THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF PARENTS
• During childhood, we are extremely impressionable to what we learn from our experiences. Parents are
the most powerful role models for their children, so what a child sees and how a child is raised effects
them throughout their entire life.
AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING STYLE
• Low in nurturance and communication, but high in control and maturity demands.
• The child will be obedient to the parents and follow given rules, but lack an understanding as to why
these rules exist due to the parent(s) using a “because I said so” rationale. These parents lack inductive
• Some effects can include low self-esteem, a lack of prosocial behaviour, and high amounts of stress.
Some have a higher chance of the child to bully others due to the aggressive nature of upbringing
others tend to be more subdued. (Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2015)
• Stress acts on the hippocampus, directly effecting emotion and memory (J.D. Brenner, 1999).
• Stress also disrupts brain development, and can compromise the nervous and immune systems
(Middlebrooks & Audage, 2008).
• Abuse has been associated with an increased rick of physical disease and mental disorders (McCain &
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING STYLE
• High in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication.
• The child will understand and obey rules, as well as have a positive relationship with the parents.
• Children are more confident and comfortable when trying new things and learning new concepts due to
high independence (Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2015). They are encouraged to use the best of their ability
while receiving supportive praise.
• Children raised with this parenting style have more self-confidence and perform higher academically.
(Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2015)
• Experience significantly less stress caused directly by the parent-child relationship compared to other
parenting styles, promoting healthy physical development without falter.
UNINVOLVED PARENTING STYLE
• Low in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication.
• A neglectful parenting style. The child has little to no rules to follow nor proper affection/attention to thrive.
• As a result, the child shows antisocial behaviour, poor social competence, low self-esteem, and a lack of
impulse control. (Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2015)
• Extreme neglect results in tremendously impaired language, social, and overall communication skills.
(Spratt et al, 2012)
Similar issues to children of authoritarian parents: Heightened stress levels causing impaired brain
development (J.D. Bremner, 1999), impairment of certain bodily systems (Middlebrooks & Audage, 2008),
and damage to the hippocampus resulting in negative effects on emotion and memory (J.D. Bremner,
Parents may leave physical injuries untreated, resulting in infections, pain, etc.
Malnourishment leading to nutritional deficiency illnesses.
Below average brain and body development affecting ability to reach expected developmental milestones.
PERMISSIVE PARENTING STYLE
• High in nurturance and communication, but low in control and maturity demands.
• The child lacks discipline, holds poor academic performance, immaturity, and is less independent and
avoids responsibility (Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2015).
• The child is likely to exhibit aggressive behaviour if the
parent is permissive to the behaviour (Boyd, Johnson &
• Children do not lead a healthy lifestyle due to a lack of
rules set by the parents.
• No direct effects, but higher stress levels are likely due to poor academic performance/disorganization.
APPLICATION TO PERSONAL LIFE
My mother has raised me and my brother on her own since we were very
young. My mother has overcome the stereotypes of being a single parent
and has been consistent in using an authoritative parenting style. I believe
that this parenting style has shaped us to be the goal-oriented, happy, and
healthy-minded people we are today.
APPLICATION TO FUTURE CAREER
• The parents’ role in a child’s life determines a significant amount of who an individual becomes. In my
career as a social worker, I will need to understand that the situation an individual is in or the beliefs
and values they hold could be a result of how they have been raised.
Spratt et al. (2012). The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in
Childhood. Psychology PSYCH, 175-182.
Boyd, D., Bee, H., & Johnson, P. (2015). Lifespan Development (Fifth ed.). Toronto, Ontario: Pearson.
McCain, M.N. & Mustard, J.F. (1999). Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study.
Middlebrooks, J., & Audage, N. (2008). The Effects of Childhood Stress on Health Across the Lifespan.
Retrieved November 2, 2015.
Bremner, J.D. (1999). The Lasting Effects of Psychological Trauma on Memory and the Hippocampus.
Retrieved November 2, 2015.