Wireless power transmission via solar power satellite 1(1)
WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION Via
SOLAR POWER SATELLITE
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
RAJNISH MITTER AKASH YADAV
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT 10ELDEE702
• Brief study of WPT
• Introduction to SPS
• How SPS works
• Flow chart of solar power transmission
• Overview of system design
• Advantages & Disadvantages
WHAT IS WPT ???
• The transmission of energy from one place to another without
• Conventional energy transfer is using wires.
• But the wireless transmission is made possible by using
• This Phenomena is also known as „Witricity‟.
HISTORY OF WPT
• Nikola Tesla in late 1890‟s gave the concept of Witricity.
• He was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil.
• He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40 km.
• The idea of Tesla is taken into research after 100 years by a
team led by Marin Soljacic from MIT.
WHY NOT WIRES???
• As per the studies , most electrical energy transfer is through
• Most of the energy loss is during transmission.
• On an average , more than 30%.
• In India, it exceeds 40%.
• Low maintenance cost
• Can be used for short range as well as long range
IS WPT SAFE???
• Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter
and receiver do not hinder the transmission of power.
• Magnetic field tend to interact very weakly with the biological
tissues of the body, and so are not prone to cause any damage
to any living being.
There are mainly 3 types of wireless energy transfer
1.Short Range –Inductive Coupling
2.Medium range-Resonant Induction
3.Long Range Power Transfer-Electromagnetic wave
TYPES OF WPT
• Ground based power transmission
• Space based power transmission
• Space based power transmission is preferred over
ground based power transmission because :-
1.Energy is available 24 hours a day.
2.No storage required for nighttime power.
3.The energy available in space is 4 -5 times than on earth.
4.No long winter nights, no storms, no cloudy seasons.
INTRODUCTION TO SPS
• The SPS is a gigantic satellite designed as an electric power
plant orbiting the geostationary earth orbit.
• It consists of mainly three segments solar energy collector to
convert the solar energy into DC electricity, DC to microwave
converter and larger antenna array to beam down the
microwave power to the ground.
• Increasing global energy demand.
• Environmental problems due to fossil fuels.
• To overcome energy crisis.
• Overcome day and night effect and other factors such as cloud.
OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM DESIGN
• Solar Panel
• Spacetenna (antenna on satellite)
• Rectenna (rectifying antenna)
• Set of solar photovoltaic modules electrically connected and
mounted on a supporting structure.
• Photovoltaic module is a packaged , connected assembly of
• Solar panels use photons(light energy) from sun to generate
electricity through photovoltaic effect.
• Solar panels were first used in space in 1958.
SPACETENNA(ANTENNA ON SATELLITE)
• Spacetenna is a triangular prism with a length of 800 m and
sides of 100 m.
• The faces of prism are embedded with photovoltaic cells
.These cells would convert solar energy into electricity, which
in turn power onboard , Microwave Generator.
• The microwave thus produced travels through atmosphere &
collected by RECTENNAS on earth.
• An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for
absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting
it into electric power.
• Microwaves are received with about 85% efficiency.
• 95% beam will fall on the Rectenna.
• The realization of the SPS concept holds great promises for
solving energy crisis.
• No fuel required.
• Unlimited energy resource.
• Zero Carbon-dioxide emission.
• Solar energy can be more efficiently collected in space.
• Elimination of plant and wildlife interference.
• The main drawback of solar power energy transfer from orbit
is the storage of electricity during off peak demand hours.
• Interference with communication satellites.
• The entire structure is massive.
• High cost and require much time for construction.
• Risks involved with malfunction.
• More reliable than ground based solar power.
• In order for SPS to become a reality several things have to
2.Cheaper launch prices
3.Involement of private sectors
• Ralph H. Nansen solar power industries “WIRELESS POWER
TRANSMISSION :The key to solar power satellites” IEEE AES
system magazine , January 1996.
• Brown, W. C., “Beamed microwave power transmission and its
application to space”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,vol.40.
• Kaya, N., S. Ida, Y. Fujino, and M. Fujita, “Transmitting antenna
system for airship demonstration of Space Energy and
Transportation” IEEE Vol.1.
• Hatsuda, T., K. Ueno, M. Inoue, “Solar power satellite interference
assessment”, IEEE, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec. 2002
• Transmission Technology”, IEEE Microwave Magazine, December