X ray films

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X-Ray Films

Dr. Sad Al-Bayatti

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  • Oral Radiology I February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
  • X ray films

    1. 1. X-ray Films Dr Saad Al Bayatti B.D.S., M.Sc. Oral Radiology February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    2. 2. X-ray Films <ul><li>The media on which the radiographic images of objects are recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Images are stored as an unseen (latent) image that will be changed to a seen image by processing the film </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    3. 3. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    4. 4. Intra oral x-ray films (non-screen films) Types / Sizes February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    5. 5. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    6. 6. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    7. 7. Intra Oral x- ray Film Composition Film Base <ul><li>Film base; clear transparent sheet of cellulose acetate with a bluish tint. </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive; connects the emulsion to the base. </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsion; on both sides of the base where silver bromide(AgBr) crystals are distributed in an the gelatin emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Protective layer; protects the emulsion from mechanical damage </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    8. 8. Intra oral x- ray film composition Film base February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Protective gelatin layer Adhesive Emulsion ( silver halide) Film base Cross sectional structure of double emulsion film
    9. 9. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    10. 10. Intra oral x- ray film composition Film Packet <ul><li>Outer plastic wrapper; protects the film from light, saliva and mechanical damage, has two sides: </li></ul><ul><li>*Front; faces the x-ray tube, single color (white) </li></ul><ul><li>*Back; opposite side to x-ray tube, two colors (white and green). It has an opening tab to open the film during processibg </li></ul><ul><li>Black paper wrapper; protects the film base from light, saliva and damage during opening </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    11. 11. <ul><li>Lead foil; thin sheet of lead present at the back of the film, has certain shapes on its surface, it: </li></ul><ul><li>*prevents x –rays from going to deeper tissues after passing through the film </li></ul><ul><li>*prevents scattered radiation from deeper tissues to come back to the film </li></ul><ul><li>Raised dot; an elevation embossed on each component of the film,has two surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Convex; indicates front of the film (facing x-ray) </li></ul><ul><li>Concave; indicates back of film (facing lead foil) </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    12. 12. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    13. 13. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    14. 14. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    15. 15. Intra oral x- ray film composition Film Packet February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Outer plastic cover Front Back Film Lead foil Protective black paper
    16. 16. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Front Back Film base Lead foil Black paper cover Dot Back Front Outer plastic cover Intra oral x- ray film composition Film Packet
    17. 17. Intra oral x- ray film composition Film Packet February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Front Back
    18. 18. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Deep Tissues Behind film Incident x-rays Object (Tooth ) Film packet without a lead foil Scattered x-rays Back-scatter
    19. 19. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Deep Tissues Behind film Film packet with a lead foil No x-rays behind the film Incident x-rays Object (Tooth )
    20. 20. Latent image formation February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Radiolucent object Thick Radiolucent object Radioopaque object Incident x-ray photons Incident x-ray photons Incident x-ray photons Emerging x-ray photons Emerging x-ray photons Emerging x-ray photons Max.Ag ppt Less Ag ppt No Ag ppt Latent image in the x-ray film Metals Enamel Dentin Cementum Bone Muscle Fat Air
    21. 21. Latent image formation February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti <ul><li>AgBr </li></ul>Ag + Br <ul><li>AgBr </li></ul>Ag + Br Ag + Ag = latent image ppt in emulsion precipitate gas precipitate gas Molecule split by ionization Molecule split by ionization X –ray photon
    22. 22. Latent image formation February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Br gas Br gas X- ray photons Ag ppt
    23. 23. Processing of the x-ray films <ul><li>The sequence of events by which the unseen latent image is changed to a seen image. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of processing are; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing : alkaline solution, it acts on the Ag atoms initially separated by the x-ray photons and are further precipitated and increased in size by Oxidization </li></ul><ul><li>Washing : Water removes the alkaline developer and prevents the contamination of the acidic fixer. </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    24. 24. Processing of the x-ray films, cont’d <ul><li>Fixing : acidic solution, it acts on the AgBr crystals not affected by the x-ray photons, all crystals are removed from the gelatin emulsion into the fixer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Washing : water removes fixer solution from the film to prevent oxidization of the remaining fixer and future contamination of the final radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>Drying : air drying to remove water from the processed radiograph </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    25. 25. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Ag ppt Ag ppt Ag ppt Exposed film Developing Continuation of exposed silver precipitation (oxidation) Washing Fixation Washing & drying Removal of unexposed AgBr Final radiograph Steps of processing
