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Tutorial 1 - Basics of Digital Photography

In the second session of this 5 session workshop, I am going to explain the photography gear (lens) with special focus on focal length and maximum aperture. Then we will discuss about the introduction of exposure in photography.

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Tutorial 1 - Basics of Digital Photography

  1. 1. basics of Digital photography 22/01/14 Fahad Golra, discussing the fundamental concepts of photography
  2. 2. 27/01/14 basics of introduction digital photography Welcome !!!
  3. 3. 27/01/14 workshop introduction program Photography Gear: The Camera Fundamentals Photography Gear: The Lens Exposure Focus Light Editing Composition Practical Session Practical Session Exposition
  4. 4. 27/01/14 World’s first • France, 1826 • Photograph by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, 1826 • Exposing a bitumen- coated plate in a camera obscura Introduction photograph Image Source: National Geographic
  5. 5. Photography Gear: The Camera
  6. 6. 27/01/14 human gear: the camera vision Image Source: https://humaneyeproject.files.wordpress.com
  7. 7. 27/01/14 image gear: the camera formation Image Source: https://voer.edu.vn Image Source: Jennifer Rexford, Princeton University
  8. 8. 27/01/14 image gear: the camera formation Images Source: Jennifer Rexford, Princeton University Digital Image
  9. 9. 27/01/14 Digital • The most important difference between these cameras is not the Megapixels, it is the Sensor Size gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3”
  10. 10. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3” Bigger Sensor Bigger pixels More pixels !!! Better Imaging Smaller Sensor Smaller camera Less money Better manoeuvrability
  11. 11. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3” 36 x 24mm 24 x 16mm 22 x 15mm 17 x 13mm 13 x 9mm 5 x 4mm 36 % 24 = 1.5 1.0X 1.5X 1.6X 2X 3X 7X 35mm
  12. 12. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3”
  13. 13. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3” 36 x 24mm 24 x 16mm 22 x 15mm 17 x 13mm 13 x 9mm 5 x 4mm 43 mm 28 mm 27 mm 22 mm 16 mm 6 mm
  14. 14. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame APS APS-C Four-thirds CX 1/3” 36 x 24mm 24 x 16mm 22 x 15mm 17 x 13mm 13 x 9mm 5 x 4mm 43 mm 28 mm 27 mm 22 mm 16 mm 6 mm Sensor size x 1 = Normal Lens Sensor size % 2 = Landscape Lens Sensor size x 2 = Portrait Lens Sensor size x 4 = Sports Lens Sensor size x 8 = Wildlife Lens
  15. 15. 27/01/14 Digital gear: the camera sensors Full Frame 43 mm APS 28 mm APS-C 27 mm Four-thirds 22 mm CX 16 mm 1/3” 6 mm Canon Nikon (FX) Sony Leica Panasonic Olympus Canon(DX)Nikon (DX) Pentax Fuji Sony Samsung
  16. 16. 27/01/14 FOCUSing gear: the camera points Nikon D4s (FX) Nikon D7100 (DX) • Cover the image area • Mostly in the centre of Frame • Precision through center
  17. 17. 27/01/14 what is a gear: the camera pixel? Picture Element = Pixel Pixel = Light Sensitive Cell Sensor Pixels Light
  18. 18. 27/01/14 what is a gear: the camera pixel? 6000 pixels 4000 pixels24 Megapixel Sensor What matters is Quantity Size Quality
  19. 19. 27/01/14 PIxel gear: the camera quantity Pixel count increase (4 to 9) = 125% 2 x 2 = 4 3 x 3 = 9 Resolution increase (2 to 3) = 50%
  20. 20. 27/01/14 PIxel gear: the camera size 4.88 µm 1.12 µm 43mm 11mm Nikon D810 Nokia Lumia 1020 36 Megapixles 41 Megapixles
  21. 21. 27/01/14 what to gear: the camera get? Full Frame APS-C CX Nikon D4s 16.1 MP 1,180g 4,100 EUR Nikon D7100 24.1 MP 675g 900 EUR Nikon V3 18.1 MP 324g 700 EUR
  22. 22. 27/01/14 What to get gear: the camera dx or fx? 500 f/4 3,880g 15.4 inches 300 f/4 1,440g 8.8 inches 7,200 euros 1,050 euros 300 x 1.5 = 450 FX DX
  23. 23. Fundamentals of Photography
  24. 24. 27/01/14 its about fundamentals of photography light ! Exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the film/image sensor Photography is based on light
  25. 25. 27/01/14 Exposure fundamentals of photography over or under? • Too much light creates an over bright image • Lot of white spots • Parts of image Over-Exposed • Too little light creates an under bright image • Lot of black spots • Parts of image Under-Exposed
