It gives students greater motivation
that converts to better retention of
principles of effective speaking,
listening, reading, and writing. Rather
than being forced in a course that
limits itself to performance, students
are given a change to diversity their
effort in more meaningful task
• It is integrates the learning of some specific
subject-matter content with the learning of a
• Example: Immersion program for Elementary-
It is important to distinguish:
- The primary purpose of a course is to instruct
student in a subject-matter area, and
language is of secondary and subordinate
-place in equal value on content and language
• Use environmental statistic and fact for
classroom reading, writing, discussion, and
• Carry out research and writing project
• Have students create their own environmental
• Arrange field trips
• Conduct stimulation games
• It’s an activities that engage both left- and
right-brain processing, that contextualize
language, that integrate skills, and that point
toward authentic, real-world purpose.
Example of learning-centered:
-role-play and stimulation
Example of teacher-controlled
-using props, realia, visuals, show-
The Episode Hypothesis
• It means the presentation of language is
enhanced if students receive interconnected
sentences in a interest-provoking episode
rather than in a disconnected series of
It is an activity in which:
- Meaning is primary,
- There is some communication problem to
- There is some sort of relationship to
comparable real-world activities,
- Task completion has some priority,
- The assessment of task is in terms of outcome
Listening Comprehension In
Some specific questions about listening comprehension:
- What are listeners “doing” when they listen?
- What factors affect good listening?
- What are the characteristics of “real-life” listening?
- What are the many things listeners listen for?
- What are some principles for designing listening
- How can listening techniques be interactive?
- What are some common techniques for teaching
An Interactive Model of Listening
- The hearer processes what we call “raw
speech” and holds an image of it in short-term
memory. (phrases, clauses, cohesive markers,
intonation, and stress pattern)
- The hearer determines the type of speech
even being processed (a conversation, a
speech, a radio broadcast)
Principles for Designing Listening
• In an interactive, four-skills curriculum, make sure that
you don’t overlook the importance of techniques that
specifically develop listening comprehension
• Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating.
• Utilize authentic language and contexts.
• Carefully consider the form of listeners’ responses..
• Encourage the development of listening strategies
• Include both bottom-up and top-down listening
Listening Techniques From Beginning
• Bottom-Up Exercise
• Top-Down Exercise
• Interactive Exercise
ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN
1. Conversational discourse
2. Teaching pronunciation
3. Accuracy and fluency
4. Affective factors
5. Interactive effect
WHAT MAKES SPEAKING DIFFICULT?
Rate of delivery
Stress, rhythm, and intonation
TYPES OF CLASSROOM SPEAKING
1. Imitative : Drill is a legitimate part of communicative language classroom;
drill offer the students an opportunity to listen and to orally repeat certain
strings of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty-either
phonological or grammatical.
Here are some useful guidelines for successful drill :
1. Keep them short
2. Keep them simple
3. Keep them “snappy”
4. Make sure students know why they are doing the drill.
5. Limit them to phonology or grammar points.
6. Make sure they ultimately lead to communicate goals.
7. Don’t overuse them.
2. Intensive : intensive speaking can be self-initiated or it can even
form part of some pair work activity.
3. Responsive : short replies to teacher or student initiated questions
4. Transactional (dialogue) : carried out for the purpose of conveying
or exchanging specific information, is an extended of responsive
5. Interpersonal (dialogue) : carried ot more for the purpose of
maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts
and information. Students can involve some trickier conversation
of the following factors :
• A casual register
• Colloquial language
• Emotionally charged language
• A covert “agenda”
6. Extensive (monologue) : here the register is more formal and
PRINCPLES FOR DESIGNING SPEAKING
1. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs,
from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based
focus on interaction, meaning, and fluency.
2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques.
3. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful
4. Provide appropriate feedback and correction.
5. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and
6. Give students opportunities to initiate oral
7. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
Richards (1990: 79-80) offered the following list of features of
conversation that can receive specific focus in classroom instruction :
• How to produce both short and long turn in conversation
• Strategies for opening and closing conversations.
