Technologies and Applications


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Technologies and Applications

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Technologies and Applications

  1. 1. The Technologies and Their Applications Biotechnology
  2. 2. Bioprocessing Technology <ul><li>Single-celled microorganisms, such as yeast and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial fermentation - brew beer, make wine, leaven bread and pickle foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Products such as antibiotics, birth control pills, amino acids, vitamins, industrial solvents, pigments, pesticides and food-processing aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Biobased products including human insulin, the hepatitis B vaccine, the calf enzyme used in cheesemaking, biodegradable plastics, and laundry detergent enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioprocessing technology also encompasses tissue engineering and manufacturing as well as biopharmaceutical formulation and delivery. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Monoclonal Antibodies <ul><li>Diagnostic tools- Specificity to locate substances that occur in minuscule amounts and measure them with great accuracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>locate environmental pollutants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detect harmful microorganisms in food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diagnose infectious diseases in humans, animals and plants more quickly and more accurately than ever before. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. MAbs <ul><li>Therapeutic compounds – MAbs joined to a toxin can selectively deliver chemotherapy to a cancer cell while avoiding healthy cells. </li></ul><ul><li>To treat organ-transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases by targeting them specifically to the type of immune system cell responsible for these attacks, leaving intact the other branches of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOMab EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), the first indigenously developed Mab used in treating cancers of head and neck, colorectal, pancreatic, metastatic breast, lungs and brain. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Culture <ul><li>Plant Cell Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transgenic crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, found in yew trees and marketed under the name Taxol® </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>source of compounds used as flavors, colors and aromas by the food-processing industry. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ICC <ul><li>Insect Cell Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-control agents that kill insect pests without harming beneficial insects or having pesticides accumulate in the environment. e.g NPV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of VLP (virus like particle) vaccines against infectious diseases such as SARS and influenza, which could lower costs and eliminate the safety concerns associated with the traditional egg-based process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A patient specific cancer vaccine that utilizes insect cell culture has reached Phase III clinical trials. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MCC <ul><li>Mammalian Cell Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal testing - assess the safety and efficacy of medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize therapeutic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult stem cells - bone marrow and brain, replenish tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic stem cells - in vitro fertilization, umbilical cord blood, tissue engineering </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Recombinant DNA Technology <ul><ul><li>produce new medicines and safer vaccines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treat some genetic diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhance bio-control agents in agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase agricultural yields and decrease production costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease allergy-producing characteristics of some foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve food’s nutritional value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop biodegradable plastics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease water and air pollution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow food spoilage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control viral diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibit inflammation. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cloning <ul><li>Cloning technology allows us to generate a population of genetically identical molecules, cells, plants or animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Because cloning technology can be used to produce molecules, cells, plants and some animals, its applications are extraordinarily broad. </li></ul><ul><li>Any legislative or regulatory action directed at “cloning” must take great care in defining the term precisely so that the intended activities and products are covered while others are not inadvertently captured. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Molecular or Gene Cloning <ul><li>Virtually all applications in biotechnology, from drug discovery and development to the production of transgenic crops, depend on gene cloning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Animal Cloning <ul><li>Although the 1997 debut of Dolly, the cloned sheep, brought animal cloning into the public consciousness, the production of an animal clone was not a new development. </li></ul><ul><li>Dolly was considered a scientific breakthrough not because she was a clone, but because the source of the genetic material that was used to produce Dolly was an adult cell, not an embryonic one. </li></ul>
  12. 12. AC <ul><li>rDNA technologies, in conjunction with animal cloning, are providing us with excellent animal models for studying genetic diseases, aging and cancer and, in the future, will help us discover drugs and evaluate other forms of therapy, such as gene and cell therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cloning also provides zoo researchers with a tool for helping to save endangered species. </li></ul>
  13. 13. AC- Old way to clone <ul><li>Artificial embryo twinning (AET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mimics the natural process of creating identical twins, only in a Petri dish rather than the mother’s womb. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resulting embryos are placed into a surrogate mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. Since all the embryos come from the same zygote, they are genetically identical. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. AC- New way to clone <ul><li>Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>isolation of a somatic (body) cell, which is any cell other then those used for reproduction (sperm and egg, known as the germ cells). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In mammals, every somatic cell has two complete sets of chromosomes, whereas the germ cells have only one complete set. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make Dolly, scientists transferred the nucleus of a somatic cell taken from an adult female sheep and transferred it to an egg cell from which the nucleus had been removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After some chemical manipulation, the egg cell, with the new nucleus, behaved like a freshly fertilized zygote. It developed into an embryo, which was implanted into a surrogate mother and carried to term. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Protein Engineering <ul><li>To improve existing proteins, such as enzymes, antibodies and cell receptors, and to create proteins not found in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>These proteins may be used in drug development, food processing and industrial manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>To design novel proteins that can bind to and deactivate viruses and tumor- causing genes; create especially effective vaccines; and study the membrane receptor proteins that are so often the targets of pharmaceutical compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the functionality of plant storage proteins and develop new proteins as gelling agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are environmentally superior to most other catalysts used in industries because, as biocatalysts, they dissolve in water and work best at neutral pH and comparatively low temperatures. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biosensors <ul><li>composed of a biological component, such as a cell, enzyme or antibody, linked to a tiny transducer – that produces an electrical or optical signal proportional to the concentration of the substance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measure the nutritional value, freshness and safety of food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide emergency room physicians with bedside measures of vital blood components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locate and measure environmental pollutants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detect and quantify explosives, toxins and bio-warfare agents. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nanobiotechnology <ul><li>The study, manipulation and manufacture of ultra-small structures </li></ul><ul><li>Exploiting the extraordinary properties of biological molecules and cell processes e.g. DNA’s ladder structure </li></ul><ul><li>DNA, the information storage molecule, may serve as the basis of the next generation of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA molecules mounted onto silicon chips may replace microchips. 1,000 DNA molecules can solve in 4 months computational problems that would require a century for a computer. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Applications NBT <ul><li>Using light-absorbing molecules, such as those found in our retinas, to increase the storage capacity of CDs a thousand-fold. </li></ul><ul><li>increasing the speed and power of disease diagnostics. </li></ul><ul><li>creating bio-nanostructures for getting functional molecules into cells. </li></ul><ul><li>improving the specificity and timing of drug delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>miniaturizing biosensors by integrating the biological and electronic components into a single, minute component. </li></ul>
  19. 19. DNA Microarrays <ul><ul><li>detect mutations in disease-related genes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor gene activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diagnose infectious diseases and identify the best antibiotic treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify genes important to crop productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve screening for microbes used in bioremediation. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Protein Microarrays <ul><ul><li>discover protein biomarkers that indicate disease stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assess potential efficacy and toxicity of drugs before clinical trials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measure differential protein production across cell types and developmental stages, and in both healthy and diseased states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>study the relationship between protein structure and function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assess differential protein expression in order to identify new drug leads. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate binding interactions between proteins and other molecules. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Other Microarrays <ul><li>Tissue microarrays, which allow the analysis of thousands of tissue samples on a single glass slide, used to detect protein profiles in healthy and diseased tissues and validate potential drug targets. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-cell microarrays circumvent the problem of protein stability in protein microarrays and permit a more accurate analysis of protein interactions within a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-molecule microarrays allow pharmaceutical companies to screen ten of thousands of potential drug candidates simultaneously. </li></ul>