Ch 17 Progressivism


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This was my first attempt at a Keynote presentation during my first year of teaching. The music, videos, and animations do not show well on PDF, but I believe this is a good example of my work at the beginning of the semester.

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Ch 17 Progressivism

  1. 1. PROGRESSIVISM Chapter 17 Presented by Ms. Wopperer
  2. 2. Origins of Progressivism Remember: big business ruled America at this time. Labor unions were just beginning. Men like Carnegie and Rockefeller ran the show. Women had yet to gain voting rights while African Americans still suffered under Jim Crow. Intellectuals began to question the John D. Rockefeller power of industry. “The Rock” The progressive movement was a period of social, economic, and political reforms created to right the wrongs of American injustices. KKK Symbol
  3. 3. GOALS of Progressivism • Efficiency • Scientific Management Studies or “Taylorism”: named after Frederick Winslow Taylor became the newly accepted industrial practice. • The aim was to use time and motion studies in order to improve efficiency. Manufacturing tasks were broken into smaller simpler parts. • The assembly line came into play here as well. Many workers called for reforms, however, due to continued fatigue and injury.
  4. 4. GOALS of Progressivism • Protection of Social Welfare • Workers wished to improve the harsh conditions of industrialization. • Volunteers helped poor through community centers, churches, and social services (eg. YMCA, Salvation Army) • Florence Kelly: helped pass Illinois Factory Act in 1893, which improved the lives of working women and children because it prohibited child labor and lowered women’s working hours.
  5. 5. GOALS of Progressivism • Prohibition • Workers wished to improve the harsh conditions of industrialization. promote morality and improve lives of the poor. • WCTU: Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was the most prominent supporter of prohibition. Their slogan: “Do everything”. Also, the Anti-Saloon league battled “Demon Rum” among other evils. • Carry Nation: would walk into saloons, scold customers, and destroy bottles of liquor with a hatchet. • Many immigrants reacted against Prohibition. They claimed alcoholic beverages were an integrated part of their culture and customs. Also, saloons provided other services like cashing paychecks and serving food.
  6. 6. GOALS of Progressivism • Social and Economic Reform • Socialists: The Panic of 1893 caused many to question their capitalist economic system. Many embraced socialism. Eugene V. Debs, who organized some of the first labor union movements, eventually became a prominent socialist supporter. • Muckrakers: Journalists uncovered the corrupt side of business and public life by writing detailed and sometimes sensationalized exposes in magazines. • The Jungle by Upton Sinclair is a premier example • Quiz: What color is the Socialist Flag !? Socialist Flag
  7. 7. REFORM on Local and State Levels Locally: New political leaders divided control over the city into different departments. Each leader took charge of one department and maintained the city better as a whole. Argument: A bunch of people in control of a city is better than one big cheese. AGREE or DISAGREE?
  8. 8. REFORM on Local and State Levels State: Protecting the Children: Child labor proved to be a difficult problem to solve: Industries opted to hire children due to their small hands. Immigrants allowed their children to work because they rationalized them as apart of the family workforce. Harsh conditions and low wages made life for child laborers very hard. They were devoid of a childhood and grew up at a very young age. National Child Labor Committee (1904): sent investigators to gather evidence of harsh conditions. New evidence and support of labor unions prompted the passage of the Keating-Owen Act in 1916. Goods made through child labor were no longer allowed across state borders.
  9. 9. REFORM on Local and State Levels State: Limiting the Workday: Muller v. Oregon (1908): argued for the plight of poor working women. Women were then limited to a 10-hr workday. Bunting v. Oregon (1917): upheld a 10-hr workday for men. Progressives also won workers’ compensation to aid families who suffered and work-related injury or death.
  10. 10. REFORM on Local and State Levels State: Elections: Secret ballot (or the Australian Ballot): voting was no longer public. Initiative: “The Bill” the people put forward a bill they created Referendum: “The Vote” they vote and accept or reject the initiative Recall: “The Boot” voters could remove public officials from elected positions by forcing another election on them before their term’s end. Primary: “The Choice” voters chose their candidates instead of political machines and bosses like Tweed.
