Promoting Social Development


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Social Development Through the Curriculum

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Promoting Social Development

  1. 1. Developing Social Competence <ul><li>Social Development Through the Curriculum </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>There are a multitude of social learning skills that children need to acquire in the early years. One important function of an early childhood program is to facilitate the process of socialization, the means through which children become a functioning part of society and learn society’s rules and values. </li></ul><ul><li>DAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Teachers ensure that classrooms or groups of young children function as caring communities. They help children learn how to establish positive, constructive relationships with adults and other children. Teachers support children's beginning friendships and provide opportunities for children to learn from each other as well as other adults.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developmentally Appropriate Practice, Bredekamp & Copple, 1997, pg. 193 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Theoretical Views of Socialization <ul><li>As usual, there are any number of theoretical perspectives on show children become socialized, in this chapter we will discuss three theoretical views that are pertinent to the discussion of socialization. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Psychosocial: trust, autonomy, initiative & industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Erikson) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivist: social knowledge is acquired much in the same way as other knowledge. Children “construct” their social knowledge by organizing and structuring information about people and relationships in a way similar to the way they structure information about the physical world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Piaget) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Behaviorist: Traditional behaviorist theory assumes children learn social competence when their responses are reinforced by adults who shape their behavior. From the social learning perspective, children also learn social behaviors from observational learning and/or imitating or modeling their behavior on a model. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Socio-cultural theory: Wherein social development is inseparable from cognitive and language development. Adults and more experienced peers play an integral part in the socialization of children in that information is transmitted about culture , social skills and expectations to children through these relationships. Adults provide “scaffolding”, support and guidance to children in the acquisition of such skills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Social and Emotional Skills to Teach <ul><li>Following rules, routines, and directions </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying feelings in oneself and others </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling anger and impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Suggesting play themes and activities to peers </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing toys and others materials </li></ul><ul><li>Taking turns </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Recognizing that anger can interfere with problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to recognize anger in oneself and others </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to calm down </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding appropriate ways to express anger </li></ul><ul><li>Helping adults and peers </li></ul><ul><li>Giving compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how and when to apologize </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing empathy with others’ feelings </li></ul>
  9. 9. Development of Social Competence <ul><li>Peer interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good early childhood program is an ideal setting for children to gain skills in positive peer socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed-age grouping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed-age groupings provide many opportunities each day to learn to be helpful and consider the needs of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Friendships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many young children begin to form friendships, forging a unique and close bond with a peer. Trust is the basic foundation on which friendships is built. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Gender role development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is typical for children to seek out same-sex playmates and choose gender specific toys. Sex cleavage (distinct separation based on gender) begins to be evident around three years of age. Gender identity (accurately labeling and identifying oneself as a boy or girl) often occurs before the child's second birthday, and gender stability (the understanding that your gender remains the same) occurs between the ages of five and seven. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See “Guidelines for Non-sexist Teaching” on page 408 in text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Racial awareness and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to gender awareness, children also develop an awareness of racial variations at an early age. A rather subtle variation in learning about different people arises when children begin to discover cultural differences. Positive relations with peers from different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds are fostered by sensitive an knowledgeable teachers. See guidelines for teaching about race and culture on page 414 and visit the website below for a look at the Anti-bias Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing and Anti-Bias Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity toward people with special needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to helping children accept and include peers with special needs, the early childhood program can also incorporate activities in the curriculum that are specifically aimed at dispelling stereotypes and helping to build an accepting atmosphere </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Planning for a Pro-social Environment <ul><li>Pro-social behavior is the opposite of anti-social behavior. It benefits others and demonstrates the presence of a social conscience. The concept of pro-social behavior focuses on three critical elements of a child’s interactions with others. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Three Key Elements of Pro-Social Behavior <ul><li>Cooperation-Working with others unselfishly toward a common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy-Putting oneself into others’ shoes, to feel what they feel, to have insight into their thoughts and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism-behaving generously, acting in a way that benefits others with no motive for personal gain </li></ul>
  13. 13. Seven Appropriate Social Goals <ul><li>Goal I: Help Children Develop Empathy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage role playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help children understand how the other person feels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal II: learning to Be Generous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help children learn to share equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help children learn to share the teacher </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Goal III: Learning that being kind to others feels good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helping other people is one way of expressing kindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teaching kindness and compassion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not doing something can also be a way of expressing kindness </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Goal IV: learning that everyone has rights and that these rights are respected by all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rules apply to everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>honoring personal privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal V: Emphasize the value of cooperation and compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>model cooperation and helping behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teach the art of compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teach children to work together </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Goal VI: Help children learn the pleasures of friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate friendship by using reinforcement to reduce isolated behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the social skills of friendless or excluded children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pair children together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help children when a friend departs or when they are rejected </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Goal VII: Help children with special needs fit into the life of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you know about effective ways of entering a group? How did you learn? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Social Skills <ul><li>How to approach </li></ul><ul><li>How to interact </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal with differences </li></ul><ul><li>How to manage conflict </li></ul>