    26. 26. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    27. 27. Processing of the x-ray films February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    28. 28. Processing of the x-ray films February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    29. 29. Dark Room <ul><li>Light tight room to allow opining the x- ray films safely without exposure to light </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied with a safe light (red or orange > 600 nm wavelength) to permit unwrapping the films in otherwise total darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Should be covered with acid resistant, washable benches </li></ul><ul><li>Well ventilated, convenient,and clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied with disinfectants to disinfect films and other materials </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    30. 30. Manual Film Processing <ul><li>Unwrap the exposed film (in the dark room) </li></ul><ul><li>Clip to a hanger </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse the film in the developer for 4.5 min at 20 C. Agitate </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse film in the fixer for 8 minutes at 20 C </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Change exhausted solutions !! </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti o o
    31. 31. Automatic Film Processing <ul><li>Unwrap the exposed film (in the dark room) or in a day light loader </li></ul><ul><li>Insert the film in the loading slot </li></ul><ul><li>Receive the film dry from the film exit slot </li></ul><ul><li>Change exhausted solutions !! </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    32. 32. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    33. 33. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    34. 34. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti GBX-2 safe light 15 watt bulb
    35. 35. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    36. 36. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    37. 37. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    38. 38. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    39. 39. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    40. 40. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    41. 41. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Automatic processor
    42. 42. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    43. 43. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    44. 44. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    45. 45. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    46. 46. Dark Room <ul><li>Light tight room to allow opining the x- ray films safely without exposure to light </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied with a safe light (red or orange) to permit unwrapping the films in otherwise total darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Should be covered with acid resistant, washable benches </li></ul><ul><li>Well ventilated, convenient,and clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied with disinfectants to disinfect films and other materials </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    47. 47. Manual Film Processing <ul><li>Unwrap the exposed film (in the dark room) </li></ul><ul><li>Clip to a hanger </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse the film in the developer for 4.5 min at 20 C. Agitate </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse film in the fixer for 8 minutes at 20 C </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti o o
    48. 48. Automatic Film Processing <ul><li>Unwrap the exposed film (in the dark room) or in a day light loader </li></ul><ul><li>Insert the film in the loading slot </li></ul><ul><li>Receive the film dry from the film exit slot </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    49. 49. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Develop Wash Fix Wash Dry Safe light Processing solutions
    50. 50. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    51. 51. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    52. 52. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    53. 53. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    54. 54. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    55. 55. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    56. 56. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    57. 57. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    58. 58. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    59. 59. Checking the light leaks in the dark room ( light tightness) <ul><li>Turn all lights off </li></ul><ul><li>Close door(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for 10 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Check light leaks by eye (door hinges, ceilings and other possible light leaks) </li></ul><ul><li>Correct </li></ul><ul><li>Check again </li></ul><ul><li>Perform coin test </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    60. 60. Checking the safe light <ul><li>Check light tightness in the dark room </li></ul><ul><li>If OK then, </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the safe light ON </li></ul><ul><li>Open an unexposed film under the light </li></ul><ul><li>Put a metal coin on the film </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Process the film </li></ul><ul><li>Clear film, light OK </li></ul><ul><li>Dark film with clear image of the coin, </li></ul><ul><li>improper safe light/light leak </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    61. 61. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Safe light Film Coin Light tight dark room Proper safe light Light leaks in dark room Improper safe light Dark room
    62. 62. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    63. 63. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    64. 64. Radiographic Image Quality February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    65. 65. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    66. 66. Density <ul><li>The degree of blackness of the processed radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>It is measured by the density meter which gives a Log scale of the transmitted light through the radiograph. </li></ul><ul><li>Density can either be ; </li></ul><ul><li>High (dark radiograph) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Low (light radiograph) </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    67. 67. Contrast <ul><li>Is the differences between black, grey and white shadow in the radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast can either be; </li></ul><ul><li>low when the difference between the shades is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>High when the difference between the shades is sharp </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    68. 