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Teaching language-skills


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lesson to integrate all skills

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Teaching language-skills

  3. 3. Why Integrating? It gives students greater motivation that converts to better retention of principles of effective speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Rather than being forced in a course that limits itself to performance, students are given a change to diversity their effort in more meaningful task
  4. 4. Models of integrated skills approaches: • Content-Based Instruction • Theme –Based Instruction • Experiential Teaching • The Episode Hypothesis • Task-Based Teaching
  5. 5. Content-Based Instruction • It is integrates the learning of some specific subject-matter content with the learning of a second language • Example: Immersion program for Elementary- school children
  6. 6. Theme-Based Instruction It is important to distinguish: - The primary purpose of a course is to instruct student in a subject-matter area, and language is of secondary and subordinate interest. -place in equal value on content and language objectives.
  7. 7. The activities • Use environmental statistic and fact for classroom reading, writing, discussion, and debate • Carry out research and writing project • Have students create their own environmental awareness material • Arrange field trips • Conduct stimulation games
  8. 8. Experiential Teaching • It’s an activities that engage both left- and right-brain processing, that contextualize language, that integrate skills, and that point toward authentic, real-world purpose.
  9. 9. Example of learning-centered: -hands-on projects -computer activities -role-play and stimulation
  10. 10. Example of teacher-controlled -using props, realia, visuals, show- and tell-session -playing games
  11. 11. The Episode Hypothesis • It means the presentation of language is enhanced if students receive interconnected sentences in a interest-provoking episode rather than in a disconnected series of sentences.
  12. 12. Task-Based Teaching It is an activity in which: - Meaning is primary, - There is some communication problem to solve, - There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities, - Task completion has some priority, - The assessment of task is in terms of outcome
  14. 14. Listening Comprehension In Pedagogical Research Some specific questions about listening comprehension: - What are listeners “doing” when they listen? - What factors affect good listening? - What are the characteristics of “real-life” listening? - What are the many things listeners listen for? - What are some principles for designing listening techniques? - How can listening techniques be interactive? - What are some common techniques for teaching listening?
  15. 15. An Interactive Model of Listening Comprehension The process: - The hearer processes what we call “raw speech” and holds an image of it in short-term memory. (phrases, clauses, cohesive markers, intonation, and stress pattern) - The hearer determines the type of speech even being processed (a conversation, a speech, a radio broadcast) - etc
  16. 16. Types of Spoken Language  Monologue - Planned - Unplanned  Dialogue -Interpersonal ( Unfamiliar, Familiar) - Transactional (Unfamiliar, Familiar)
  17. 17. What Make Listening Difficult? • Clustering • Redundancy • Reduced Forms • Performance Variables • Colloquial Language • Rate of delivery • Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation • Interaction
  18. 18. Types of Classroom Listening Performance • Reactive • Intensive • Responsive • Selective • Extensive • Interactive
  19. 19. Principles for Designing Listening Techniques • In an interactive, four-skills curriculum, make sure that you don’t overlook the importance of techniques that specifically develop listening comprehension competence. • Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating. • Utilize authentic language and contexts. • Carefully consider the form of listeners’ responses.. • Encourage the development of listening strategies • Include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniques.
  20. 20. Listening Techniques From Beginning to Advanced • Bottom-Up Exercise • Top-Down Exercise • Interactive Exercise
  22. 22. ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH 1. Conversational discourse 2. Teaching pronunciation 3. Accuracy and fluency 4. Affective factors 5. Interactive effect
  23. 23. WHAT MAKES SPEAKING DIFFICULT?  Clustering  Redundancy  Reduced forms  Performance variables  Colloquial language  Rate of delivery  Stress, rhythm, and intonation
  24. 24. TYPES OF CLASSROOM SPEAKING PERFORMANCE 1. Imitative : Drill is a legitimate part of communicative language classroom; drill offer the students an opportunity to listen and to orally repeat certain strings of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty-either phonological or grammatical.  Here are some useful guidelines for successful drill : 1. Keep them short 2. Keep them simple 3. Keep them “snappy” 4. Make sure students know why they are doing the drill. 5. Limit them to phonology or grammar points. 6. Make sure they ultimately lead to communicate goals. 7. Don’t overuse them.
  25. 25. 2. Intensive : intensive speaking can be self-initiated or it can even form part of some pair work activity. 3. Responsive : short replies to teacher or student initiated questions or comments. 4. Transactional (dialogue) : carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended of responsive language. 5. Interpersonal (dialogue) : carried ot more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. Students can involve some trickier conversation of the following factors : • A casual register • Colloquial language • Emotionally charged language • Slang • Ellipsis • Sarcasm • A covert “agenda” 6. Extensive (monologue) : here the register is more formal and deliberative.
  26. 26. PRINCPLES FOR DESIGNING SPEAKING TECHNIQUES 1. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency. 2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques. 3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful context. 4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. 5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening. 6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. 7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
  27. 27. TEACHING CONVERSATION Richards (1990: 79-80) offered the following list of features of conversation that can receive specific focus in classroom instruction : • How to produce both short and long turn in conversation • Strategies for opening and closing conversations. • How to use both a casual style of speaking and neutral or more formal style • How to use conversational routine. Etc Here are some sample task that illustrate teaching various aspect of conversation, as well as an oral grammar practice technique: a. Conversation-indirect (strategy consciousness-raising) b. Conversation-direct (gambits) c. Conversation-transactional (ordering from a catalog) d. meaningful oral grammar practice (modal auxiliary would) e. Individual practice: oral dialogue journals f. Other interactive techniques
