Grounded	  TheoryHong Kong   ■   Shanghai   ■   Hangzhou   ■   Jakarta
Discovery has been the aim of science      since the dawn of the renaissance.But how those discoveries are made has varied...
Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology                                                            ...
Outline          1   Selecting the right qualitative research method         5          2   From the data to theory: diffe...
Qualitative Research Process:From Ideas (Questions) to Results (Theory)                                                  T...
Checklist for selecting a qualitative research method        1.   What do I know about the issue of my study or how detail...
Research perspectives in qualitative research:matching theories and methods                                               ...
The Origins of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)                                                            •   A...
The Creation of THEORY from DATA        Grounded theory mean theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered an...
Characteristics of a grounded theorist                                                             The ability to step bac...
Coding procedures -Analysis through microscopic examination of data     Build rather than test theory     Provide research...
Open coding - What does the Data want to Say     The analytic process through which concepts are identified     and their ...
Axial coding - Structuring and Categorizing the DataThe process of relating categories to their subcategories, termed ‘axi...
Theoretical (Selective) Coding:Developing Theories based on the Data        The process of integrating and refining the th...
The process of theory development: description,conceptual ordering, and theorizing  • Before beginning the process of deve...
Techniques and Proceduresfor Developing Grounded Theory
Stages of a Grounded Theory StudyStages are generally sequential, but once research process begins they are often conducte...
Definitions of Terms - Memos and Diagrams       Memos: Written records of analysis that may vary in type and form       n...
Why Memos and Diagrams?                         Taking field note instead?      •   Insufficient space to develop ideas   ...
Technical Features of Memos and Diagrams             Memos & Diagrams                                                   Th...
Memos and Diagrams in Open Coding                                            • At first, scan a document and identify some...
Memos and Diagrams in Selective CodingThe final step in analysis ---- integration of concept & development and refinement ...
Criteria for Evaluation
Judging the merits of Theory-Building Research                       What one is making judgment about                    ...
Evaluating the Research Process              •      Criterions1 : How was the original sample selected? On what grounds?  ...
Evaluating the Empirical Grounding of a Study   q Criterion 1: Are Concept                                   q Criterion...
Excellence through Culture, Talent and ChangeContact	  Address                   Hong Kong:                               ...
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Grounded Theory Introduction

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Introduction to Grounded Theory

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Grounded Theory Introduction

  1. 1. Grounded  TheoryHong Kong ■ Shanghai ■ Hangzhou ■ Jakarta
  2. 2. Discovery has been the aim of science since the dawn of the renaissance.But how those discoveries are made has variedwith the nature of the materials being studied and the times. Strauss & Corbin, 1998 An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 2
  3. 3. Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra - Cross-cultural and Business Psychology 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Dipl.-Psych., Technical University of Braunschweig Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Dr. Phil., University of Regensburg Intercultural Psychology and Strategic Management Executive Education, INSEAD HR Management in Asia An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 3
  4. 4. Outline 1 Selecting the right qualitative research method 5 2 From the data to theory: different coding steps in GT 8 3 Memos and Diagrams in GT 16 4 Criteria for good GT research 23 An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 4
  5. 5. Qualitative Research Process:From Ideas (Questions) to Results (Theory) The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses) Qualitative Research Design Single Case Document Qualitative Qualitative Analyses Analyses Action Research Field Research Experiments Evaluation Process of Qualitative Research Data Preparation Analyzing Collection Process Process Writing Qualitative Research Report An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 5
