Application of Biotechnology in different fields

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  • Thank you. I'm in Mexico, working on a paper for a Bioethics class and found this useful. I am an English native speaker, and found a few grammatical mistakes (but were minor ones).
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Application of Biotechnology in different fields

  1. 1. Application of Biotechnology in Different Field by- vinod kumar
  2. 2. Introduction Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary science including not only biology, but also subjects like mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering.  It is a blend of various technologies applied together to living cells for production of a particular product or for improving upon it.
  3. 3. Introduction  Through genetic engineering scientists can combine DNA from different sources and this process is called “Recombinant DNA technology”  The secrets of DNA structure and functions have led to gene cloning and genetic engineering, manipulating the DNA of an organism
  4. 4. Monoclonal Antibodies Molecular Biology Cell Culture Genetic Engineering Anti-cancer drugs Diagnostics Culture of plants from single cells Transfer of new genes into animal organisms Synthesis of specific DNA probes Localisation of genetic disorders Tracers Cloning Gene therapy Mass prodn. of human proteins Resource bank for rare human chemicals Synthesis of new proteins New antibiotics New types of plants and animals New types of food DNA technology Crime solving Banks of DNA, RNA and proteins Complete map of the human genome
  5. 5. Food Biotechnology  Food biotechnology is the application of technology to modify genes of animals, plants, and microorganisms to create new species which have desired production, marketing, or nutrition related properties.
  6. 6. Why genetically modify food?  Food biotechnology is and will continue to be an important area in science as the world’s human population continues to increase and the world’s agricultural lands continue to decrease.  The following are reasons why “we” genetically modify food.
  7. 7. 1) Extended Shelf Life  The first steps in genetic modification were for food producers to ensure larger profits by keeping food fresher, longer.  This allowed for further travel to and longer availability at markets, etc…
  8. 8. Example: Long Shelf Tomatoes  These genetically modified tomatoes promise less waste and higher profits.  Typically, tomatoes produce a protein that softens them after they have been picked.  Scientists can now introduce a gene into a tomato plant that blocks synthesis of the softening protein.  Without this protein, the genetically altered tomato softens more slowly than a regular tomato, enabling farmers to harvest it at its most flavorful and nutritious vine- ripe stage.
  9. 9. 2) Efficient Food Processing  By genetically modifying food producing organisms, the wait time and quantity of certain food processing necessities are optimized.  Again this is a money saver.
  10. 10. Example: Rennin Production  The protein rennin is used to coagulate milk in the production of cheese.  Rennin has traditionally been made in the stomachs of calves which is a costly process.  Now scientists can insert a copy of the rennin gene into bacteria and then use bacterial cultures to mass produce rennin.  This saves time, money, space and animals. Rennin in the top test tube… not there in the bottom one.
  11. 11. 3) Better Nutrient Composition  Some plants, during processing, lose some of the vital nutrients they once possessed.  Others are grown in nutrient poor areas.  Both these problems can be solved by introducing genes into plants to increase the amount or potency of nutrients.  “Biofortification”
  12. 12. Example: Golden Rice  Scientists have engineered "golden rice", which has received genes from a daffodil and a bacterium that enable it to make beta- carotene.  This offers some promise in helping to correct a worldwide Vitamin A deficiency.
  13. 13. 4) Efficient Drug Delivery  Inserting genes into plants/animals to produce essential medicine or vaccines.  “Biopharming”
  14. 14. Medical biotechnology  The main reason for medical biotechnology is to prolong life.  Other reasons are to ease suffering of palliative care patients or to increase accessibility for people with disabilities
  15. 15. 1) Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb)  They are so called because they are clones of an individual parent cell.  Remember, antibodies are specific proteins that target pathogens invading our body.
  16. 16. 1) Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb)  This technology is used primarily to fight off cancer cells as these monoclonal antibodies can be “trained” to target markers that show up on cancer cells.  The mAbs will then destroy the cancer cell and go looking for more.
  17. 17. 2) Bioprocessing  Bioprocessing is the mass production of human proteins, vaccines, etc… by genetically modifying bacteria or viruses.  This allows for a large quantity of the desired product to be created in a short amount of time and for a relatively low cost.
  18. 18. 2) Bioprocessing  The main product currently bioprocessed is insulin, the human protein responsible for lowering blood sugar after eating.  The human gene for insulin is placed into bacteria, these are cultured and allowed to produce insulin which is collected, purified and sold to the millions of diabetics worldwide.
  19. 19. 3) Stem Cells  A stem cell is a cell that has the potential to become any cell type in the human body.  Everyone has stem cells, but they are very hard to access.  The easiest place to get stem cells is from an embryo.
  20. 20. 3) Stem Cells  Stem cells are introduced into a damaged area of the body where, under the right conditions, will replace the damaged area.  Often times stem cells are grown in a lab first to ensure the right conditions and then placed into a sick person.
  21. 21. 3) Stem Cells  Stem cells are currently being tested to treat everything from Crohn’s disease to baldness!  The main areas where stem cells have proven their worth is in bone marrow transplants, replacing damaged heart tissue after a heart attack and replacing damaged nerve tissue which gives hope to anyone who has had a spinal cord injury.
  22. 22. 4) Tissue Engineering  A form of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering is the creation of human tissue outside the body for later replacement.  Usually occurs on a tissue scaffold, but can be grown on/in other organisms as shown on the right.
  23. 23. 4) Tissue Engineering  Tissue engineers have created artificial skin, cartilage and bone marrow.  Current projects being undertaken include creating an artificial liver, pancreas and bladder.  Again, we are far from replacing a whole organ, but just looking for “refurbishing” our slightly used ones at the moment.
  24. 24. Agriculture biotechnology  Produce transgenic plant through plant tissue culture to improve the crops with the desired traits.  Resistance develop against abiotic and biotic stress.  Transgenic plants use as bioreactors for producing commercial products- protein, vaccines & biodegradable plastics.
  25. 25. Tissue culture  Micropropagation  Germplasm preservation  Somaclonal variation  dihaploid production  Protoplast fusion  Secondary metabolites production  Genetic engineering
  26. 26. Environmental Biotechnology  Environmental biotechnology is the solving of environmental problems through the application of biotechnology
  27. 27. Why environmental biotechnology?  It is needed to:  eliminate the hazardous wastes produced by our other technologies.  distinguish between similar species and ensure species are not at risk of extinction.  create alternative energy sources (i.e. Biofuel).
  28. 28. 1. Conservation of Biodiversity
  29. 29. 2) Bioremediation  Bioremediation is the use of bacteria (or fungi) to clean up hazardous environmental wastes.  The bacteria essentially turn the dangerous waste products into less hazardous, easy to dispose of, waste.  Plants are also being tested in some areas to do this job (Sunflowers at Chernobyl removed Cesium and Strontium).
  30. 30. 3) Biosensors  A biosensor uses a biological entity (i.e. bacteria) to monitor levels of certain chemicals OR uses chemicals to monitor levels of certain biological entities (i.e. pathogens).
  31. 31. 3) Biosensors  Current uses of biosensors include:  Detecting levels of toxins in an ecosystem  Detecting airborne pathogens (i.e. anthrax)  Monitoring blood glucose levels
  32. 32. 4) Biofuels  A biofuel is a plant derived fuel that is deemed more environmentally friendly that current fuel sources as they all release less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  Ethanol from corn is placed in many gasoline varieties in North America.  Biodiesel is fuel made from used cooking oil.  Biogas is made from gases released by compost or a landfill.
  33. 33. Thank you

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