  11. 11. REFORM on Local and State Levels State: Direct Election of Senators: The primaries were a SUCCESS! They paved the way for the Seventeenth Amendment, which allowed for the direct elections of senators. Corruption was slowly funneling OUT of the legislative system in America. More voices of the people were heard…half of those people? WOMEN
  12. 12. WOMEN OF PROGRESS Work Force On the Farm: In addition to homemaking, women were expected to raise livestock, plant, and plow fields. Their jobs had not changed much since the previous century. In Industry: Although unions excluded women, they found job opportunities in cities. They worked in factories, textile mills, schools, offices, and stores. Domesticated: In order to support their families, some women worked as cooks, laundresses, scrubwomen, and maids. 70% were employed as servants. Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours led many female industrial workers to push even harder towards reform!
  13. 13. WOMEN OF PROGRESS Reform Women were not allowed to run for office or vote. Duh. Therefore, they strove to improve conditions where they worked: the home and the workplace. NACW: The National Association of Colored Women managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens. Susan B. Anthony: After the Seneca Falls convention in 1848, women were angered over the 14th and 15th Amendments, which gave African American men the vote, but excluded women. Anthony was a leader in favor of women’s suffrage, or the right to vote. NAWSA: National American Woman Suffrage Association
  14. 14. WOMEN OF PROGRESS 3 STEPS to SUFFRAGE STEP 1: Convince state legislators to give women the vote STEP 2: Pursue court cases and test the 14th Amendment STEP 3: Push the AMENDMENT
  15. 15. TEDDY ROOSEVELT 26th President of the United States THE ROUGH RIDER After McKinley’s assassination, Roosevelt (the VP) took office. The youngest president to date, Roosevelt went to work wowing his countrymen with daring feats such as galloping 100 miles in a day and boxing in the white house. He was affected by muckrakers and promised to put an end to the “specific evils” the journalists exposed.
  16. 16. TEDDY ROOSEVELT POLICIES and CONTRIBUTIONS Square Deal: His politics were just as aggressive as his lifestyle. He promised the common people that they would receive a series of very progressive reforms. Trustbusting: By 1900, trusts controlled almost 4/5th of industry. After the completely failed attempt at restriction (Sherman Antitrust Act), Roosevelt took a firm stand. Roosevelt did not slow the merger movement, but he did success in dissolving a number of powerful trusts and therein earned the nickname “The Trustbuster” Monroe Doctrine (revisited): TR added the Roosevelt Corollary declared the United States to be in control of the entire western hemisphere after European intervention in South America served as a military threat to America.
  18. 18. TEDDY ROOSEVELT Regulation and Conservation Regulation Railroads: tightened management, limited free passes, and restricted severe price changes. Sued the heck out of J.P. Morgan. Food and Drugs: Meat Inspection Act: required companies to inspect their meat, but not to label canned goods with expiration dates – EEK! Pure Food and Drug Act: halted the sale of contaminated food items and demanded true labeling. The belief became that people would act wisely if given the correct information. Duh.
  19. 19. Panorama of Beef Industry Circa 1900
  20. 20. TEDDY ROOSEVELT Regulation and Conservation Conservation: Antiquities Act During his trips west, Roosevelt observed the disappearance of wilderness. He saw certain areas as American heirlooms and sought to preserve them (eg. Grand Canyon and Yosemite). Natural Resources: Split between conservation and usage for the betterment of American lifestyles.
  21. 21. TEDDY ROOSEVELT Civil Rights Yes and No He supported few, not all, African Americans. He invited Booker T Washington over for dinner, but did not take the fight for Civil Rights seriously. Booker T and W.E.B. DuBois continued to push. NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  22. 22. MUCKRAKERS They were brave, eloquent, and sick of it!
  23. 23. MUCKRAKERS They were Journalists who uncovered the corrupt side of business and public life by writing detailed and sometimes sensationalized publications. Ida Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company She exposed John D. Rockefeller after he transformed the transcontinental railroads into a monopoly on the backs of poor workers. He would lower his rates, run all competitors out of business, and then jack them up afterwards. Upton Sinclair: The Jungle Sinclair’s main goal was to expose the terrible living conditions of immigrants to America. When the book went on sale, however, Americans reacted more to the conditions of the meat industry. Everyone eats, after all, for richer or poorer. Lincoln Steffens: The Shame of the Cities and The Struggle for Self-Government He was the muckraking leader who went after business AND government at once. His stories were published in McClure’s Magazine before they were collected and reprinted.
