Teaching Listening and SpeakingFrom Theory to Practice(Speaking part)Jack C. RichardsFirst published 2008
Teaching Speaking (TS) Speaking is the most important skill among other skills Learner’s judgments and self-evaluation is based on their speaking It is a tough job for teachers to engage student to speak, because there are some barriers and affective filters You can write or read or learn grammar or listen individually but you can not speak with your self so teaching speaking needs more consideration
Approaches in TS• Teachers and textbooks make use of a variety ofApproaches, ranging from Direct Approachesfocusing on specific features of oral Interaction(e.g., Turn-taking, Topic management, andquestioning strategies) to Indirect Approaches thatcreate conditions for oral interaction through GroupWork, Task work, and other strategies (Richards,1990).We will discuss over task based approach in oralcommunication in an academic setting in India asan example later.
Features of Spoken Discourse •Composed of idea units (conjoined short phrases and clauses) •May be planned (e.g., a lecture) or unplanned (e.g., a conversation) •Employs more vague or common words than written language •Contains slips and errors reflecting online processing •Involves reciprocity (i.e., interactions are jointly constructed)(A relation of mutual dependence, action or influence) •Shows variation (e.g., between formal and casual speech), •reflecting speaker roles, speaking purpose, and the context
Conversational routines• Fixed expressions, or “routines,” that often has specific functions• There are routines for beginnings and endings of conversations, for leading into topics, and for moving away from one topic to another. Let me think about it. I‟ll be with you in a minute. It doesn‟t matter.
Pawley and Syder (1983) suggest that native speakershave a repertoire ofthousands of routines like these, that their use inappropriate situations createsconversational discourse that sounds natural andnative-like, and that they have to be learned and usedas fixed expressions.
Styles of speakingStyle of speaking is appropriate to the particularcircumstances.Different styles of speaking reflect the roles, age,sex, and status of participants in interactions andalso reflect the Expression of politeness.I guess it must be quite late now?You wouldn’t have the time, would you?Lexical, phonological, and grammatical changesmay be involved in producing a Suitable style ofspeaking, as the following alternatives illustrate: Have you seen the boss? / Have you seen the manager?(lexical)Whachadoin? / What are you doing? (phonological)
Functions of speakingInteractional functions deal with social relationsTransactional functions deal with exchange of information Three-part version of Brown and Yule’s framework Talk as interaction Talk as transaction Talk as performance
Talk as interactionIt is in the form of conversation related to socialfunction like Greetings, engage in small talk,recount. Main Features• Has a primarily social function• Reflects role relationships• Reflects speaker‟s identity• May be formal or casual and Reflects degrees of politeness• Uses conversational register• Focus on participants and their social needs• Interactive, requiring two-way participation
skills involved (talk as interaction) • Opening and closing conversations Open dialogs to practice feedback responses • Choosing topic, Making small-talk • Recounting personal incidents and experiences • Turn-taking, Reacting to others • Classroom group discussions and problem-solving activities • A class activity during which students design a poster • Discussing sightseeing plans with a hotel clerk or tour guide • Making a telephone call to obtain flight information • Asking someone for directions on the street • Buying something in a shop or Ordering food from a menu in a restaurant
Talk as transactionInclude greetings, small talk, compliments,personal recounts, and narrativesfocus is on what is said or done.Communication is more important than fluencyor accuracy.
Talking as transactionFirst typegiving and receiving information(asking someone for directions describing how to usesomething–sharing opinions and ideas–discussing plans) Accuracy may not be a priority, as long as information is successfully communicated or understood.Second typeobtaining goods or services(checking into a hotel or ordering food in a restaurant) Focus on message not the participants.skills involved in using talk for transactionsExplaining a need or intention.Not dependent on grammatical accuracy• Information-gap activities• Role plays• Group discussions
Teaching talk as transactionTalk as transaction is more easily planned sincecurrent communicative materialsare a rich resource of group activities,information-gap activities, and roleplaysRole-play activities are another familiar techniquefor practicing real-world transactions andtypically involve the following steps: Preparing Modeling and eliciting Practicing and reviewinga role play using cue cards or realia to providelanguage and othersupport.
Talk as performancepublic talk transmits information before an audience, such as• classroom presentations• public announcements• speecheswelcome speech given by a university president:“Good morning. It’s not my intention to deliver thecustomary state of the university address. There’s goodreason for that.It is in the form of monolog rather than dialog,often follows a recognizable format (e.g., a speech ofwelcome. Examples of talk as performance• Giving a class report about a school trip• Conducting a class debate• Giving a speech of welcome• Making a sales presentation• Giving a lecture
The main features of talk as performance• A focus on both message and audience• Predictable organization and sequencing• Importance of both form and accuracy• Language is more like written language Often in monolog formskills involved in using talk as performance• Using an appropriate format• Presenting information in an appropriate sequence• Maintaining audience engagement• Using correct pronunciation and grammar• Creating an effect on the audience• Using appropriate vocabulary• Using an appropriate opening and closing Note : Some students are more comfortable with talk asinteraction than as performance and vice versa
Features of performances An audience Speaker creates a “product” A single speaker produces longer stretches of discourse Recognizable “scripts” e.g., welcome speech, business presentation, class talk Accuracy of language speech is monitored for accuracy Language more formal more like written language Teaching talk as performance Use model speeches, presentations, and other model texts Examine discourse and grammatical features Ss construct and practice parallel texts
Implications for teachingThree core issues need to be addressed in planningspeaking activities for an English class. The first is to determine what kinds of speakingskills the class will focus on.The second issue is to identifying teachingstrategies to “teach” (i.e., provide opportunitiesfor learners to acquire) each kind of talk.The third issue involved in planning speakingactivities is determining the expected level ofperformance on a speaking task and the criteria thatwill be used to assess student performance
Goals for a successful speaking lesson/courseo Activities address specific aspects of oral skillso e.g., talk as interaction, transaction, or performanceo Sufficient language and other supports for taskso Balance of accuracy and fluency activitieso Modeling for speaking activitieso Activities are suitable for students of different proficiency levelso Ss have sample talking timeo Ss participate actively in lessonso Grammar and pronunciation errors are addressed appropriatelyo Activities have take-away valueo A progression from controlled practice to freer practiceo Opportunities for personalizationo Ss experience successo The pleasure factor
Teaching Oral communication skillsby Mojibor Rahman A task based approach based on Indirect approaches Students : engineering and technology students at Indian institute. Students Target : less proficient students Students goal: to be master in language Oral communication covers formal presentations to participation in teams and meetings Setting :academic experience in teaching communication
According to Halliday oral communication defined as sociological encounter ,in oral communication exchange of meaning happens and some realities are created . Communication is a dynamic interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, feelings and values. It is not passive and does not just happen; It is dynamic because it involves a variety of forces and activities interacting over time.Communication is an interactive processit includes some steps called process, besides duringthese steps some changes happen in the relation andinteraction between people.
