Authoritarian: Parents make all of the rules,
demand to be listened to. Don’t believe that
they have to explain their demands or actions.
Authoritative: Democratic, children participate
in parents decisions, great deal of discussion
in such families. The children make decisions
for themselves, but parents to say no.
Permissive: Children have the final say. The
parents may attempt to guide the children but
they don’t have much of a say.
Psychologists later identified another parenting
style called “uninvolved parents” they are
typically egocentric towards their children, they
are uncommitted to their children and are
Generally, children who grow up in
democratic/authoritative environments tend to
be more confident in themselves.
Learning Theories of
There are theories that suggest social rules is
altogether different from learning to ride a
bicycle/speak a foreign language.
Cognitive-Development: learning theory
implies that the child is essientally passive- a
piece of clay to be shaped by experience
Role Taking: children’s play that involves
assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child
to experience different points of view
Moral Development: Lawrence Kohlberg’s
studies show just how important being able to
see other’s points of view is to social
development in general and to moral
development in particular.
Physical, mental, sexual abuse, negligent
treatment, or mistreatment of children under
Many abusive parents were mistreated as a
Leads to antisocial depression, identity
confusion, loss of self-esteem, and other
Learning rules of behavior of the culture in
which you were born and grew up.
Gives a sense of what’s “right” and “wrong” to
society living with other people
Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual
Oral Stage: Infant’s pleasure seeking focused on
mouth first 18 months of life
Anal Stage: Infant’s pleasure seeking centered on
functions of elimination (1 ½-3)
Phallic Stage: Infant's pleasure seeking focused
on genitals (3-6 years)
Latency Stage: Sexual thoughts repressed ; child
focuses on developing socially and intellectually
Genital Stage: Sexual desires renewed and
individual seek relationships w/o others (puberty-
Identification: process by which the child
adopts values and principles of same-sex
Sublimation: process of redirecting sexual
impulses into learning tasks.
Stages of Moral Development
Stage 1: Egocentric- don’t consider other
people’s point of view & no sense of right or
wrong. Main concern is to avoid punishment.
Stage 2: Better idea of how to receive rewards
as well as punishment. Also learn golden rule.
Stage 3: Sensitive to what people think, start
to seek social approval.
Stages of Moral Development
Stage 4: Less concerned with approval of
others, key issue is law & order moral thinking
Stage 5: People broaden
perspective, concerned if law is fair or not.
Stage 6: Acceptance of ethical principles that
apply to others.