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  • Finnland2008

    1. 1. Evidence-based distance learning? Ásrún Matthíasdóttir [email_address] Reykjavik University
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>Development of distance education in Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Future outlook </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    3. 3. Ásrún Matthíasdóttir <ul><li>BS in computer science </li></ul><ul><li>Diploma in School Counselling </li></ul><ul><li>MA in open and distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Working on PhD thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Lector ( Assistant Professor) at Reykjavik University (RU) since 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In School of Health and Education and in School of Computer Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrating distance education programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher in upper secondary schools for a long time </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    4. 4. Iceland is 103.000 sq. km and has 319.355 inhabitants Akureyri 20.000 people Reykjavík Capital 200.000 people
    5. 5. Iceland: Educational System
    6. 6. The situation in Iceland <ul><li>The number of distance students has grown enormously over the last decade at the university level and the upper secondary level (students from 16-20) </li></ul><ul><li>More and more secondary school students (14, 15 years) are taking distance courses at the secondary level </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    7. 7. 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir Nine fold 2.730 students Double 14.719 students
    8. 8. 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir 18 fold 4.141 students 1.26 fold 20.815 students
    9. 9. Examples of distance programs at RU <ul><li>Diploma program at the university level for students with vocational degree, 90 ECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carpenters, electricians and machinists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMS used for distribution and communication online </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers record lectures and other material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>record everything that is on the screen and what they say </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students submit their projects electronically and receive electronic responses from teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion forum for questions and comments </li></ul><ul><li>Campus-based teaching two weekends (3 days) twice each semester </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    10. 10. Examples of distance programs at RU <ul><li>This is a very popular program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>160 applications this year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students are happy to be able to study without changing their life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happy to control their own time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not generally miss the teachers but they miss other students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers were insecure at the beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After they got used to the technology they were quite happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They miss the students </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    11. 11. Examples of distance programs at the upper secondary level <ul><li>Most upper secondary schools are offering distance courses </li></ul><ul><li>Usually teachers and students do not meet at all in the distance programs </li></ul><ul><li>Learning management systems used for distribution and communication </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    12. 12. Examples of distance programs at the upper secondary level <ul><li>Each teacher sends material, projects and exercises to students once a week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly Word and PDF files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online communication, e.g. E-mail, MSN, Skype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good support for students to have to work on something at least once a week in each course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More support -> less dropout </li></ul></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    13. 13. Upper secondary level <ul><li>There have mainly been 3 groups of distance students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students that have no other alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small schools in rural areas can not offer many courses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many schools can not offer the same course every semester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students that have failed the course before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are drop-outs that are trying to finish school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some taking a whole study program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are taking 1-2 courses </li></ul></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    14. 14. Upper secondary level <ul><li>New group of distance students </li></ul><ul><li>It is a trend now that students in their last year at compulsory education start taking one or two courses in upper secondary schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance education is often the only alternative they have </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    15. 15. Upper secondary level <ul><li>New forms of education have been developing </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of blended and distributed learning programs are running </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix together campus based methods and online methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each school offers its own version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One school was designed from the beginning based on this ideology </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    16. 16. Example from the public service <ul><li>Life Long Learning Centre for the Public Sector provides programs for different groups of employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a school, uses programs and courses that are already running or ask for new programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use video conferences and project work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teachers may be situated outside Reykjavik area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too much technology seems to scare away older people (over 35) </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    17. 17. Private sector <ul><li>Lack of facts and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Very little research done in adult distance education in the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>They have started distance education but many employees are not ready to be distance students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees are not used to independent study </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    18. 18. Examples from the private sector <ul><li>Kaupthing Bank (largest commercial bank) </li></ul><ul><li>Distance teaching facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferences, recorded lectures, learning management programs… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational division that offers distance programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. English for banking and finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other banks (Sparisjóðir) also offer distance learning programs </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    19. 