as cloud computing. IEEE 802.16m Wimax standard amended as an enhancement of advanced techniques and services to support extended or better cell coverage area and higher system capacity. In order to achieve higher performance gathered by subscribers at cell edges, the concept of [1] mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) system has been defined. It specifies architecture for multi-hop transmission. Basically in conventional single relay transmission network only fixed relays are used, those are dedicated and static device. The relays stations work on decode and forward (DF) strategy. In this strategy, source station sends its signal [2], [3] to air, relay station first receive it and apply the DF strategy to decode the signal successfully and then regenerate the same received source signal to transmit through multi hops to the destination. Wimax cannot deliver 70 Mbps data rate over a distance of 31 Miles; it can operate at higher bit rate or over a long coverage but both the factors are not possible simultaneously. Due to this type of operating disadvantage i.e. at above distance of 31 Miles Wimax results in delivering very low data rate or maximum packet loss. On the other hand by reducing the distance between base station and destination station below 1 Km allows a subscriber to operate at very high bit rate. This problem is faced at cell edges of Wimax coverage area. For the solution of this problem either we have to compromise at cell coverage area or go with another alternate i.e. cooperative relaying. A vivid range of prior literature on cooperative relaying exists in multi-hoping communication network. However this review article differs from prior work by selecting the relay stations randomly, there is no prior requirement of helpers before initiation of signal transmission. Cooperative communications have been proposed to achieve high throughput at cell edges similar to that of MIMO (Maximum input maximum output) system. It replaces the conventional direct communication architecture or single hop communication system into multi-hop transmission model [4]. In below presented figure 1, we presented direct communication architecture between base station and subscribers; mostly subscribers are taken as mobile nodes. Some of the mobile nodes are located at cell edges, due to strong attenuation, natural sources trees, and forests etc, interference created by other users in the ongoing communication and relatively low transmit power; the direct communication between BS and MS is put down.
  3. 3. 90 Fig. 1 Direct Communication between BS and SSs in Wimax system in presence of natural sources Most of the existing literature work on cooperative relaying network has adopted the half duplex protocol, in which relay station transmit and receive the source signal in different time-slots. This orthogonality results in inefficient use of channel bandwidth. Due to inefficient use of channel bandwidth the dispersion variation of packet delay becomes unmanageable. On the other hand, full-duplex relaying [5], [6] overcomes the drawbacks specified in the above half duplex scenario by allowing the relay stations to transmit and receive in the same time-slot and [7] frequency band. This simultaneous process results in efficiently use of system resources and channel bandwidth and outperforms the half duplex protocol. In this work, we study the effect of selection and indexing scheme randomized- Distributed Space Time for mobility environment with respect of half duplex and full duplex protocols. The full duplex (FD) protocol requires only one channel [8] for end- to-end transmission, due to this; FD introduces loop back interference (to be described in section III in detail) due to signal leakage between the relay station output and input. We study the feasibility of the full duplex protocol in the presence of residual loop back interference, we consider a threshold point where FD mode can outperforms the HD mode. The rest of this article is organized as follows. Randomized Distributed Space Time scheme is introduced in Section II with their Physical Layer and MAC layer specifications. In Section III, these models are applied to check feasibility with FD protocol and analysis the problem loop back interference introduced due to FD mode. II. SPECIFICATION OF R-DSTC SCHEME Wimax, A Metropolitan access network technology is much demanded in compacted and hardly populated areas such as East Africa and North America. It has various advantages like supporting high data rates and offering ultra-wideband. The enhanced standard IEEE 802.16j introduced mobile multi-hop relaying. A Wimax conventional multi-hoping relay [1] network mainly consists of three network components as shown in Fig. 2: the base station, subscriber stations and the relay stations, See Fig 2. Due to low transmit power and other responsible factors, at cell edges any mobile node can communicate with the help of relative relay station. On the other hand, those subscriber’s nodes have strong transmit power capability, can communicate directly. As presented in Fig 2. home subscriber 1 has enough power signals to communicate with base station directly. Relay-assisted multi-hop communications have been shown to acquire significant [9] efficiency boosters at cell edge’s problems over the legacy of direct communication between base station and subscribers. In multi-hop relay networks, the advantage of multiple relays enhances the reliability and throughput performance. Benefits of multi-hoping includes to overcome dead spots, reduction of transmit power and increases the capacity gain. The term diversity technique is single most imperative [10] patron for reliable wireless communication, since the channel acquiring for communication may suffer from effects of fading, high attenuation due to addition of destructive multi-paths in the same communication media and due