  6. 6. Checklist for selecting a qualitative research method 1. What do I know about the issue of my study or how detailed is my knowledge already? 2. How developed is the theoretical or empirical knowledge in the literature about the issue? 3. Am I more interested in generally exploring the field and the issue of my study? 4. What is the theoretical background of my study and which methods fit this background? 5. What is it that I want to get close to in my study? Personal experiences of (a group) of certain people or social processes in the making? Or am I more interested in reconstructing the underlying structures of my issue? 6. Do I started with a very focused research question right away or do I start from a rather unfocused approach in order to develop the more focused questions underway in the process of my project? 7. What is the aggregate I want to study? Personal experiences, interactions or situations or bigger entities like organizations or discourse? 8. Is it more the single case (e.g. of a personal illness experience or of a certain institution) I am interested in or the comparison of various cases? 9. What are resources (time, money, who/manpower, skills…) available to run my study? 10. What are the characteristics of the field I want to study and of the people in it? What can you request of them and what not? 11. What is the claim of generalization of my study? An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory
  7. 7. Research perspectives in qualitative research:matching theories and methods Research perspectives in qualitative research Subject‘s points Making of social Cultural framing of of view realities Social realitiesTheoretical § Symbolic interactionism § Ethnomethodology § Psychoanalysispositions § Interpretive § Social constructionism § Genetic structuralism interactionismMethods of § Semi-structured § Focus groups § Recording interactionsData collection interviews § Ethnography § Photography § Narrative interviews § Participant observation § Film § Recording interactions § Collecting documentsMethods of § Theoretical coding § Conversation analysis § Objective hermeneuticsinterpretation § Content analysis § Discourse analysis § Deep hermeneutics § Narrative analysis § Hermeneutic methods An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory
  8. 8. The Origins of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) • A conceptual levels theory and general research methodology • The emergence of grounded theory was during the collaboration of Glaser and Strauss at the University of California at Berkeley from 1965 to 1967. • Barney Glaser – Sorbonne University Paris, French Literature – Columbia University New York, Lazersfield & Merton, Statistical Analysis • Anselm Strauss – Chicago University, Symbolic Interactionist Sociology Graphic source:http://qualmethods.wikispaces.com/Grounded+Theory An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 8
  9. 9. The Creation of THEORY from DATA Grounded theory mean theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process. In this method, data collection, analysis and eventual theory stand in close relationship to one another. The interpretation of data cannot therefore be regarded independently of their collection or the sampling of data. A researcher does not begin a project with a preconceived theory in mind, rather he / she begins with an area of study and allows the theory to emerge from the data. Interpretation is the anchoring point for making decisions about which data or cases to integrate next in the analysis and how or with which methods they should be collected. In the process of interpretation different ‘procedures’ for dealing with text can be differentiated: ‘open coding’, ‘axial coding’ and ‘selective coding’. § Methodology: A way of thinking about and studying social reality § Methods: A set of procedures and techniques for gathering and analyzing data § Coding: The analytic process through which data are fractured, conceptualized, and integrated to form theory. An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 9
  10. 10. Characteristics of a grounded theorist The ability to step back and critically analyze situations The ability to recognize the tendency toward bias The ability to think abstractly The ability to be flexible and open to helpful criticism Sensitivity to the words and actions of respondents A sense of absorption and devotion to the work process An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 10
  11. 11. Coding procedures -Analysis through microscopic examination of data Build rather than test theory Provide researcher with analytic tools for handling masses of raw data. Help analyst to consider alternative meanings of phenomena. Be systematic and creative simultaneously. Identify, develop and relate the concepts that are building blocks of theory. Graphic source: http://qrtips.com/faq/FAQ--code%20terms.htm An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 11
  12. 12. Open coding - What does the Data want to Say The analytic process through which concepts are identified and their properties and dimensions are discovered in data. • Open coding aims at expressing data and phenomena in the form of concepts. • For this purpose, data are first disentangled (segmented). Expressions are classified by their units of meaning in order to attach annotation and above all ‘concepts’ (codes) to them. • Basic questions in doing open coding: – What? Which phenomenon is mentioned? – Who? Which persons and roles? – How? Which aspects are mentioned? – When? How long? Where? Time, course, location. – How much? How strong? Aspects of intensity. – Why? Which reasons are given or can be constructed? – What for? With what intention, to which purpose? – By which? Means, tactics and strategies for reaching the goal. An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 12