  28. 28. TEACHING PRONUNCIATION Our goal as a teachers of English pronunciation should therefore be more realistically focused on clear, comprehensible pronunciation. The factor within learners that affect pronunciation, below are the list that you should consider:  Native language  Age  Exposure  Innate phonetic ability  Identity and language ego  Motivation and concern for good pronunciation.
  30. 30. Research on reading a second language 1. Bottom-up and top-down processing in bottom-up processing, readers must first recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signal. While in top-down processing in which we draw our own intelligence and experience to understand text. 2. Schemata theory and background knowledge Research has shown that reading is only incidentally visual. More information is contributed by the reader than by the print on the page. Skill in reading depends on the efficient interaction between linguistic knowledge of the world.
  31. 31. 3. The role of affect culture The autonomy gained through the learning of reading strategies has been shown to be a powerful motivator (Bamford & Day 1998), not to mention the affective power of reading itself. Similarly, culture plays an active role in motivating and rewarding people for literacy. 4. The power of extended reading John Green and Rebecca Oxford (1995) found that reading for pleasure and reading without looking up all the unknown words were both highly correlated with overall language proficiency.
  32. 32. TYPES OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE Each of the types listed below represents, or is an example of, a genre of written language:  Fiction  Nonfiction  Letters  Memo  Message  Announcements  Form, applications  Diaries, journal  Recipes  Maps  Invitations  Comic stips, etc
  33. 33. CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE • Performance • Processing time • Distance • Orthography • Complexity • Vocabulary • formality
  34. 34. STRATEGIES FOR READING COMPREHENTION • Identify the purpose in reading • Use grapheme rules and pattern to aid in bottom-up decoding (especially for beginning level learners) • Use efficient silent reading techniques for relatively rapid comprehension (for intermediate to advanced levels). • Skim the text for main ideas. • Scan the text for specific information. • Use semantic mapping or clustering • Guess when you aren’t certain. • Analyze vocabulary. • Distinguish between literal and implied meaning. • Capitalize on discourse marker to process relationships.
  35. 35. TYPES OF CLASSROOM READING PERFORMANCE Classroom reading performance Oral silent intensive Extensive Linguistic content skimming scanning global
  36. 36. PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING INTERACTIVE READING TECHNIQUES • In an interactive curriculum, make sure that you don’t overlook the importance of specific instruction in reading skills. • Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating • Balance authencity and readability in choosing texts. • Encourage the development of reading strategies. • Include both bottom-up and top-down techniques. • Follow survey, question, read, recite, review sequence. • Subdivide your techniques into pre-reading, during- reading, and after-reading phrases. • Build in some evaluative aspect to your techniques.
  38. 38. Research on Second Language Writing • Composing vs. writing • Process vs. product • Contrastive rhetoric • Differences between L1 & L2 writing • Authentic • The role of the teacher
  39. 39. TYPES OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE • Non-fiction • Fiction • Letters • Greeting cards • Diaries journals • Memos • Messages • Announcements • Newspaper “journalese” • Academic writing • Forms, applications • Questionnaires • directions • Labels • Signs • Recipes • Bills • Maps • Manuals • Menus • Schedules • Advertisement • Invitations • Directories • Comic strips, cartoon
  40. 40. CHARACTERISTIC OF WRITTEN LANGUANGE: A WRITER’S VIEW • permanence • Production time • Distance • Orthography • Complexity • Vocabulary • Formality
  41. 41. Micro skills For Writing 1. Produce graphemes and orthographic pattern of English 2. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose 3. Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order pattern 4. Use acceptable grammatical systems, patterns, and rules 5. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms
  42. 42. 6. Use cohesive devices in written devices in written discourse 7. Use rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse 8. Appropriately accomplish the communicative function of written texts according to form and purposes 9. Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relation as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization and exemplification 10. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing 11. Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text.
  43. 43. Types of Classroom Writing Performance 1. Imitative 2. Intensive or controlled 3. Self-writing 4. Display writing 5. Real writing a. Academic b. Vocational / technical c. Personal
  44. 44. PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING WRITING TECHNIQUES 1. Incorporate practices of “good” writers. 2. Balance process and product 3. Account for cultural /literary backgrounds 4. Connect reading and wri 5. Provide as much authentic writing as possible 6. Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages 7. Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as possible 8. Sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students’ writing 9. Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal convention or writing
  46. 46. The place of grammar No one can tell you that grammar is irrelevant, or that grammar is no longer needed in a CLT framework. No one doubts the prominence of grammar as an organizational framework within which communication operates.
  47. 47. to Teach or Not to Teach Grammar Grammar is important in some degree in all the six variables : • Age • Proficiency levels • Educational background • Language skills • Style (register) • Needs and goal
  48. 48. Issues About How to Teach Grammar • Should grammar be presented inductively or deductively • Should we use grammatical explanations and technical terminology in a CLT classroom • Should grammar be taught in separate “grammar only” classes? • Should teachers correct grammatical errors?
  49. 49. Grammar Techniques • Charts • Objects • Maps and drawings • Dialogues • Written text
  50. 50. Grammar Sequencing in Textbooks and Curricula • Grammatical categories are one of several considerations in curricular sequencing • A curriculum usually manifest a logical sequence of basic grammatical structures, but such a sequence may be more a factor or frequency and usefulness then of clearly identified degrees of linguistic difficulty. • Beyond those basic structures, a few permutations here and there will make little difference in the eventual success of students, as long as language is being learned in the context of communicative curriculum.
  51. 51. A “Word” About Vocabulary Teaching • These are some guidelines for the communicative treatment of vocabulary instructions. • Allocate specific class time to vocabulary learning • Help students to learn vocabulary in context • Play down the role of bilinguals dictionaries • Encourage students to develop strategies for determining the meaning of words. • Engage in “unplanned” vocabulary teaching
  52. 52. THANK YOU