Effective oral communication Be Confident in Academic ,professional and personal environments eye contact body language style understanding the audience adapting to the audience active and reflexive listening politeness precision conciseness
Task based approachA task is a „work plan‟; that is, it takes the formof materials for researching or teachinglanguage. The general perception amonglanguage teachers and educators that task-basedteaching is mainly directed at improvingstudents‟ abilities to use the target languagerather than at enabling them to acquire newlinguistic skills (Samuda, 2000)Task four criteria1. meaning2.a goal which needs to be worked towards3. the activity is outcome-evaluated4. A real-world relationship
Widdowson argues that „exercise‟ and „task‟ differwith regard to the kind of meaning, goal, and outcomethey are directed towards. An exercise is premised onthe need to develop linguistic skills as a prerequisitefor the learning of communicative abilities, while atask is based on the assumption that linguistic abilitiesare developed through communicative activity
Willis (1996: 35–6)Identifies eight purposes for Task-based languageteaching1. to give learners confidence in trying out whateverlanguage they know;2. to give learners experience of spontaneous interaction3. to develop learners‟ confidence that they can achievecommunicative go4. to give learners chances for negotiating turns to speak
5. to engage learners in using language purposefullyand cooperatively6. to make learners participate in a completeinteraction, not just one-off sentences;7. to give learners chances to try out communicationstrategies;(communicative effectiveness )8. to give learners the chance to benefit from noticinghow others express similarmeanings;(L2 acquisition)
Balance between Communicative tasks and other tasksCommunicative tasks promoting students confidence Improve students‟ communicative abilities provide opportunities for trying out communication strategiesBut Fail the development in linguistic skills
Oral Communication SkillsSkills Offered to prepare the students to take more advance levelprepares the students to use the language in the real-life situations(academic, social or professional situations)1. The nature, purpose and characteristics of goodconversation2. Phonological forms to use in speech3. Developing conversation skills with a sense ofstress, intonation and meaning4. Use of question tags5. Starting, maintaining and finishing conversations6. Standard conversational exchange7. Spoken language idioms8. Effective listening and attention to others9. Gestures and body language
10. Do‟s and Don‟ts in conversation11. Telephonic conversation12. Functions of English in conversation: introductions,greetings, clarifications,explanations, interruptions, opinions,13. Agreement and disagreement, complaints, apologies14. Participating in informal discussions and situations15. Using information to make some decision, i.e., makingsocial arrangementswith friends16. Reproducing information in some form (question/answer,summarizing, oralreporting, etc.)
Core Activities( Show strengths and weaknesses of the students )• Individual oral presentations• Practice in class participation• Discussion skills(informal discussion)•Oral presentations: In between the discussion/debateactivity, the students are asked to prepare a topicassigned to them and present in the class. This activityis less emphasized because we have a full-fledgedcourse in Oral Presentation Skills. Students makeformal oral presentations. Each presentation is followedby a question/answer period, and concluded by theteacher‟s comment.
In class participation (Role-play): For this activity, thestudents are asked to make group of three to fivestudents. In the beginning The teacher listens theperformances of the students and comments on theindividual performances. He points out the errors of theindividual students. At the end of the semester, studentsare assessed using these tasksDiscussion/debate: This core activity runs every week. Thestudents are engaged in a formal/informal discussion/debateactivity on an assigned topic. This activity is completelystudent-led, i.e., students play all the roles (conductor,observer, group presenter, and participating members).It ismore appropriate to call this activity a "discussion/debate"activity because it includes both group discussions anddebates, including a little bit of oral presentation.
Conclusionactivity in speaking divided tointeractions, transactions, or performances Always Consider •Model of activities •Divided activity stages •Needed language support •Needed resources •Needed learning arrangements •Expected level of performance •Time and ways of feedback •task-based approach in teaching oral communication has much potential, but it has a long way to go. •majority of the Students understand the tasks and found the experience to be rewarding, interesting, and educationally beneficial. •Students involved in the task because the tasks were giving the feeling of real life situation • Their final performances were much improved(70 percent students scored grade „A‟) •Problems in carrying out these tasks: Sometimes it went out of control from the hand of students or from the hand of the teacher.
Reasons for poor speaking skills• Lack of curriculum emphasis on speaking skills• Teachers limited English proficiency• Class conditions do not favor oral activities• Limited opportunities outside of class to practice• Examination system does not emphasize oral skills