68. Sharpness <ul><li>The ability of the radiograph to produce sharp outlines of the borders of the object </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    69. 69. Factors that affect the radiographic image quality <ul><li>Object factors ; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp </li></ul><ul><li>* mA </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance </li></ul><ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil </li></ul><ul><li>* storage </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>* time </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    70. 70. Density increases when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ decreases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    71. 71. Density increases when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    72. 72. Contrast increases(HIGH) when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ decrease </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    73. 73. Contrast increases(HIGH) when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ decreases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    74. 74. Sharpness increases when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* patient stability ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* x-ray head stability </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    75. 75. Sharpness increases when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film movement ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ NIL </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    76. 76. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    77. 77. Radiographic Artifacts ( Errors) February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    78. 78. Radiographic Artifacts ( Errors) Films <ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Storing film at high Temp./Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Storing film in a radiation area </li></ul><ul><li>Films without lead foil </li></ul><ul><li>Light leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Improper safe light </li></ul><ul><li>Severe bending of the film </li></ul><ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Fog: an increase in radiographic density that result from deposition of silver ion from reasons not caused by the primary beam </li></ul><ul><li>Black line on radiograph </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    79. 79. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    80. 80. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Radiographs of an aluminum step wedge taken at different kVp
    81. 81. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    82. 82. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    83. 83. Errors in Image Quality Density <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>High density (dark film) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Film opened in light </li></ul><ul><li>Fog </li></ul><ul><li>High speed film </li></ul><ul><li>High kV </li></ul><ul><li>High mA </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect safe light </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    84. 84. Errors in Image Quality Density <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>High density (dark film) </li></ul><ul><li>High exposure time </li></ul><ul><li>High developing Temp </li></ul><ul><li>High developing Time </li></ul><ul><li>High developer Conc. </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    85. 85. Errors in Image Quality Density <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low density (light film) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite side of film(zigzag/tire tracks) </li></ul><ul><li>Low speed film </li></ul><ul><li>Low kV </li></ul><ul><li>Low mA </li></ul><ul><li>Low exposure time </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    86. 86. Errors in Image Quality Density <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low density (light film) </li></ul><ul><li>Old developer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Low developer Temp </li></ul><ul><li>Low developing Time </li></ul><ul><li>Low developer Conc. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete fixation </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    87. 87. Errors in Image Quality Density <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>No image (clear film) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>No exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Old developer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Film fixed directly </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    88. 88. Errors in Image Quality Sharpness <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Image unsharpness </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Curved film </li></ul><ul><li>Film moved </li></ul><ul><li>Patient moved </li></ul><ul><li>Tube moved </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    89. 89. Errors in Image Quality <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Double image </li></ul><ul><li>Images of Foreign objects </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Film exposed twice </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to remove; </li></ul><ul><li>* Eye glasses </li></ul><ul><li>* Partial dentures </li></ul><ul><li>* Ear/nose rings </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    90. 90. Errors in Image Quality Exposure Techniques <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated image </li></ul><ul><li>Shortened image </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Cone directed perpendicular to object </li></ul><ul><li>Bent film </li></ul><ul><li>Cone directed perpendicular to film </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    91. 91. Errors in Image Quality Exposure Techniques <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Cone not parallel to buccal surfaces of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>(incorrect horizontal angulation) </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    92. 92. Errors in Image Quality Exposure Techniques <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth incompletely seen(apex cut off) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Free margin of film extending more that 2 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Bent film </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated image </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    93. 