  24. 24. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT 27th President of the United States
  25. 25. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT PS... - Taft never wanted to be president. Nellie made him do it. - He was by far our biggest president and my favorite! - He had a lifelong dream to be a Supreme Court Justice. - He was TR’s choice mostly because TR thought Taft would be a good puppet president who would do everything TR told him to do. So you must ask yourself... Will Taft do well? Will he ever become a JP? Will Teddy get mad? Will Taft be able to fit in the White House bathtub?
  26. 26. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Taft’s humor: “I got up and I gave my seat to three ladies” Taft got into trouble when he took on a more conservative approach. This ticked off Teddy Roosevelt who heard the news while on safari in Africa. Payne-Aldrich Tariff: made fewer tariff cuts and increased rates. Many progressives saw it as an abandonment of progressivism everywhere. Weak leadership: gave power to his administration. Taft did not follow in Teddy Roosevelt’s style and Teddy could not handle watching many of his groundbreaking programs fall through. Teddy began to bad talk Taft. Thus the friendship soured. Unable to balance the conservative and progressive sides of his party, Taft watched it fragment.
  27. 27. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT GET OUT A PIECE OF PAPER (or ask me for one) WE WILL NOW WATCH TAFT’S EPISODE ON THE HISTORY CHANNEL’S “PRESIDENTS” SERIES Prepare to hand 3 decent factoids to me that you learned from watching this most excellent program Thank You :-)
  28. 28. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT HERE’S TEDDY! REP Split: Bull Moose Party TR returned from Africa touting a “New Nationalism” where the federal government would use its power to help the people. He began speaking against his old friend Taft calling him terrible names and, at one point, causing Taft to break down in tears. :-( TR’s Progressive Party became known as the Bull Moose Party. It advocated: woman suffrage, workmen’s comp, 8-hr workday, min wage for women, and federal restrictions of child labor. BUT, a split in the party meant a split in supporters. NO REPUBLICAN WON, IN FACT, A DEM DID...
  29. 29. ELECTION OF 1912: DEMOCRATS WIN: WILSON’S IN WOODROW WILSON 28th President of the United States
  30. 30. WOODROW WILSON Wilson’s New Freedom Antitrust: attack the triple wall of privilege: trusts, tariffs, and high finance. Clayton Antitrust Act: prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly. Labor unions and farm organizations gained the right to exist. Strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, and collections of strike benefits became legal. WOO! Federal Trade Commission (FTC): A “watchdog” agency that was given the power to investigate corporate violations and put an end to unfair business practices. Federal Income Tax: Lower tariff rates = a decrease in revenue. Federal Income Tax under the 16th Amendment taxes individuals and corporations to increase revenue. Gov’t eventually made MORE in Income Tax than they ever did on tariffs.
  31. 31. WOODROW WILSON Wilson’s Federal Reserve System Wilson divided the country into 12 regions and gave each a bank:
  32. 32. WOODROW WILSON Wilson’s Federal Reserve System Banks could: issue paper currency offer loans to customers transfer funds to banks in danger of bankruptcy in order to protect customer savings System still serves today (check out your dollar bills!).
  33. 33. WOMEN WIN SUFFRAGE Carrie Chapman Catt: frontrunner and Susan B’s successor as NAWSA president. 5 Tactics 1. Organization 2. Close ties between local, state, and national workers 3. Establishment of Support Base 4. Cautious lobbying 5. Ladylike behavior
  34. 34. WOMEN WIN SUFFRAGE Boston Movements: Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government College Equal Suffrage League 19th Amendment: 1920 Congress finally gave women the right to vote. After 72 years of fighting for it (Remember, they first met at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848)
  35. 35. Limitations of Progressivism Like Roosevelt and Taft, Wilson backed off Civil Rights once he won office. He promised to treat blacks equally and spoke out against lynching, however, Wilson’s big dirty secret was that he was in league with the friggin’ KKK (which skyrocketed to its all time highest membership rates during Wilson’s presidency)...which, in many ways, makes him a big fat liar. Many African Americans came to call Willsonian politics the “New Slavery” The Progressive Era ended when Wilson decidedly broke his isolationist stance and entered American into WWI.