  13. 13. Axial coding - Structuring and Categorizing the DataThe process of relating categories to their subcategories, termed ‘axial’ because coding occurs aroundthe axis of a category, linking categories at the level of properties and dimensions. • After did the open coding, the next step is to refine and differentiate the categories (resulting from open coding). • From the multitude of categories, those are selected that seem to be most promising for a further elaboration. The axial categories are enriched by their fit with as many passages as possible. • Finally, the relations between these and other categories are elaborated. • The developed relations and categories that are treated as essential are verified over and over against the text and date. • The researcher moves continuously back and fort between inductive thinking (developing) and deductive thinking (testing). Conditions Causes Consequences Co-Variances Contexts Cutting Points An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 13
  14. 14. Theoretical (Selective) Coding:Developing Theories based on the Data The process of integrating and refining the theory. • The third step, continuous the axial coding at the higher level of abstraction. • The aim of this step is to elaborate the core category around which the other developed categories can be grouped and by which they are integrated. • In this way, the story of the case is elaborated and formulated. • The analysis and the development of the theory aim at discovering patterns in the data as well as conditions under which these apply. • Finally, the theory is formulated in greater detail and again checked against the data. An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 14
  15. 15. The process of theory development: description,conceptual ordering, and theorizing • Before beginning the process of developing theory, a researcher must have some understanding of what constitutes theory. • The first step toward understanding is to be able to differentiate among description, conceptual ordering, and theorizing. • A second step is realizing that these forms of data analysis actually build on one another, with the theory incorporating aspects of both. § Description: The use of words to convey a mental of image of an event, a piece of scenery, a scene, an experience, an emotion, or a sensation; the account related from the perspective of the person doing the depicting. ☞ depicting, telling a story, sometimes a very graphic and detailed one, without stepping back to interpret events or explain why certain events occurred and not others. § Conceptual ordering: Organizing (and sometime rating) of data according to a selective and specified set of properties and their dimensions. ☞ classifying events and objects along various explicitly stated dimensions, without necessarily relating the classifications to each other to form an overarching explanatory scheme. § Theory: A set of well-developed concepts related through statements of relationship, which together constitute an integrated framework that can be used to explain or predict phenomena. ☞ the act of constructing from data an explanatory scheme that systematically integrates various concepts through statements of relationships. It enables users to explain and predict events, thereby providing guides to action. An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 15
  16. 16. Techniques and Proceduresfor Developing Grounded Theory
  17. 17. Stages of a Grounded Theory StudyStages are generally sequential, but once research process begins they are often conductedsimultaneously, as the particular research requires. 1. Preparation 4. Memoing • Minimizing pre-conception • theorizing write-up of ideas and codes and their relationship • Integrating the Literatures 2. Data Collection • Interviews, Observation or any 7. Writing other types of data • Theoretical Sampling 5. Theoretical Outline • Visual outline of the major concepts of the emerged theory 3. Analysis • Constant Comparative Analysis • Sensitizing Concepts: Open, Axial 6. Sorting and Theoretical Coding • Conceptual sorting of memos Source: Odis E. Simmons An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 17
  18. 18. Definitions of Terms - Memos and Diagrams Memos: Written records of analysis that may vary in type and form n Code notes: Memos containing the actual products of the three types of coding: open, axial, and selective n Theoretical notes: Sensitizing and summarizing memos that contain an analyst’s thoughts and ideas about theoretical sampling and other issues n Operational notes: Memos containing procedural directions and reminders Diagrams: Visual devices that depict the relationships among concepts An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 18
  19. 19. Why Memos and Diagrams? Taking field note instead? • Insufficient space to develop ideas • Old coding written in the margins might be misleading or confusing when concepts revised • Difficult to retrieve information in margin • Unnecessary to write on the margin when many helpful computer programs available Features of Memos and diagrams • Analyst develops his or her own style: computer program, color-coded cards, binders, folders, notebooks • Orderly, progressive, systematic, easily retrievable • Provide a storehouse of analytic ideas • Force the analyst to work with concepts rather than raw data • Act as reflections of analytic thought • Memos can be written from other memos. An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 19
