This slide shows the basic steps of plant tissue culture. Some plant part is placed is on a defined culture media. That media induces the the tissue to develop callus. Callus is an undifferentiated mass of cells. These cells then grow into plant shoots, which are later rooted. The small seedling will then grown into a mature, seed-producing plant. When developing transgenic plants, the transformation cassette is introduced into that plant part that can be induced to grow new plants.
Scope of Biotechnology by Rajesh sahu
Dr Rajesh Kumar Sahu
What is BIOTECHNOGY ?
Involves the exploitation of biological agents or their components for
generating useful products/services
The use of living microorganisms in systems or processes for the
manufacture of the useful products , it may be algae, fungi, yeast
bacteria ,viruses , cells of higher plants and animals or their
subsystems or isolated components from living matter
- It consists of scaling up of biological processes
Gene cloning for
The promise and perhaps
perils of embryonic stem cells
DEVLOPMENT OF GOOD QUALITY CROP
PREVENTION OF DISEASES IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR
NEWER VARITIES OF CROP YIELD
TRANSGENIC PLANT AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION
Alternatives of expensive fertilisers
Biosensor technology couples our knowledge of biology
with advances in microelectronics
A biosensor is composed of a biological
component,such as cell, enzyme,or antibody, linked
or tiny transducer.
1- Measuring nutritional value, freshness & safty of food
2-Locate & measure the environmental pollution
3-Detect & quantify explosive, toxins and biowarfare
It is the growing of cells outside the living organisms
1- plant cell culture
2- animal cell culture
3- insect cell culture
. Production of transgenic plant & animal
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
1- Recombinant DNA technology, joining together of DNA
molecules from two different species that are inserted
into a host organism to produce new genetic
combinations those are of value to science, medicine,
agriculture, and industry.
2- Since the focus of all genetics is the gene, the
fundamental goal of laboratory geneticists is to isolate,
characterize, and to manipulate genes
The Inner Cell Mass is the Source of Embryonic Stem Cells
The embryo is destroyed by separating it into individual cells for the collection of
A Site With Three Alleles Useful for DNA Fingerprinting
DNA fragments of different size will be produced by a restriction
enzyme that cuts at the points shown by the arrows.
DNA Fingerprinting Basics
If DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme
that recognizes sites on either side of
the region that varies, DNA fragments
of different sizes will be produced.
A DNA fingerprint is made by analyzing
the sizes of DNA fragments produced
from a number of different sites in the
genome that vary in length.
The more common the length variation at
a particular site and the greater the
number the sites analyzed, the more
informative the fingerprint.
Nanobiotechnology is a new technology that works at the
scale of a single molecule or about a thousandth of a micron.
It is the study and manufacture of super‐small structures and
tiny machines made on the molecular scale.
These can be used to build structures that might be used in
microchips for super‐fast computers made of DNA rather
Nano biotechnology could be used to miniaturize sensors
and improve drug delivery
BIOTECHNOLOGY – DIOGNOSTIC Help diagnose prostate cancer or cholera or high cholesterol
Determine if women have a predisposition to breast cancer
Ensure that our blood supply is safe and doesn’t carry diseases
from blood donors, such as HIV or mad cow disease and find
out if a baby in the womb have issues like Down syndrome or
Biotechnology is allowing us to diagnose disease earlier in the
disease process, which greatly improves patient’ s prognosis
Protein engineering is used often in conjuction with
recombinant DNA technology to improve existing
proteins, such as enzymes, cell receptor,antibodies.
These proteins may be used in drug devlopment, food
processing, industrial devlopment
Monoclonal antibody technology allows us to produce large amounts
of pure antibodies in the following way: We can obtain cells that
produce antibodies naturally; we also have available a class of cells
that can grow continually in cell culture. If we form a hybrid that
combines the characteristic of "immortality" with the ability to
produce the desired substance, we would have, in effect, a factory to
produce antibodies that worked around the clock.
In monoclonal antibody technology, tumor cells that can replicate
endlessly are fused with mammalian cells that produce an antibody.
The result of this cell fusion is a "hybridoma," which will continually
produce antibodies. These antibodies are called monoclonal because
they come from only one type of cell.
Genetically modified rice.
Embryonic stem cells and
(Science (2002) 295:1443)
Carbon Copy– the First Cloned Pet
Significantly, Carbon Copy is not a phenotypic carbon copy of the
animal she was cloned from.
