Genetics By Swati & Sheela


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Genetics By Swati & Sheela

  1. 1. Swati. R. Shirolkar & Sheela. I. Rodrigues
  2. 2. TOPICS TO BE COVERED <ul><li>INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>DNA FINGER PRINTING </li></ul><ul><li>TISSUE CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>CLONING </li></ul><ul><li>HAZARDS </li></ul><ul><li>ETHICAL ,SOCIO-ECO ISSUES </li></ul>
  3. 3. BIOTECHNOLOGY Cytology, Microbiology, Genetics, Biochemistry are the various branches of Biology. Infusion of these branches with modern technology has resulted in new branch of science namely BIOTECHNOLOGY. Defn..: “The Application of Technology utilizing the Characteristics of living organisms to obtained useful products”.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li>Genetic engineering had its origins during the late 1960s in experiments with bacteria, viruses, and plasmids, small, free-floating rings of DNA found in bacteria. </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li> “ Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique </li></ul><ul><li>used by scientists to change the DNA of Living </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms”. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the manipulation of genetic structure of an </li></ul><ul><li>organism at the molecular level to alter its </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Insulin production </li></ul><ul><li>Growth hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Farm animals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Monoclonal antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Gener therapy </li></ul>Applications
  7. 7. Insulin production <ul><li>In the beginning of 20 th </li></ul><ul><li>century, if a person was </li></ul><ul><li>diagnosed as diabetic it was </li></ul><ul><li>like passing a death sentence </li></ul><ul><li>on the person. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Growth hormone production <ul><li>Hormones are chemical messengers produced </li></ul><ul><li>by glands in the Endocrine system . Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>tissues are specialized to produce such hormones, </li></ul><ul><li>which have genes switched on according the </li></ul><ul><li>hormones they were designed to produce. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agriculture <ul><li>Transgenic plants are </li></ul><ul><li>becoming important in </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture.genes for desirable </li></ul><ul><li>traits are being introduced into </li></ul><ul><li>varieties of plants which are </li></ul><ul><li>more suitable for cultivation . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Farm animals <ul><li>Somatotropins of cattle has now been produced by genetically engineered bacteria to be made available to dairy farmers & beef growers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vaccines <ul><li>Vaccines against Herpes virus & hepatitis virus has been recently manufacture by genetic engineering techniques </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monoclonal antibodies <ul><li>These are the antibodies produced by the cloned cells in this case the original cell happened to be hybrid,called a hybridoma. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gener therapy <ul><li>It is a process in which a persons genes are altered to combat a diseases. It can be applied in 2 ways </li></ul><ul><li>1.somatic gene therapy </li></ul><ul><li>2.germ line cell gene therapy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ashanti DeSilva & Dr. French Anderson Who underwent Gene Therapy Treatment for SCID.(severe combined immunodeficiency) which is caused by defective ADA gene.
  15. 15. DNA
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ It is an analytical technique that is used in detecting & comparing specific nucleotide sequences. In DNA of individuals & there by identifying similarities & differences in such a sequences”. </li></ul>DNA Finger Printing
  17. 17. Sir Alec Jeffreys
  18. 18. TECHNIQUE <ul><li>Collection of sample </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmenting DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Separating DNA </li></ul><ul><li>fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>probes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autoradiography </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison </li></ul>
  19. 19. Its an important technique in biology,is a method of separating cells,tissue or organs of plant or animal body & growing them in nutrient medium in vitro (in culture tubes or flasks). Tissue Culture
  20. 20. <ul><li>Medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The Explant. </li></ul><ul><li>Callus Stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Root & Shoot Initiation. </li></ul>Procedure
  21. 21. Tissue culture gallery
  22. 22. Genes “A Gene is a heredity material that carry the Characteristics from parents to offspring's”.
  23. 23. <ul><li>“ This involves production of multiple and </li></ul><ul><li>identical copies of the selected genes is also </li></ul><ul><li>called as Gene Cloning.” </li></ul>CLONING
  24. 24. First cloned adult sheep(DOLLY)
  25. 26. Hybridized Cloned Images
  26. 34. <ul><li>No Long-Term Safety Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased Nutritional Value </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Side Effects can Kill </li></ul>Health hazards Hazards
  27. 35. Environmental Hazards <ul><li>More Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology may be damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Its use in reproduction & genetic screening which brings unique questions of discrimination & exploitation of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Inserting animal gene into human or vice versa or plant gene into micro organisms & other species is not correct . </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarians may be forced to consume food containing genetic material from insects ,fish ,pigs or other animals. </li></ul>CONTD…… Ethical Issues
  29. 37. <ul><li>Would mothers will be willing to buy their infants milk which is formulated with Bio-engineered ingredients extracted from udders of transgenic cow’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy should be restricted to the alleviation's of genetic diseases in individuals patients. </li></ul>CONTD……
  30. 38. <ul><li>It is expensive on combating rare genetic disorders than in research for malaria vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue culture ,stock plants production , modern seed testing with DNA probes and many other practices are going to replace traditional current practices of farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Finance to molecular Bio-Tech will cause constraint on other important technologies. </li></ul>Socio-Economic Issues
  31. 39. Conclusion Some of the procedures & processes that are adapted by Biotechnology have been against nature & natural laws. In light of the above consideration, it is necessary that the tools of Biotechnology should be used properly & only for the beneficial purposes & not for destructive activities.
  32. 40. THANK YOU !
  33. 41. <ul><li>The first tissue cullture experiments came from the </li></ul><ul><li>laboratories of Frank Steward & colleagues in 1953.They propagated carrot plants from the phloem of roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Sophesticated lab’s are required for tissue culture ,such lab’s will have 3 separate rooms </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare nutrient medium. </li></ul><ul><li>For culturing. </li></ul><ul><li>For infections. </li></ul>