  4. 4. 91 Fig. 2. Network elements specified in IEEE 802.16j standard to interference produced by other users in the same communication channel. It is impractical to diagnose the transmitted signal at destination unless some less affected copy of the transmitted signal is lended to the receiver in case of strict attenuation. For reliable communication, it is mandatory to transmit multiple copies of the signal but with short delay. The overall communication overhead for the above technique is not desirable in the situation where number of subscribers is large. Another reliable technique has been introduced i.e. Space Time Coding. It is a method which has been utilized to [4] elevate the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication by using multiple transmits antennas. Source transmits multiple redundant copies of a data stream in the air in a hope that at least some of them (redundant copies) may survive the physical path. Recently, several amendments have been introduced for cooperation among relays to provide spatial gains without utilizing multiple transmit antennas. Recently, two new cooperation protocols [3], [4]; Decode-and-Forward and Amplify-and-forward have been introduced to achieve the expected spatial gains without using multiple antennas, which was mandatory checkpoint in space-time-coding method. The problem identified in multi-mobile relaying network is selection and indexing of the relay nodes. For indexing and perfect selection of relay nodes, various solutions are being proposed, one such effective solution specified in [1], named Distributed Space Time coding (DSTC). It is a physical layer technique used to authorize the capabilities of relay station, so that they act as a helper in a multi relaying wireless network. DSTC turn to use spatial diversity gain and achieves more than expected range of end-to-end transmission, better throughput performance and less bit error rate. If we see highlights, a Wimax system is typically designed and deployed in highly mobile environment, more than 80% of subscribers are mobile subscribers. This may lead to a substantial overhead in a mobile network to identify the location of mobile subscribers where the channel statistics vary frequently. Due to this, DSTC has various flaws over mobility environment such as before each transmission of signal all the relays which a central node controller wants to [8] recruit are selected and indexed, so that they know who wants to participate in cooperation and which signal stream will be transmitted by different antennas of relay station. In distributed environment with mobility, this leads to extra signalling overhead for monitoring the location of mobile subscriber to select and index relaying for them. For mobility environment, the drawbacks identified in DSTC scheme can be directed by employing an effective variation of DSTC called, Randomized-Distributed Space Time Coding, which expel the requirement of space time codeword simulation and reduces the coordination between the source and the relays. Main flaws specified in DSTC scheme respect to mobility environment has been addressed by R- DSTC unique [1], [8], [11] operation and service. This emerged physical layer technique allows every intermediate node, not only indexed helpers simulated and selected in previous (DSTC) scheme for each subscriber individually, to potentially work as a relay station as long as it successfully decodes the source signal and eager to participate in cooperation. This result leads to perform better utilization of system resources (bandwidth usage etc) and maintain the factors to control the loss of packets. As much as mobile subscribers change their location, there is no prior requirement for indexing relay helpers for their signal transmission. In this emerged technique, any source mobile node immediately sends its signal to air; if the
  5. 5. 92 signal capacity is too poor for direct communication with base station then any relay node with relaying capability (to be described in Section IV) can decode the signal reliably and then relay it to air after re- encoding. Therefore, the intermediate helpers with relaying capability can be conveniently selected on demand. III. FEASIBILITY OF FULL DUPLEX RELAY HELPERS Most of the existing research has been worked on cooperative communication by assuming half duplex relaying, where relay nodes works [3] to support the source transmission by transmitting and receiving the source data in orthogonal1 channels. Since delay variations increases time by time, this leads to inefficiently utilization of the channel bandwidth and ineffective impact on throughput performance. On the other hand full duplex relaying consider simultaneously transmission and reception of signal which uses same frequency and time channel at the radio relay, which leads to result more efficiently utilization of the spectral efficiency. The full duplex mode requires only one channel for the end-to-end transmission. The channel can be divided either in frequency division mode or in time division mode. In frequency division mode, the uplink [12] and downlink channels are located on separate frequencies. Fig. 3. Frequency Division Duplexing model Fig. 4. Effect of loop back interference at relay station In the above drawn Fig 3. We presented a frequency division model. Base station sends a frame after each periodic [13] time in 2.5 to 20ms. The whole frequency channel divided into different frequency slots, in which uplink subframe and downlink subframe are sent through separate frequency sub channels. A fixed- 1 Orthogonality is a technique used to utilize one common channel completely either for transmission purpose or for reception of signal. Thus there is no interference possible at destination. Because following node is busy in listening the status of channel.