Help the organism live better or be more
Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in
which they grow
Is important because it brings science closer to
creating life in the lab
Cells and tissues may be developed to treat
human injury and disease
Treat cancer, arthritis, asthma, heart disease, and
New drugs have been developed that Produce antibiotics,
birth control pills, vitamins, and growth hormones.
Treat the side effects of chemotherapy and give cancer
patients a better chance for a cure.
Prevent hepatitis, meningitis, diphtheria, pertussis and
tetanus through vaccines.
Grow skin replacements for burn victims and materials that
help broken bones heal better
FOOD PRODUCTION & PROCESSING
Agriculture companies are also using biotechnology to improve
production of meat and dairy products and to improve processing of
other foods. Examples include:
Using Bovine somato‐tropin (BST), a hormone that helps to increase
Cloning cows that are high milk producers or beef stock.
Reducing soy sauce fermentation from a few months to a few days.
Improving the processing of cheese, cocoa and tea.
Using industrial enzymes to process corn syrup to high fructose corn
syrup which is used in many food products such as sodas, sauces,
salad dressings tomato paste and ketchup.
Developing preservatives to replace sulfur and nitrates.
Developing healthier vegetable oils with reduced saturated fats
Have the resistance power against the worms
Have production ability maximum
Better improvement prior to previous practice
High % of food suppliments
The biotechnology pharmaceutical industry has grown
immensely in the past 25 years.
The first drug produced through biotechnology, human
insulin, has been helping to save lives since 1982.
Since then, the biotechnology industry has brought to
market more than 200 new drugs and vaccines that
treat and prevent diseases. More than 400 new
biotechnology drugs are in the process of being tested
to see if they can be brought to market.
Micro arrays technology is transferming laboratory
research because it allows us to analyse tens of
thousands of samples simultaniously
1‐ DNA micro arrays
2‐ protein micro arrays
3‐Tissue micro arrays
4‐whole –cell micro arrays
SOME OF IMPORTANT POINTS
THEY ARE THE PRODUCTS OF SPECIES HYBRIDISATION
IT IS THE CROSS BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TWO SPECIES
SPECIES DEVLOPS CONTAIN BOTH OF CHARACTER OF TWO SPECIES
– A Cloned Mule
and the First
Even under the best of
current technology of
cloning is very
Cloning provides the
demonstration that all
cells of an individual
share a common
Plant Tissue Culture
A Requirement for Transgenic Development
A plant part
develop Shoots are rooted;
plant grows to maturity
Harnessing the Power of Recombinant DNA Technology –
Human Insulin Production by Bacteria
Human Insulin Production by Bacteria
6) join the plasmid and human fragment
and cut with a restriction enzyme
Human Insulin Production by Bacteria
Mix the recombinant plasmid with
Screening bacterial cells to learn which contain the human insulin gene is the
Bioremediation can be defined as any process that
uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the
environment altered by contaminants to its original
Genetically Modified Food
It’s the blessings of biotechnology.
tomato is incorporated with cat fish gene which will
be the fishy in taste
As the work is largely related to scientific research.
It becomes quite important to have a good academic
background in science.
Hard work and high level of intelligence with
a scientific bent of mind,
determination, perseverance, imagination, innovative
ability to work for long hours, originality, team spirit,
These are some important essentials for becoming a
Candidates having background in science at the
intermediate level can take up
B.Tech. programme in Biotechnology.
P.G. courses available are
M.Sc. Biotechnology, Agriculture
M.V.Sc. (Animal) Biotechnology,
M.Tech. Biotechnology, Biomedical
M.Sc./M.V.Sc. in Veterinary Biotechnology,
M.Sc. (Marine) Biotechnology,Medical
M.Tech. in Biomedical Engineering /Biotechnology.
- PHD in biotechnology.
Qualified biotechnologists are employed in leading
business companies, pharmaceutical companies,
chemical industries, bio-processing industries,
agriculture related industries and pollution control
activities of the major industries etc.
They can even join government and corporate run
research and development organizations.
On the whole making it a good career opportunity
for the bright young people like you.
THAT MUCH OF DISSCUSSION IS NOT SUFFICIENT
SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
THANK U ALL
HAVE A NICE DAY
Dr Rajesh Kumar Sahu