Chapter 13 Howard Zinn


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  • Chapter 13 Howard Zinn

    1. 1. THE SOCIALIST CHALLENGE Chapter 13 Elizabeth Santana
    2. 2. SOCIALIST WRITERS They were among the most famous of American literary figures, who's books were read by millions. Upton Sinclair who wrote "The Jungle" in 1906 where he talked about socialism and how beautiful life would be if everyone worked hard and shared the riches. Other authors include...Jack London, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens.
    3. 3. TAYLORISM Frederick W. Taylor was a steel company foreman who worked out a system of finely detailed division of labor called Taylorism. the purpose of it was to make workers interchangeable, able to do simple tasks that the new division of labor required. Taylorism with its simplified unskilled jobs, became more feasible.
    4. 4. WORKING CONDITIONS Lead to accidents like fires; most known incident was at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company 146 stuck on the top 3 floors women died. In 1904 there were 27,000 deaths in manufacturing, transport and agriculture. In New York alone there were 50,000 accidents. Hat and cap makers were getting respiratory diseases, the men were inhaling deadly chemicals and some even getting arsenic poisoning. In 1914 there were 35,000 workers killed in industrial accidents and 700,000 injured. Lead to workers striking for better working conditions.
    5. 5. AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR Unions began forming, there was about 2 million members of labor unions and 80% of them were in the American Federation of Labor (AFL.) Formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers. AFL focused on securing hight wages, better working conditions and shorter work week for its members, who were only skilled workers. For the AFL racism was practical, African Americans only made 1/3 of earning of white workers and were excluded from AFL unions. Excluded women even though by 1910 there was 8 million in the labor force and in AFL only 100 were members. In June 1905, 200 members who were socialists, anarchists and radical trade unionists from AFL united and created the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W) or “Wobblies”.
    6. 6. WOBBLIES (I.W.W) I.W.W aimed at organizing all workers in any industry into "one big union", undivided by sex, race or skills. Women, foreigners, black workers, lowliest and most unskilled workers were included when a factory or mine was organized. Spoke of "direct action"...industrial democracy. The I.W.W people were militant and courageous. The wobblies traveled everywhere; they organized, wrote, spoke, sand to spread their message.
    7. 7. WOMEN In 1900 there were 500, 000 women office workers, they were also switch board operators, store workers, nurses and half a million were teachers. Teachers had strict rules to one school board they had to follow 10 rules which include: “don't get married, don't dress in bright colors, don't dye your hair, don't loiter downtown in ice cream stores or don't wear dresses more then two inches above the ankle.” Unions were also started by women workers such as: the Teachers League, Women's Trade Union Industrial League and began to strike. Around the turn of the century strikes were 1904 there were 4,000 strikes a year.
    8. 8. SOCIALISM Law and military force again and again took the side of the rich, it was the time when hundreds of thousands of Americans began to think of socialism. Labor struggles could make things better but the country's resources remained in the hands of powerful corporations whose motives was profit, whose power commanded the government of the United States. Socialism moved out of the small circles of city immigrants and became American. The strongest Socialist state organization was in Oklahoma in 1914.
    9. 9. REFERENCES Zinn, Howard, and Kang-ŭn Yu. Miguk Minjungsa =: a People's History of the United States, 1492 - Present. Sŏul: Siul, 2006. Print.