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The Institute of Town Planners, India, owes its origin to a small group of Town Planners of Delhi, who in 1947 decided to set up a professional Town Planning Institute on the lines similar to the Royal Town Planning Institute, London. The number of planners, which then did not exceed six, was too small for a registered society to be set up and therefore, the small group formed itself into an Indian Board of Town Planners and started working towards establishing a professional Institute.

The Institute of Town Planners, India, owes its origin to a small group of Town Planners of Delhi, who in 1947 decided to set up a professional Town Planning Institute on the lines similar to the Royal Town Planning Institute, London. The number of planners, which then did not exceed six, was too small for a registered society to be set up and therefore, the small group formed itself into an Indian Board of Town Planners and started working towards establishing a professional Institute.

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Professional practice notes-jamia millia islamia - 5th year

  1. 1. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ARCASIA FORUM One of the key features of ARCASIA is the ARCASIA Forum which is a platform for the on- going discussion of current architectural ideas pertinent to the region. This is a gathering of prominent architects and thinkers intended to serve as an Asian 'catapult of minds' on matters concerning architectural and environment in the Asian context. FIIA Foreign Investment Implementation Authority India Government of India has set up the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) to facilitate quick translation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) approvals into implementation, to provide a pro-active one stop after care service to foreign investors by helping them obtain necessary approvals, sort out operational problems and meet with various Government agencies to find solution to their problems. Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) has been set up by the government of India in order to encourage the implementation of the proposals for FDI in the country. By doing this, Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) has given a major boost to the Indian economy. Various objectives of Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) are -  To encourage fast translation of the approval of foreign direct investment and also its implementation.  To offer the foreign investors proactive services such as, getting them the approvals that are necessary.  To solve their problems by meeting the various agencies of the government, and also to solve the various operational problems.
  2. 2. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES AITP The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) is a professional association that focuses on information technology education for business professionals. AIIA An Associate of the Indian Institute of Architects CAA Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) Commonwealth Association of Architects, formed in 1965, is an organisation for national and regional institutes representing architects in Commonwealth countries. As such, under the Commonwealth family, the association validates courses in architecture and convenes international boards to educational institutions to assess course components against set criteria. Its current membership list is 34 nations. Under the umbrella of the Commonwealth CAA subscribes to its core values, and in particular, developmental support to the smaller and younger members.
  3. 3. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES UIA The International Union of Architects is an international non-governmental organization that represents over a million architects in 124 countries. The UIA was founded in Switzerland, in 1948 to unite the architects of all countries in a federation of their national organizations. The General Secretariat is located in Paris. It is recognized by most United Nations agencies as the only association in its field, including UNESCO, UNCHS, UNIDO, and the WHO, as well as the WTO. The current (2014 - 2017) president is Esa Mohamed from Malaysia. The mission of UIA is to represent all architectural organizations and individual architects of different countries, with parallel non-government organizations of other disciplines, and with intergovernmental institutions. The organization also manages international competitions for some of the most important spaces of our age, as well as attempts to improve human habitats through architecture and technology. The UIA managed international competitions resulting in the construction of: 1. Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris 2. Indira Gandhi Centre, New Delhi 3. Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris 4. National Museum of Seoul 5. Prado National Museum, Madrid (rehabilitation and extension) 6. Opera House, Sydney
  4. 4. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES ITPI- Institute of Town Planners, India The Institute of Town Planners, India, owes its origin to a small group of Town Planners of Delhi, who in 1947 decided to set up a professional Town Planning Institute on the lines similar to the Royal Town Planning Institute, London. The number of planners, which then did not exceed six, was too small for a registered society to be set up and therefore, the small group formed itself into an Indian Board of Town Planners and started working towards establishing a professional Institute. After three years of continuous work, the members of the Indian Board of Town Planners, who then numbered about fifteen, evaluated the possibility of forming the Institute of Town Planners, India and later on finalized the Memorandum, Articles of Association and Bye-laws of the Institute. OBJECTIVES 1. To advance the study of town planning, civic design and kindred subjects and of the sciences and arts as applied to those subjects 2. To promote planned, economic, scientific and artistic development of towns, cities and rural areas. 3. To promote the general interests of those engaged in the practice in town and country planning.
