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  1. 1. Life-Span Development Twelfth Edition Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy 1
  2. 2. Emotions• $$ Emotion: feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being• Biological and Environmental Influences: • Changes in baby’s emotional capacities with age • Development of certain brain regions plays a role in emotions • Emotions are the first language with which parents and infants communicate • Social relationships provide the setting for the development of a variety of emotions 2
  3. 3. Emotions• Early Emotions: • Primary Emotions: emotions that are present in humans and animals • Appear in the first 6 months • Self-Conscious Emotions: require self-awareness that involves consciousness and a sense of “me” • Appear between 6 months and 2 years of age• Ongoing debate about the onset of various complex emotions 3
  4. 4. Emotions• Emotional expressions are involved in infants’ first relationships • Positive interactions are described as reciprocal or synchronous• Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world • Three types of cries: • Basic cry • Anger cry • Pain cry• Two types of smiling: • Reflexive smile • Social smile 4
  5. 5. Emotions• Fear is one of a baby’s earliest emotions • Appears at about 6 months; peaks at about 18 months• Stranger Anxiety: occurs when an infant shows a fear and wariness of strangers • Emerges gradually, first appearing at about 6 months of age • Intensifies at about 9 months of age, escalating past the 1st birthday• Intensity of anxiety depends on: • Individual differences • Familiarity of the setting • Who the stranger is and how the stranger behaves 5
  6. 6. Emotions• Separation Protest: crying when the caregiver leaves • Due to anxiety about being separated from their caregivers • Typically peaks at about 15 months for U.S. infants • Cultural variations 6
  7. 7. Emotions• Caregivers’ actions influence the infant’s neurobiological regulation of emotions • As caregivers soothe, it reduces the level of stress hormones • Swaddling• Infant gradually learns how to minimize the intensity of emotional reactions • Self-soothing • Self-distraction • Language (2nd year)• Context can influence emotional regulation • How should caregivers respond? 7
  8. 8. Temperament• Temperament: an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding• Chess and Thomas’s Classification: • Easy child (40%) • Difficult child (10%) • $$ Slow-to-warm-up child (15%): Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes • Unclassified (35%) 8
  9. 9. Temperament• Rothbart and Bates’s Classification: • Extraversion/surgency • Negative affectivity • Effortful control (self-regulation) • High-control children have successful coping strategies • Low-control children are disruptive and intensely emotional• Kagan classifies children based on inhibition to the unfamiliar • Shows stability from infancy to early childhood 9
  10. 10. Temperament• Kagan: children inherit a physiology that biases them to have a particular type of temperament, but this is modifiable through experience• Biological Influences: • Physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments • Heredity has a moderate influence on temperament differences • Contemporary view: temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior 10
  11. 11. Temperament• Gender and Cultural Influences: • Parents may react differently to an infant’s temperament depending on gender • Different cultures value different temperaments• Goodness of Fit: the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with 11
  12. 12. Personality Development• Three central characteristics: • Trust: Erikson believed the 1st year is characterized by trust vs. mistrust • Not completely resolved in the first year of life • Arises again at each successive stage of development • Development of a sense of self • Occurs at approximately 18 months • Independence through separation and individuation • Erikson: autonomy vs. shame and doubt 12
  13. 13. Social Orientation• Face-to-face play begins to characterize interactions at 2 to 3 months of age • Infants begin to respond more positively to people than objects • Still-face paradigm • Frequency of face-to-face play decreases after 7 months of age• Peer interactions increase considerably between 18 to 24 months of age• Increased locomotion skills allow infants to explore and expand their social world 13
  14. 14. Social Orientation• Perceiving people as engaging in intentional and goal-directed behavior occurs toward the end of the 1st year • Joint attention and gaze following• Social Referencing: “reading” emotional cues in others to determine how to act in a particular situation • Emerges by the end of the 1st year; improves during the 2nd year 14