  20. 20. Technical Features of Memos and Diagrams Memos & Diagrams The analyst • References should include code • Not be afraid to modify the content number of the interview, observation, of memos and diagrams as or document; date; page number progressing • Contain headings denoting the • Keep a list of emergency codes for concepts or categories, the title or reference heading describe the type of memos • Be flexible and relaxed when doing • Quotes or phrases of raw data can be Ms & Ds included as handy reminder, and • Be conceptual rather then further as illustrations descriptive when writing memos • Be specific and kept distinct • Notice when category appears saturated or several memos begin to sound alike • Keep multiple copies of memos An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 20
  21. 21. Memos and Diagrams in Open Coding • At first, scan a document and identify some concepts. Code Notes • Early notes include categories, the concepts that point to the categories, some properties and dimensions • Ask some other properties and their dimensions Theoretical Notes • Theoretical sampling • What operations to carry out next? Asking question, making comparison, Operational Notes or doing more observation or interview? An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 21
  22. 22. Memos and Diagrams in Selective CodingThe final step in analysis ---- integration of concept & development and refinement Code Fewer; take the form of an integrative memo describing Notes what the research is all about. Filling in of categories and refinement of the theory Theoretical • Think about this or that and Operational • Go here or there to theoretically sample Notes • Check out this or that • Do this or that Show the density and complexity of the theory Diagrams Help the analyst finalize relationships and discover breaks in logic An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 22
  23. 23. Criteria for Evaluation
  24. 24. Judging the merits of Theory-Building Research What one is making judgment about ✓ FIT This is another way of expressing validity (Face Validity) ✓ Does the concept adequately explain the data which the theory purports to express? ✓ WORKABILITY ✓ Do the concepts begin to account for how the main concerns for those being studied are being continually resolved? ✓ RELEVANCE ✓ How relevant is the research to those being studied? ✓ MODIFIABILITY ✓ How capable is the theory of incorporating new concepts from the data which is generated after the completion of the study? An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 24
  25. 25. Evaluating the Research Process • Criterions1 : How was the original sample selected? On what grounds? • Criterions2 : What major categories emerged? • Criterions3 : What were some of the events, incidents, or actions (indicators) that point to these major categories? • Criterions4 :On the basis of what categories did theoretical sampling proceed? That is, how did theoretical formulations guide some of the data collection? After the theoretical sampling was done, how representative of the data did the categories prove to be? • Criterions5: What were some of the hypotheses pertaining to conceptual relations (i.e., among categories), and on what ground were they formulated or validated? • Criterions6: Were there instances in which hypotheses did not explain what was happening in the data? How were these discrepancies accounted for? Were the hypotheses modified? • Criterions7: How and why was the core category selected? Was this collection sudden or gradual, and was it difficult or easy? On what grounds were the final analytic decisions made? An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 25
  26. 26. Evaluating the Empirical Grounding of a Study q Criterion 1: Are Concept q Criterion 5: Are the conditions Generated? under which variation can be found built into the study and q Criterion 2: Are the concept explained? systematically related? q Criterion 6: Has process been q Criterion 3: are there many taken into account? conceptual linkages, and are the categories well developed? Do q Criterion 7: Do the theoretical categories have conceptual findings seem significant, and to density? what extent? q Criterion 4: is variation built into q Criterion 8: Does the theory stand the theory? the test of time and become part of the discussions and ideas exchanged among relevant social and professional groups? An  Introduc+on  to  Grounded  Theory 26
  27. 27. Excellence through Culture, Talent and ChangeContact  Address Hong Kong: Shanghai: 31/F, Tower One, Times Square 1F, No. 1388 Shan Xi North Road, Putuo District,  1 Matheson Street, Causeway Bay, HONG KONG Shanghai, 200060, P.R. China 香港銅鑼灣勿地臣街 1 號時代廣場一座31樓 中国上海市普陀区陕西北路1388号一楼 Phone +852 2824 8521 Phone +86 21 6149 8264 Fax +852 2107 3699 Fax +86 21 6149 8001 Contact Person: Hangzhou: Jakarta: Summer Shi Suite 810, Guangyin Plaza, 42 East Fengqi Rd., Menara BCA 50th Floor, Jl. MH. Thamrin No. 1 Phone +86 571 8763 1203 Hangzhou 310010 P.R. CHINA Jakarta 10310, INDONESIA Fax +86 571 8763 1210 中国浙江省杭州市凤起东路42号广茵大厦810 Phone + 62 21 2358 4616 Email: s.shi@tjitra.com Fax + 62 21 2358 4401 Phone + 86 571 8763 1203 Fax + 86 571 8763 1210 27

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