  6. 6. 93 duration frame is used for both uplink and downlink transmissions, which is transmitted after each 2.5 to 20ms. The simultaneous transmission and reception of signal at relay nodes, introduces a problem called loop back interference. In wireless communication, interference produced by other user’s communication, makes wrong impact on system performance. The below mentioned problem is specified in [3], [5], [6], [14] in which signal leakage occurs at relay station between the relay output and input. Basically, relay nodes receive source data plus transmitting data which is transmitting by them (same relay nodes) and some additive white Gaussian noise2 . See Fig 4. We have taken some [3], [15] abbreviations like ƴSR, ƴLI and ƴRD which represents the channel gain factors with respective to frequency-flat-source-relay, residual loop interference and relay-destination channels. As shown in the Fig 4. SS1 sends a signal to relay station using decode-and- forward protocols, at the same time that same relay node sends a signal which is received from other SS2 and simultaneously receives the signal from source station SS1. At relay station, both transmitting signal and currently receiving signal are collapsed and relay station cannot determine the receiving signal. On the other hand, the half-duplex mode eliminates the loop back interference, but this dwindles the end-to-end rate. In full duplex mode, if we maintain the loop back interference value up to a controlled level by increasing the distance and by placing the obstacles between the antennas, our model can outperforms the half duplex mode easily. Now here a question arises, how much loop back interference level is acceptable? In order to analysis the feasibility of full-duplex employed with a relay station in the presence of threshold point (controlled level) of loop back interference. We focus on following issues- should loop back interference be permitted in full duplex mode or full duplex mode can achieve the double performance that of achieved by half duplex mode. IV. RELAY RECRUITMENT AND MAC LAYER SPECIFICATION The recruitment policy of relay nodes for R-DSTC scheme is different from DSTC scheme. Basically R- DSTC scheme is used for distributed mobile environment, where channel statistics vary frequently. In DSTC scheme, a predefined set of helpers are recruited before the initiation of signal [1] , [11] transmission, is synchronized in a pattern that is being indexed for a specific antenna of a space time coding where each relay node simulates a specific antenna of an underlying STC code. Fig. 5A. Cooperative communication in mobility environment Since a specific signal stream is transmitted by unique helper corresponding to its designated antenna, this helper is recruited prior and indexed for transmission of this single signal stream until channel statistics does not being changed. In conventional cooperative communication networks have only fixed relays for relaying purpose. Let us assume we use DSTC scheme for cooperative relaying and selects and indexes some 2 Additive white Gaussian noise is random radio noise characterized by a wide frequency band. The additive property of noise stands that received signal equals to the transmitted signal plus some noise, where additional noise has no relation with signal.