  5. 5. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES ABOUT THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS –IIA Explain the role of Indian institute of architects in promotion of architecture in India. Enlist the type of membership offered by the IIA. The Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) is the national body of Architects in the country. Having started in the year 1917, the institute today has more than 15000 members. ROLE OF IIA 1. The Institute has a major role to play in promoting the profession of architecture by organising and uniting in fellowship the Architects of India to promote aesthetic, scientific and practical efficiency of the profession both in Practice and in Education. 2. It encourages the science and the art of planning and building the standards of architectural education, training and practice, by making grants to Technical Institutions, or by paying or assisting to pay the fees and expenses of students or by providing and giving scholarships, prizes or other rewards to such students, or by any or all such methods. 3. It looks into all the factors affecting the practice of architecture & holds conferences or meetings for the discussion of, and the exchange of goods and matters affecting or relating to architecture. 4. It formulates and notifies the law and practice relating to architecture to members and the public ,and to compile, collect, collate, revise, print and publish statistics, professional records or periodicals relating to any of the objects of the Institute; 5. IIA is represented on various national and international committees connected with architecture, art and the building industry and is also actively associated with
  6. 6. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES International Union of Architects (UIA) Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) and South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation of Architects (SAARCH). HEAD OFFICE- MUMBAI THOSE WORKING UNDER IIA IIA has six classes of memberships:- a) HONORARY FELLOWS - any individual who is not necessarily a qualified architect but has contributed to the growth of architectural profession b) ASSOCIATES - any person who has attained the age of 21 and graduated from one of the institutions registered with council of architecture c) LICENTIATES - any person who is registered with COA is eligible to apply for licentiate member. d) STUDENTS - a student enrolled in any one of the architectural institutions – can on application, become a student member. e) RETIRED MEMBERS - any fellow, associate or licentiate after attaining the age of 55 and on completely retiring from service or profession can apply for this post. f) SUBSCRIBERS - a subscriber shall be either a person who was a member of the Bombay architectural association at the time of adoption of the original constitution of the institute, now amended or a person who in the opinion of the council is likely to render assistance in promoting the objects of the institute.
  7. 7. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES IIA IS A SOCIETY WHERE AS COA IS A STATUARY BODY. IIA- IIA consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology. In so far as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. COA- It is a non-constitutional body. This body is created by statute i.e. act of parliament. A cabinet resolution can be passed to establish this body. It has to rely upon its statute to derive power. Ex: Planning commission, National commission for OBCs, SEBI etc.
  8. 8. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES TITLE OF ARCHITECT IS PROTECTED UNDER ARCHITECTS ACT 1972 –COA HOW DID COA CAME INTO EXISTENCE? AND WHAT ROLE DOES IT PLAYS? The Council of Architecture (COA) has been constituted by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1st September, 1972. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. For this purpose, the Government of India has framed Rules and Council of Architecture has framed Regulations as provided for in the Architects Act, with the approval of Government of India.
  9. 9. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES CODES OF CONDUCT FOR INDIAN ARCHITECTS- COA A code of conduct is a set of rules that outlines the duties and responsibilities of a particular person, groups or organization. All professions are bound by these codes, including architecture which is a process of designing, planning and construction of buildings and other structures. In India, just like other countries, architects do have codes of conduct. Indian architects are required to register with a government body called the council of architecture so that one can be able to carry out the professional practice. It is illegal to conduct any architectural activities without getting registered by this body. When they register with this body each architect gets a unique registration number. They also have to follow the Indians architects act 1972, which states the following. •All architects are to be bound by this act and are to follow it. •The council of architecture shall be the body responsible for all architects. Through this body contracts can be made. One can sue or be sued. •The head office shall be in Delhi unless stated otherwise by the central government, which will be put in the gazette. •Specifies the number of members who are to be on the council and there mode of election. •It talks about the registration of architects. That with them they should have their birth certificate, national identification card, relevant school documents and a degree from a known institution. •Punishments to those who give false representation are also stated.