19. Examples from the private sector <ul><li>Actavis (5th largest generic pharmaceutical company in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Offers employees distance courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. E-mail writing course (4 weeks) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well equipped with new technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferences for meetings </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    20. 20. Examples from the private sector <ul><li>The Open University Division of RU </li></ul><ul><li>Offers distance courses for everyone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Business writing English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing blended learning courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix together campus based and distance teaching </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    21. 21. Characteristic of good e-learning course <ul><li>Good support </li></ul><ul><li>Active teachers/tutors </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    22. 22. Who will be our future students? <ul><li>I see roughly two groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Net Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My generation +/- 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the difference? </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    23. 23. The Net Generation <ul><li>People born after 1980 have grown up in an environment of computer technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Digital Generation, Millennial, Generation Y, The Multitasking Generation... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experienced in using online systems such as Blogs, Skypes, MySpace, Facebook, Wikis…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New possibilities turning up every week or day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They have positive attitudes to the use of technology in learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and communication (ICT) is a part of their life </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    24. 24. <ul><li>The Net Generation is a challenge to the way we provide teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>We need to be aware of their skills and experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must make use of these skills and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are a challenge for (many) teachers </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    25. 25. My generation +/- 10 years <ul><li>We have spent most of our “adult” life chasing and adjusting to technology and new opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are eager some are not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have often thought we have seen it all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But been totally wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For how long are we ready to adopt to new technology? </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    26. 26. <ul><li>Different knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Different attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Different views </li></ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir Found at
    27. 27. How do we teach these two groups together? <ul><li>Learning is a lifelong goal for both young and old </li></ul><ul><li>We must offer the Net Generation all the new opportunities that technology offers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not so young any more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However: do not overdo it for the older part </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>The focus has been on technology </li></ul><ul><li>Some teachers are always looking for better tools and are eager to try out new methods </li></ul><ul><li>Some never find technology that suites them, always want to do things little bit differently </li></ul><ul><li>Some are resistant to technology in education </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir Teachers - technology
    29. 29. <ul><li>But the fact is that most teachers, even the distance teachers, are only using a small proportion of what is available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can do a good job with only part of what is there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But they do also need to look around for new possibilities and new methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many don’t recognize the possibilities at hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance teachers must be open for the opportunities that are already there and look for new </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must offer teachers and tutors good opportunities to update </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    30. 30. We still have this 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    31. 31. 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir From This is our target group
    32. 32. <ul><li>Can we guess how technology will develop? </li></ul><ul><li>.....and what methods we should use to ensure good quality and best practice in education with technology on our side? </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir
    33. 33. The Silent Boom Percentage of Ownership 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1 110 120 Electricity (1873) Telephone (1876) Automobile (1886) Reference: Forbes Television (1926) Radio (1905) VCR (1952) Microwave (1953) Cell Phone (1983) PC (1975) Internet (1975)
    34. 34. Development of bandwidth 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir E-mail Internet Music Video (low quality) Voice
    35. 35. Development of bandwidth 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir VoIP VOD All material Internet, TV, phone...
    36. 36. <ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>MSN/Skype </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Online workspaces </li></ul><ul><li>Social network </li></ul><ul><li>File sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Serious games </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul><ul><li>Pool resources </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Publish </li></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Reassess </li></ul><ul><li>Chase </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir <ul><li>Explore </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Track </li></ul><ul><li>Meet </li></ul><ul><li>Converse </li></ul><ul><li>Follow </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Build </li></ul><ul><li>Observe </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Find </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>What is there to use and do?
    37. 37. 06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir Image provided by Stabilo Boss . Some of the Web 2.0 sites
    38. 38. What should we choose? <ul><li>Education desiners /developers have to take notice of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The aim of the courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>..... </li></ul></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir We “know” them We can deside this We can adjust to this Who are they??
    39. 39. Challenge for educators <ul><li>How are we to prepare for our future students? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we motivate them to take active part in lifelong learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we use all these tools to encourage critical thinking and creatively? </li></ul><ul><li>????? </li></ul>06/05/09 Ásrún Matthíasdóttir