  7. 7. 94 Fig. 5B. Cooperative communication in mobility environment predefined helpers for a specific mobile subscriber. In the above presented Fig 5A, we consider cooperative communication system in mobility mode. In Fig 5A. At time t1 a mobile subscriber is located at some location inside the Wimax system coverage area. We assume at time t1, the distance between MS1 is approximately 30 Miles and associated relay node is located in between MS1 and base station. Initially distance between RS and MS 1 and between BS and RS are about 12 Miles and 20 Miles respectively. We assume that using DSTC scheme before data transmission relay node 1 is associated with MS1 for cooperative communication. But after time t2, MS1 is being moved to some other location, presented in Fig 5B. We can see that still relay node is associated with MS1 as a cooperative relaying. But now scenario has been changed in terms of distance and power transmission. The distance between RS1 and MS1 (still located at cell edge) is about 35 miles, which is impossible for relay station to reliably decode the source signal. Faults which are addressed by above problems can be easily rectified by R-DSTC scheme. A large scale Wimax system requires a huge number of relay stations for better performance of the model. In order to provide high end-to-end transmission, we are taking three types of relaying nodes [1], [9] : RSs- standard conventional fixed relay station, femto/picocell BSs- the fixed femto/picocell BSs with wireless relay functionality, and mobile relays- any subscriber station with relaying capability, wishes to work as helper. A. Relay Node Discovery In IEEE 802.16j standard, some basic functionalities and services offered by conventional relay stations are predestined and known by the base station. Other additional relay stations such as any subscriber and sub- base stations are required to identify the functionalities and services by base station. Any additional relay stations can likely work as a helper and required to endorse their services. When any station enters into the network either it is fixed relay station or any additional subscriber, it instantly delivers a basic capability request (SBC-REQ) message to the base station announcing their essential services it can support. In the pattern of SBC-REQ message specified in [1] includes a bit to classify the cooperative capacity of the additional subscribers are empowered or not. That message also contains various information such as number of antennas available for relaying purpose, mobility model and exact location of the relay node. In reply of SBC-REQ message base station acknowledged by sending subscriber basic capability response (SBC-RSP) message. Based on this transmission, the base station explores the existence of all available helpers. B. Selection of Relay Nodes In order for selection and indexing the helpers/relay nodes for each subscriber station, the base station performs recruitment strategy, if it requires. At cell edges, most of the subscribers communicate through cooperative relaying. It is consider that the direct communication from the source to destination is stagnant due to strong fading of signal and comparatively low transmit power. As specified by author in [1], [4], [12], [15] base station periodically broadcasts the downlink channel descriptor (DCD) and uplink channel descriptor (UCD) message in a Wimax system to all nodes. The DCD is type of medium access control management message and it encompasses information regarding frame duration codes, downlink burst
  8. 8. 95 profiles and parameters required for transmission such as modulation and coding techniques. Basically Wimax system has divided its MAC layer into three sub layers parts- convergence sub layer, common part sub layer and security sub layer. The common part layer is mostly responsible for connection establishment, resource allocation required for connection establishment and scheduling between base station and subscriber stations. The SS establishes a connection with BS using the contention slots [12] in the uplink sub-frame. For entering and registering a new SS into the network, subscriber must follow the following procedures- I. Base Station periodically sends the Uplink/Downlink map messages and Uplink channel descriptor & Downlink channel descriptor into the air. II. When any new subscriber enters into the network, it receives the downlink map message. It tries to establish physical synchronization with the base station. III. In the second step, subscriber waits for the uplink channel descriptor message to obtain the required parameters for uplink channel. IV. After successfully obtaining the uplink channel parameters, subscriber again receives the uplink/downlink map to extract the time slot information for uplink communication. V. Performing above steps successfully, in the next periodic time slot 2.5- 20ms; subscriber wait for transmission opportunity to perform ranging operation. Initially, when any new SS enters into the network, it waits for Downlink/uplink –map message; which is periodically sent by base station after a certain interval. As well as base station sends downlink channel