  10. 10. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES The Indian government also did establish a code of conduct in the Indian constitution. It is under the professional code of conduct 1989. It states that: 1. Every architect who's either employed or practicing is subject to the provisions of the central civil services. 2. An architect should make sure that his professional activities do not conflict with his responsibilities and what he is entitled to do, his responsibility to the society and environment. 3. He or she should apply and use his skills’ responsibly for the economic development of India. 4. The architect shall provide professional services of high quality and to the best of his ability. 5. Should always inform the client on the conditions of engagement and the terms of agreement especially if one is on private practice. These are to form the basis of an appointment. 6. One should not sub commission work to another or other architects without an agreement with his client. 7. He should not give or take discounts, gifts, commissions or any form of inducement for introduction of a client or work. 8. He should act with impartiality and fairness when administering a contract. 9. The architect should maintain very high standards of integrity. 10. Should promote the advancement of architecture, research, training, architectural education and also training. 11. He should respect and recognize professional responsibilities of consultants.
  11. 11. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF REGISTRATION OF ARCHITECTS IN INDIA Any person desirous of practising as an ‘Architect’ in India is required to be registered in the Register, with the Council of Architecture (CoA). He shall be entitled on payment of the prescribed fees to have his name entered in the register. For the purpose of registration, one must possess the requisite qualification as appended to the Architects Act, after having undergone the education in accordance with the Council of Architecture Regulations, 1983. The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. 1) Application Form A Registration Application form for registration filled in and signed by the candidate, along with a recent colour passport size photograph duly pasted on the form. 2) Birth Certificate 3) 10 + 2 Mark sheet 4) Architectural Qualification Certificate In Original The final recognised architectural qualification certificate on the basis of which registration is sought i.e. 5-year B.Arch. Degree 5) Copies Of Mark sheets – The copies of marksheets (including Practical Training certificate, if any) for all the semesters/years of the recognised architectural education, duly attested by a Gazetted Officer 6) For All Semesters/Years 7) Demand Draft A demand draft for Rs.600/- (non-refundable) drawn in favour of “Council of Architecture”, payable at Delhi/New Delhi towards registration fee. 8) Self-Addressed Envelope 9) Registered Post
  12. 12. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES ARCHITECTURE IS A PROFESSION BECAUSE It can be practised only by those who are fully trained and requires a bonafide degree to practice at it. The practionoers of architecture serve/practice the profession for the betterment of the society. They do not seek to amalgamate money. They receive their just fees in lieu of the service provided, but money making is not the main aim of the architecture. There is a government /central body that propounds a code of conduct. Each practicing architect as to register himself and practice the said code of conduct. Any architect found to be not following the said code, can be punished or even debarred. Therefore there is a dignity to practising architecture and like most other professions, an architect is answerable for his work and conduct-legally to the government and OCA and morally to his own guild and fellow professionals.
  13. 13. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES WHAT ROLE DOES AN ARCHITECT PLAY IN THE SOCIETY? 1. The architect can play several roles and contribute to the society in numerous ways: 2. He can contribute by designing urban spaces and reducing congestion and improving lifestyle 3. He can get involved in slum rehabilitation projects and create better housing projects with required sanitation and improving health and lifestyle 4. He can design energy efficient building and work towards sustainability and optimum usage of energy 5. He can work as faulty and towards academics and research to increase the knowledge base within architecture and train the future generation. 6. He can work in conservations and help to conserve the architectural heritage of a space. 7. He can pay the role of the arbitrator in case of a dispute within the construction industry. In this case his decision would be considered a legal decision. 8. Architect can play the role of an estimator or valuer. 9. Responsible designing and execution of regular lead to a good overall urban morphology and increase the liveability within the building.