  26. 26. 27/01/14 pinhole fundamentals of photography camera Size of hole and duration of opening determines the amount of allowed light
  27. 27. 27/01/14 controlling • Mainly two things let us control the exposure fundamentals of photography exposure Aperture … … and Shutter Speed
  28. 28. 27/01/14 What is • (Size of) hole or opening where light enters • Aperture is normally measured in f-stop numbers • Higher the f-stop, lower the aperture (and vice versa) fundamentals of photography Aperture?
  29. 29. 27/01/14 Aperture for fundamentals of photography exposure Low f-stop = High aperture = Large hole = More light = Higher Exposure High f-stop = Low aperture = Small hole = Less light = Lower Exposure
  30. 30. 27/01/14 Aperture for fundamentals of photography dof? 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4 Focused Background* Blur Background* Less Light More Light *We will study the Depth of Field (DOF) in the next session
  31. 31. 27/01/14 aperture for Short Title of presentation DOF 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4
  32. 32. 27/01/14 aperture for Short Title of presentation DOF 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4
  33. 33. 27/01/14 aperture for Short Title of presentation DOF 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4
  34. 34. 27/01/14 aperture for Short Title of presentation DOF 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4
  35. 35. 27/01/14 aperture for Short Title of presentation DOF 22 16 11 8 5.6 4.0 2.8 2.0 1.4
  36. 36. 27/01/14 what is • Length of time the camera’s shutter is open • Longer times lead to more light • Shorter times lead to less light fundamentals of photography shutter speed? Image Source: www.shortcourses.com
  37. 37. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography Motion Faster speed = Short Shutter = Less Light Slower speed = Long Shutter = More Light Motion Freeze Motion Blur Image Source: picturethisshuttershooters.files.wordpress.com/
  38. 38. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30” Freeze Motion Motion Blur One stop 1/4 seconds 4 seconds 1 second
  39. 39. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30”
  40. 40. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30” https://www.flickr.com/photos/ilouque/6169402770/
  41. 41. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30”
  42. 42. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30” https://www.flickr.com/photos/tyler_hayward/6810525681/
  43. 43. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30”
  44. 44. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30” Photo: Owais ur Rehman Shah
  45. 45. 27/01/14 shutter speed for fundamentals of photography motion 8000 4000 2000 1000 500 250 125 60 30 15 8 4 2 1” 2” 4” 8” 15” 30” https://www.flickr.com/photos/dstylezs/4425413727/
  46. 46. 27/01/14 What is fundamentals of photography iso? Measure of the sensitivity of digital imaging systems 32 50 100 200 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600 51,200 102,400 Optimal Image Quality High Sensitivity One stop
  47. 47. 27/01/14 what is fundamentals of photography iso?
  48. 48. 27/01/14 ISO for fundamentals of photography low light 32 50 100 200 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600 51,200
  49. 49. 27/01/14 ISO for fundamentals of photography low light 32 50 100 200 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600 51,200
  50. 50. 27/01/14 ISO for fundamentals of photography low light 32 50 100 200 400 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600 51,200
  51. 51. 27/01/14 basics of digital photography Try different apertures, shutter speeds & ISO values till next session
  52. 52. 27/01/14 basics of digital photography Thanks ;)

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In the second session of this 5 session workshop, I am going to explain the photography gear (lens) with special focus on focal length and maximum aperture. Then we will discuss about the introduction of exposure in photography.

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