descriptor messages and uplink channel descriptor messages. After receiving the DCD successfully, SS establishes the physical synchronization by retrieving the frequency offset information. Now SS knows various information such as frame duration, downlink center, frequency and base station ID etc and waits for uplink channel information. In the next step, SS retrieves parameters from UCD message that contain information about uplink center frequency, bandwidth request opportunity size and most important is cooperation control information element for our model. This information is required to index the relaying helpers, which is embedded inside UCD message. After performing the ranging operation, a sixteen-bit unique identification number is allotted within the network for each one BS to one SS that is referred to as connection identifier (CID). Afterwards, allotted CID is used to establish the communication via relaying helpers or all available nodes concert their transceivers to the signal transmitted through these CID’s and relay it to the destination successfully. V. CONCLUSIONS In this article, we presented an effective cooperative model for Wimax system. Through literature review, we identify that proposed model would outperform the previous model and check the feasibility of the model in presence of loop back interference. We can use some physical obstacles between the transmission and receiving antenna of the relay station to overcome the effects of loop back interference. We investigated that our model would lead over distributed space time code model in a distributed environment with mobility. There is a lot of scope for analysis and justify our assumption to calculate the performance measures in terms of BER (bit error rate), throughput calculation that will help and positively support our assumption in favor. REFERENCES [1] Chun Nie, Pei Liu and Thanasis Korakis, “Cooperative Relaying in Next Generation Mobile Wimax Networks,” IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, pp. 1399–1405, March 2013. [2] Samer J. Alabed, Javier M. Paredes and Alex B. Gershman, “A Simple Distributed Space-Time Coded Strategy for Two-Way Relay Channels,” IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol. 11, pp. 1260-1265, February 2012. [3] Ioannis Krikidis, Himal A. Suraweera and Chau Yuen,”Amplify-and-forward with Full-Duplex Relay Selection,” International Conference on Communications, pp. 3532-3537, June 2012. [4] Birsen Sirkeci and Anna Scaglione, “Randomized Space-Time Coding for Distributed Cooperative Communication,” IEEE Transaction on Signal Processing, vol. 55, pp. 5003-5017, October 2007. [5] Ioannis Krikidis, Himal A. Sureweera, Sheng Yang and Kostas Berberidis, “Full-Duplex Relaying over Block Fading Channel: A Diversity Perspective,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, vol. 11, pp. 4524-4535, December 2012. [6] Koji Yamamoto, Katsuyuki Haneda, Hideekazu Maurata and Susumu Yoshida, “Optimal Transmission Scheduling for a Hybrid of Full-and Half-Duplex Relaying,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 15, pp. 305-307, March 2011. [7] S. Askar and H. S. Al-Raweshidy, “Performance Evaluation of IEEE802.16-2004 Wimax with Fixed High Fading Channels,” IEEE Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference, pp. 1-6, April 2011.
  9. 9. 96 [8] Taneli Riihonen, Stefan Werner, Risto Wichman and Eduardo Zacarias B., “On the Feasibility of Full-Duplex Relaying in the Presence of Loop Interference,” IEEE 10Th workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, pp. 275-279, June 2009. [9] D. Satish Kumar and N. Nagarajan, ”Relay Technologies in IEEE 802.16j Mobile Multi-hop Relay (MMR) Networks,” Computer Engineering & Intelligent System, vol. 2, pp. 105-113, 2011. [10] Vahid Tarokh, Nambi Seshadri and A. R. calderbank, “Space-Time Codes for High Data Rate Wireless Communication: Performance Criterion and Code Construction,” IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, vol. 44, pp. 744-765, March 1998. [11] Pei Liu, T. Korakis, E. Erkip, S. S. Panwar, F. Verde and A. Scaglione, “STiCMAC: A MAC Protocol for Robust Space-Time Coding in Cooperative Wireless LANs,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, vol. 11, pp. 1358-1369, April 2012. [12] M. Chetlur, U.Devi, P. Dutta, P. Gupta, L. Chen, Z. Zhu, S. Kalyanaraman and Y. Lin, “A Software Wimax Medium Access Control Layer Using Massively Multithreaded Processors,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 54, pp. 9:1-9:13, January 2010. [13] Jing Jin, Qiong Wang and Hongwen Yang, “Cross-Layer Design of Optimal Contention Period for Mobile Wimax Systems,” 4Th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, pp. 1-4, October 2008. [14] D. S. Michalopoulos, J. Schlenker and R. Schober, “Error Rate Analysis of Full-Duplex Relaying,” International Conference on Waveform Diversity and Design, pp. 165-168, August 2010. [15] Yi Liu, Xiang-Gen Xia and H. Zhang, “Distributed Space-Time Coding for Full-Duplex Asynchronous Cooperative Communications,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, vol. 11, pp. 2680-2688, July 2012.

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