  15. 15. Attachment• $$ Attachment: a close emotional bond between infant and caregiver• Theories of Attachment: • Freud: infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction • Harlow: contact comfort preferred over food • Erikson: trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care 15
  16. 16. Attachment• Bowlby: newborns are biologically equipped to elicit attachment behavior from caregivers.• $$ 3 components of John Bowlby’s internal working model of attachment: mental model of the caregiver; their relationship; and the self as deserving of nurturant care 16
  17. 17. Attachment• Four Phases: • Phase 1 (birth to 2 months): infants direct their attention to human figures • Phase 2 (2 to 7 months): attachment becomes focused on one figure • Phase 3 (7 to 24 months): specific attachments develop • Phase 4 (24 months on): children become aware of others’ feelings and goals, and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions• Infants develop an internal working model of attachment 17
  18. 18. Attachment• $$ Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth; It requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his or her mother and a stranger• Attachment Classifications: • Securely attached: explores environment while using caregiver as a secure base; displays mild discomfort when caregiver leaves • Insecure avoidant: avoids caregiver; shows no distress/crying when caregiver leaves • Insecure resistant: clings to caregiver and protests loudly and actively if caregiver leaves • Insecure disorganized: disorientation; extreme fearfulness may be shown even with caregiver• Ainsworth’s research is criticized for being culturally biased 18
  19. 19. Avoidant Secure 70 Resistant 60 Cross-Cultural Comparison of 50 Attachment: 40Ainsworth’s StrangeSituation applied to 30 infants in three countries in 1988 20 10 Percentage of infants 0 U.S. Germany Japan 19
  20. 20. Attachment• Interpreting Differences in Attachment & Criticisms • Attachment is an important foundation for later psychological development • Early attachment can foreshadow later social behavior • Early secure attachment is not the only path to success because children are resilient and adaptive • Later experiences also play an important role • $$ Other factors may be more important to an infant’s adaptations to life • Genetics and temperament play a role in attachment differences • Attachment varies among different cultures of the world 20
  21. 21. Social Contexts• The Family: • Family is a constellation of subsystems • Each subsystem has a reciprocal influence on the other • Adjustment of parents during infant’s first years • Infant care competes with parents’ other interests • Marital satisfaction and relationship dynamics may change • Reciprocal socialization: two-way interaction process whereby parents socialize children and children socialize parents • Parent–infant synchrony: temporal coordination of social behavior • Scaffolding: parental behavior that supports children’s efforts through turn-taking sequences $$ Reciprocal socialization is bidirectional, whereas scaffolding is unidirectional 21
  22. 22. Social Contexts 22
  23. 23. Social Contexts• Maternal and Paternal Caregiving • An increasing number of U.S. fathers stay home full-time with their children • Fathers can be as competent as mothers in caregiving • Maternal interactions typically center on child-care activities (feeding, changing diapers, bathing) • Paternal interactions tend to be play-centered • $$ Fathers interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do, regardless of which parent is the primary caregiver • Fathers tend to be more involved when: • They work fewer hours (and mothers work more) • They are younger • The mothers report greater marital intimacy • The children are boys 23
  24. 24. Social Contexts 24
  25. 25. Social Contexts• Child Care • More children are in child care now than ever before • Parental-leave policies vary across cultures • The U.S. grants the shortest period of parental leave and is one of the few countries that offers only unpaid leave • Type of child care varies • Child care centers, private homes, etc. • Low-SES children are more likely to experience poor-quality child care 25
  26. 26. Social Contexts• National Institute of Child Health Study: • By 4 months, ¾ of infants were in some type of child care • Socioeconomic factors linked to amount and type of care • Quality of child care: • Group size, child–adult ratio, physical environment, caregiver characteristics • High-quality care resulted in better language and cognitive skills, more cooperation and positive peer interactions, and fewer behavior problems • Quantity of child care: • Extensive amounts of time in child care led to fewer positive interactions with mother, more behavior problems, and higher rates of illness • Influence of parenting was not weakened by extensive care 26