  19. 19. Skills Learned With Adults <ul><li>They can stay at school without parents </li></ul><ul><li>Adults will help in times of trouble or need </li></ul><ul><li>Adults will keep children from being hurt or hurting others </li></ul><ul><li>Adults will help children learn pro-social behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Children can enjoy other adults </li></ul>
  20. 20. Skills Learned with Peers <ul><li>There are different approaches </li></ul><ul><li>How to solve conflicts in ways other than retreat or force </li></ul><ul><li>How to share materials, equipment, other children, teachers, friends, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>How to take turns and how to communicate desires </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating skills </li></ul>
  21. 21. Skills Learned in a Group <ul><li>How to take part as a member and not an individual </li></ul><ul><li>A group identity </li></ul><ul><li>To follow a daily schedule and pattern </li></ul><ul><li>To adapt to school routines </li></ul><ul><li>School rules and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>To respect other’s rights, feelings and property </li></ul><ul><li>How to work together as a group </li></ul>
  22. 22. Skills Learned as an Individual <ul><li>To take responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>To initiate their own activities </li></ul><ul><li>To notice unfairness and injustice and learn to handle them </li></ul><ul><li>To cope with rejection, hurt feelings, disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>To express feelings in a socially acceptable way </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Nurturing Social Environment <ul><li>A relaxed playful environment </li></ul><ul><li>A cooperative rather than competitive setting </li></ul><ul><li>Developmentally appropriate activities, materials, and routines </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency and predictability </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Nurturing Adult <ul><li>Modeling appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Showing attentiveness to individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>Providing affirmation, attentiveness, and acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Providing recognition and encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Being willing to enforce appropriate rules </li></ul><ul><li>Being willing to protect individual rights </li></ul>
  25. 25. Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development <ul><li>Level One-Preconventional Morality-coincides roughly with Piaget’s preoperational stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One obeys rules only to avoid punishment and gain reward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A toddler examining an electrical outlet may reach for it, then look up at the adult while saying, “no, no. no touch”. The toddler will probably resist the urge to touch only if the adult seems ready to enforce the rule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage Two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One bargains to get one’s needs met. Pro-social behaviors are intended to bring about favors from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ If you let me ride your tricycle, I’ll be your best friend” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Kohlberg, Cont’d <ul><li>Level Two-Conventional Morality-coincides roughly with Piaget’s concrete operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage Three There is an emphasis on gaining approval from others by being nice because the focus is on being a “good girl” or a “good boy” to get praise and approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When an adult wants a child to taste just a bit of green beans, another child nearby may hurriedly stuff her mouth full of beans and say, “See Me? I’m eating my vegetables” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Level two-Conventional Morality, cont’d <ul><ul><li>Stage Four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The focus is on “law and order”. At this stage, one is concerned that everyone do his duty and follow the letter of the law. It is only ok to break a rule if everyone else is doing it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School aged children become very indignant when rules are broken. They may resent the fact that a child with diabetes is given a candy bar by the teacher. Never mind that the child is sick, it just isn’t right. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Kohlberg, Cont’d <ul><li>Level Three-Post Conventional Morality-coincides with formal operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage five </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At this stage, correct behavior is defined in terms of individual rights according to widely held morals beliefs of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A child at this level would recognize the urgent health need of a diabetic child and give the candy bar regardless of the rule. Protecting the health of a child is more valued in this situation is more important than following the rule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Level Three-cont’d <ul><ul><li>Stage Six </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One decides whether a behavior is moral or not based on a personal decision of conscience in accordance with personal ethical principles that are logical, consistent, and universal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A child care center director might risk the solvency of her business by testifying in accordance with her conscience in a child abuse case against a powerful and popular community member </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Morality <ul><li>One distinct characteristic of more advanced levels of moral reasoning is one’s ability to consider motivation and intention when evaluating the outcome of a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Morally mature adults focus on the intents and motives of children, not on the outcomes of their behavior </li></ul>
  31. 31. Promoting Moral Development <ul><li>Use other-oriented reasoning with children </li></ul><ul><li>Set clear and appropriate expectations and standards for children’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use stories to promote thinking and discussion about moral issues </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ample time for child-selected play and materials that promote cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide activities that help children become more aware of how the face conveys emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate thinking games that encourage children to seek multiple alternatives for social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Plan thinking games that deal with moral intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that not all cultures share the same values </li></ul>
  32. 32. Creating Environments for Peaceful Problem Solving <ul><li>Create a positive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to resolve conflicts peacefully </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F.R.I.E.N.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inquire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down Time </li></ul></ul></ul>