93. Errors in Image <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Part of film exposed </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete coverage of beam to film(cone cutting) </li></ul><ul><li>Film partially immersed in developer </li></ul><ul><li>Part of film immersed in fixer prior to developer </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    94. 94. Errors in dark room <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Tree like black lines </li></ul><ul><li>Clear spots on radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>Brown spots </li></ul><ul><li>Two film stuck </li></ul><ul><li>Finger prints </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Static electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Fixer drops </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to wash film </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty rollers </li></ul><ul><li>Film held from center </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    95. 95. Errors in dark room <ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Cracked emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Scratches </li></ul><ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in solution temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Wet film </li></ul><ul><li>Cut your finger nails! </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    96. 96. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    97. 97. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    98. 98. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    99. 99. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    100. 100. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    101. 101. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    102. 102. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    103. 103. Processing of the x-ray films <ul><li>The sequence of events by which the (unseen) latent image is changed to a seen image. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps of processing are; </li></ul><ul><li>Developing : alkaline solution, it acts on the Ag atoms initially separated by the x-ray photons and are further precipitated and increased in size by Oxidization </li></ul><ul><li>The developing solution is composed of; </li></ul><ul><li>1- Developer:Phenidone, hydroquinine </li></ul><ul><li>2- Activator: sodium (potassium) hydrozide. Buffers are added, e.g. sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium metaborate or tetraborate </li></ul><ul><li>3- (Preservative (antioxidant): sodium sulfite </li></ul><ul><li>4- Restrainer: potassium or sodium bromide </li></ul><ul><li>5- Developer replenisher </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    104. 104. Processing of the x-ray films <ul><li>Washing : Water removes the alkaline developer and prevents the contamination of the acidic fixer. </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    105. 105. Processing of the x-ray films, cont’d <ul><li>Fixing : acidic solution, it dissolves and removes unexposed AgBr crystals not affected by the x-ray photons, all crystals are removed from the gelatin emulsion into the fixer solution </li></ul><ul><li>The fixing solution is composed of; </li></ul><ul><li>1- Clearing agent: ammonium thiosulfate (hypo) </li></ul><ul><li>2- Acidifier: acetic acid </li></ul><ul><li>3- Preservative: sodium or ammonium sulfite </li></ul><ul><li>4- Hardener: ammonium salts </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    106. 106. <ul><li>Washing : water removes fixer solution from the film to prevent oxidization of the remaining fixer and future contamination of the final radiograph due to silver thiosulfate reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Drying : air drying to remove water from the processed radiograph </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    107. 107. Waste disposal <ul><li>Dissolved silver </li></ul><ul><li>Electroplating </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Lead foil </li></ul><ul><li>Collected to be disposed separately </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    108. 108. Radiographic Image Quality February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    109. 109. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    110. 110. Density <ul><li>The degree of blackness of the processed radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>It is measured by the density meter which gives a Log scale of the transmitted light through the radiograph. </li></ul><ul><li>Density can either be ; </li></ul><ul><li>High (dark radiograph) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><li>Low (light radiograph) </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    111. 111. Contrast <ul><li>Is the differences between black, grey and white shadow in the radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast can either be; </li></ul><ul><li>low when the difference between the shades is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>High when the difference between the shades is sharp </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    112. 112. Sharpness <ul><li>The ability of the radiograph to produce sharp outlines of the borders of the object </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    113. 113. Resolution <ul><li>The ability of the radiograph to record separate structures that are close together, e.g. enamel and dentin </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    114. 114. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    115. 115. Factors that affect the radiographic image quality <ul><li>Object factors ; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp </li></ul><ul><li>* mA </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance </li></ul><ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil </li></ul><ul><li>* storage </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>* time </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    116. 116. Density increases when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ decreases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    117. 117. Density increases when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    118. 118. Contrast increases(HIGH) when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ increases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ decrease </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    119. 119. Contrast increases(HIGH) when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ decreases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    120. 