  14. 14. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES VARIOUS METHOD OF VALUATION OF PROPERTY The following the methods of valuation being adopted in General practice by a practicing valuer are:  Land and Building Method  Rent Capitalization Method  Development Method  Profit Method  Direct Comparison Method Land Building Method: By this method, the value of the land and the value of Building are assessed separately and added to get the present value of the property. Depreciation is calculated either by straight line method or applying linear method. Rental or Capitalisation Method: Rental method of valuation consists in capitalising the Net Annual Rental Income (NARI) at an appropriate rate of interest or rate of capitalisation. Net annual rent income equals to Gross Annual Rental Income (GARI) minus outgoings like Property Tax, repairs, maintenance, Service Charges, Insurance Premium, Rent Collection and Management Charges etc. Development Method (or Residual Method): This method is used to evaluate such property where there is a development potential, so that the value of the property after development will be increased more than the expenditure incurred. For example, a large portion of land can be divided into small plots and developed fully so as to provide plots of land for a residential Colony or a large complex of multi-storied buildings, housing ownership flats in a Co-operative Housing Society. Profit Method: This method is applicable to Hotels, Cinema Theatres, Marriage Halls and Public Places. This
  15. 15. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES method as the name suggests deals in working the profit from a property and subsequently capitalizing the same at appropriate rate of return depending upon a number of factors. VALUATION In finance, valuation is the process of estimating what something is worth. Items that are usually valued are a financial asset or liability. Valuations can be done on assets (For example, investments in marketable securities such as stocks, options, business enterprises) or on liabilities (e.g., bonds issued by a company) PROFESSIONAL TAX Professional tax is the tax by the state governments in India. Anyone earning an income from salary or anyone practicing a profession such as chartered accountant, company secretary, lawyer, doctor etc. are required to pay this professional tax.
  16. 16. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURE COMEPTITIONS & EXPLAIN OPEN AND LIMITED COMPETITIONS Architecture competitions are organised by various bodies, be it government or private organizations, where in a project is floated by the said organization, where in a notice is floated along with eligibility and prize. All interested partied register for the competitions and send in their entries, in the specified format by a set data. A jury is than organised by the organizations party and the various entries are judged on their merits and demerits and certain entries chosen by the jury are declared winner. The winner is then given the already declared prize which can be the right to execute the project or specified prize money. These competitions are significant because They increase awareness among the profession They give a platform for interactions and discussion They allow the professionals to indulge in healthy competition and push their limits within their subject encourages research and perfection. It allows for experimentation Certain competitions that give projects to be executed, allow for new faces to come up in the field, fresh talent. It is an oblique way towards advertisement as most competitors display their entries and they are often covered in media.
  17. 17. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES OPENCOMPETITION An open competition is an international competition. An open competition can be entered by any one. (International, national or regional) CharacteristicsofanOpenCompetition An open competition occurs in one or two stages:  One-stage: Any architect may submit a design.  Two-stage: Sponsor wishes to narrow the number of invited architects from the original number. LIMITED COMPETITION The purpose of a limited competition is to restrict entry to a specific group of architects. CharacteristicsofaLimitedCompetition  One-stage: Sponsor allows any registered architect who falls within the limits of competition to enter the competition.  Two-stage: Sponsor wishes to narrow the number of registered architects who fall within the limits of the competition.
  18. 18. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES WHAT IS CONTRACT? How it is different from agreement? The contract is an elaborate legal document, which is signed in agreement by both the parties-contractor and contractee; stating all the typical details and covering all the typical details and covering all possible situations and their outcome. The law will consider a contract to be valid if the agreement contains all of the following elements: 1. offer and acceptance; 2. an intention between the parties to create binding relations; 3. consideration to be paid for the promise made; 4. legal capacity of the parties to act; 5. genuine consent of the parties; and 6. Legality of the agreement. In contrast, an agreement is a basic document signed by both the partied stating the work to be done and the basic necessary details. For example, if the agreement states that the conservation work of a project is to be done, the contract would state the typical work involved like waterproofing of the terrace, the material preferably to be used, the timespan within which the work is to be completed, the quality of expected work and so on. Therefore a contract is a more elaborate and fool proof version of an agreement, where each loophole has been contemplated on and each scenario has been looked into predetermined.