120. Sharpness increases when <ul><li>Object factors; </li></ul><ul><li>* patient stability ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* object density (w/v) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* object thickness ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure factors </li></ul><ul><li>* x-ray head stability </li></ul><ul><li>* kVp ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* mA ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* exposure time ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* tube-film distance ------------ increases </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    121. 121. Sharpness increases when <ul><li>Film factors </li></ul><ul><li>* film movement ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* film speed ------------ decreases </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (Opposite side) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* lead foil (If not used) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>*storage (at high Temp.) ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>Processing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>* temperature ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* concentration ------------ NIL </li></ul><ul><li>* time ------------ NIL </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    122. 122. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    123. 123. Radiographic Artifacts ( Errors) February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    124. 124. Radiographic Artifacts ( Errors) Films <ul><li>Cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Storing film at high Temp./Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Storing film in a radiation area </li></ul><ul><li>Films without lead foil </li></ul><ul><li>Severe bending of the film </li></ul><ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Fog </li></ul><ul><li>Black line on radiograph </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    125. 125. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    126. 126. Light radiograph (low density) <ul><li>Processing errors </li></ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Short time </li></ul><ul><li>Thermometer incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted (exhausted) developer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Diluted developer </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated developer </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Under exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient mA </li></ul><ul><li>Low kVp </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient time </li></ul><ul><li>Tube-film distance long </li></ul><ul><li>Film reversed </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    127. 127. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Light film (low density) Film placed on reverse side
    128. 128. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Film fog Dark film Low contrast
    129. 129. Dark Radiographs Processing errors <ul><li>Overdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>high temp </li></ul><ul><li>Increased developing time </li></ul><ul><li>Developer concentration high </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental exposure to light </li></ul><ul><li>Improper safe lighting </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    130. 130. Dark Radiographs Over exposure <ul><li>High mA </li></ul><ul><li>High kVp </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive exposure time </li></ul><ul><li>Tube-film distance short </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    131. 131. Insufficient contrast <ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Underexposure </li></ul><ul><li>High kVp </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive Film fog </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    132. 132. Film fog <ul><li>Improper safe lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Improper filter </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bulb wattage </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate distance between safe light and working bench </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged exposure to safe light </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    133. 133. Film fog cont’d <ul><li>Light leaks </li></ul><ul><li>Cracked safe light </li></ul><ul><li>Light from doors </li></ul><ul><li>Light from vents </li></ul><ul><li>Overdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated film </li></ul><ul><li>Films stored at high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Films stored at high humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Films stored in a radiation area </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    134. 134. Dark spots or lines <ul><li>Fingerprint contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Back wrapping paper sticking to film surface </li></ul><ul><li>Film contact with tank or wit another film during processing </li></ul><ul><li>Film contaminated with developer before processing </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bending of the film </li></ul><ul><li>Static discharge to film before processing </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive roller pressure during automatic processing </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty rollers in automatic processor </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    135. 135. Light spots <ul><li>Film contaminated with fixer before processing </li></ul><ul><li>Film in contact with tank or another film during development </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bending of film </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    136. 136. Yellow or brown stains <ul><li>Depleted developer </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted fixer </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient washing </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated solutions </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    137. 137. Blurring <ul><li>Movement of patient </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of X-ray tube head </li></ul><ul><li>Double exposure </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    138. 138. Partial images <ul><li>Top of film not immersed in developing solution </li></ul><ul><li>Misalignment of X-ray tube head (cone cut) </li></ul>February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti
    139. 139. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Stuck films Blurred image
    140. 140. February 14, 2012 Dr Saad Wahby Al Bayatti Fixer drops Cone cutting

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