  19. 19. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES L1 IN TENDERING The person / entity that has bid the lowest in a tender out of all the pre-qualified bidders is called L1. Typically, the entire or the majority quantity / work is then offered to the L1 bidder. Where other qualifying bidders are also offered part of the quantity / work, they are then required to match the price and conditions offered by the L1 bidder. Who Floats a Tender? A buyer which can be either Government or Large Private Company can float a Tender as and when they need to buy Goods, hire services or construct something. Generally tenders are floated by Government as it is a mandatory requirement for them. A Seller which can be either Government or Large Private Company , can float a tender for selling used machinery, scrap or surplus products. Generally Government floats sell tenders it is a mandatory requirement for them. Why Tenders? Tenders are open invitation to buy or sell goods/services/contracts. Those who are interested in supplying what has been advertised can respond to a Tender & submit their best competitive offer. The best competitive offer (Lowest Bidder or L1)is generally selected & the contract is awarded to L1 Bidder.
  20. 20. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES WHAT IS EARNEST MONEY? HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM TENDER COST AND SECURITY DEPOSIT? Earnest money is the amount required to be paid by all interested parties who submit the tender, as an amount to display their activity to handle the project monetarily. This amount is returned to all the partied except for the one who gets the contract Tender cost is the non-refundable amount payed by all the interested parties who want to fill the tender for the document of the tender. It is often dispersed by the architect. This money is the cost of the form and is not returned. The security deposit is the amount that is given by the contractor once the project is awarded to him. This money stays with the contractee incase the contractor does not fulfil his side of the deal. It can be payable via a D.D
  21. 21. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES UNDER WHAT CONDITIONS CHEQUE CAN BE DISHONOURED? There are various reasons why bank checks are not being accepted from drawers: 1. Insufficient Fund: When the amount written on a check is more than what the drawer has in his account in the bank. 2. Irregular Signature: If the signature the drawer signs on the check differs from the specimen signature in the bank. 3. Non-Existing Account 4. Bankruptcy: If one is judged by a law court to be unable to pay his debts in full, the bank will dishonour any check presented on behalf of that customer. 5. A Stale Check: A check that has been delayed for more than six months of the date written on it. 6. If There Is a Difference Between The Amount Written In Words And That in Figures: If for instance, the drawer writes thirty dollars only in words and $20 in figure.
  22. 22. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES 'SERVICE TAX' Definition: Service tax is a tax levied by the government on service providers on certain service transactions, but is actually borne by the customers. It is categorized under Indirect Tax and came into existence under the Finance Act, 1994 NO SERVICE TAX ON ARCHITECTS INCOME, RULES CDBT The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has clarified that services provided by architects do not fall under the ambit of service tax leviable on engineering consultants. However, in case a consultancy firm providing both consultancy and architectural services against which a lumpsum payment has been received, then service tax will be leviable on the entire amount. INCOME TAX An income tax is a government levy (tax) imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with the income or profits (taxable income) of the taxpayer. Details vary widely by jurisdiction. Many jurisdictions refer to income tax on business entities as companies tax or corporate tax Income tax is the tax that is charged to your income that can be paid with the preparation of tax forms or is withheld from your paycheck. Service tax refers to the tax that is charged for services, like care repair.
  23. 23. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES EARNEST MONEY An earnest payment is a specific form of security deposit made in some major transactions such as real estate dealings to demonstrate that the applicant is serious and willing to demonstrate an earnest of good faith about wanting to complete the transaction. SECURITY DEPOSIT A security deposit is a sum of money held in trust either as an initial part-payment in a purchasing process (often used to prevent the seller selling an item to someone else during an agreed period of time while the buyer verifies the suitability of the item, or arranges finance) - also known as an earnest payment, or else, in the course of a rental agreement to ensure the cost of repair in relation to any damage explicitly specified in the lease and that did in fact occur.
  24. 24. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES 3 CLAUSES OF A TYPICAL CONTRACT FOR EXECUTION OF A CIVIL PROJECT
  25. 25. HAMZAH MERAJ- JAMIA MILLIIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI- 5TH YEAR EXAM NOTES IMPLICATION OF CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT ON ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES Consumer Protection Means Safeguarding The Interest And Rights Of Consumers. It Provide Them Speedy Redressal Of Their Grievances. The Necessity Of Adopting Measures To Protect The Interest Of Consumers Arises Mainly Due To The Helpless Position Of The Consumers. There Is No Denying Fact That The Consumers Have The Basic Right To Be Protected From The Loss Or Injury Caused On Account Of Defective Goods And Deficiency Of Services.

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