• How to use both a casual style of speaking and neutral or more formal
• How to use conversational routine. Etc
Here are some sample task that illustrate teaching various aspect of
conversation, as well as an oral grammar practice technique:
a. Conversation-indirect (strategy consciousness-raising)
b. Conversation-direct (gambits)
c. Conversation-transactional (ordering from a catalog)
d. meaningful oral grammar practice (modal auxiliary would)
e. Individual practice: oral dialogue journals
f. Other interactive techniques
Our goal as a teachers of English pronunciation should
therefore be more realistically focused on clear,
comprehensible pronunciation. The factor within
learners that affect pronunciation, below are the list
that you should consider:
Innate phonetic ability
Identity and language ego
Motivation and concern for good pronunciation.
Research on reading a second language
1. Bottom-up and top-down processing
in bottom-up processing, readers must first recognize
a multiplicity of linguistic signal. While in top-down
processing in which we draw our own intelligence and
experience to understand text.
2. Schemata theory and background knowledge
Research has shown that reading is only incidentally
visual. More information is contributed by the reader
than by the print on the page. Skill in reading depends
on the efficient interaction between linguistic
knowledge of the world.
3. The role of affect culture
The autonomy gained through the learning of
reading strategies has been shown to be a
powerful motivator (Bamford & Day 1998), not
to mention the affective power of reading itself.
Similarly, culture plays an active role in
motivating and rewarding people for literacy.
4. The power of extended reading
John Green and Rebecca Oxford (1995) found
that reading for pleasure and reading without
looking up all the unknown words were both
highly correlated with overall language
TYPES OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE
Each of the types listed below represents, or is an example of, a genre of
Comic stips, etc
CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN
• Processing time
STRATEGIES FOR READING
• Identify the purpose in reading
• Use grapheme rules and pattern to aid in bottom-up
decoding (especially for beginning level learners)
• Use efficient silent reading techniques for relatively rapid
comprehension (for intermediate to advanced levels).
• Skim the text for main ideas.
• Scan the text for specific information.
• Use semantic mapping or clustering
• Guess when you aren’t certain.
• Analyze vocabulary.
• Distinguish between literal and implied meaning.
• Capitalize on discourse marker to process relationships.
TYPES OF CLASSROOM READING
Classroom reading performance
Linguistic content skimming scanning global
PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING
INTERACTIVE READING TECHNIQUES
• In an interactive curriculum, make sure that you don’t
overlook the importance of specific instruction in
• Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating
• Balance authencity and readability in choosing texts.
• Encourage the development of reading strategies.
• Include both bottom-up and top-down techniques.
• Follow survey, question, read, recite, review sequence.
• Subdivide your techniques into pre-reading, during-
reading, and after-reading phrases.
• Build in some evaluative aspect to your techniques.
A WRITER’S VIEW
• Production time
Micro skills For Writing
1. Produce graphemes and orthographic pattern of
2. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to
suit the purpose
3. Produce an acceptable core of words and use
appropriate word order pattern
4. Use acceptable grammatical systems, patterns,
5. Express a particular meaning in different
6. Use cohesive devices in written devices in written
7. Use rhetorical forms and conventions of written
8. Appropriately accomplish the communicative function
of written texts according to form and purposes
9. Convey links and connections between events and
communicate such relation as main idea, supporting
idea, new information, given information,
generalization and exemplification
10. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings
11. Correctly convey culturally specific references in the
context of the written text.
Types of Classroom Writing
2. Intensive or controlled
4. Display writing
5. Real writing
b. Vocational / technical
PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING WRITING
1. Incorporate practices of “good” writers.
2. Balance process and product
3. Account for cultural /literary backgrounds
4. Connect reading and wri
5. Provide as much authentic writing as possible
6. Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting,
and revising stages
7. Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as
8. Sensitively apply methods of responding to and
correcting your students’ writing
9. Clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal
convention or writing
The place of grammar
No one can tell you that grammar is
irrelevant, or that grammar is no
longer needed in a CLT framework. No
one doubts the prominence of
grammar as an organizational
framework within which
to Teach or Not to Teach Grammar
Grammar is important in some degree in all the
six variables :
• Proficiency levels
• Educational background
• Language skills
• Style (register)
• Needs and goal
Issues About How to Teach Grammar
• Should grammar be presented inductively or
• Should we use grammatical explanations and
technical terminology in a CLT classroom
• Should grammar be taught in separate
“grammar only” classes?
• Should teachers correct grammatical errors?
• Maps and drawings
• Written text
Grammar Sequencing in Textbooks and
• Grammatical categories are one of several
considerations in curricular sequencing
• A curriculum usually manifest a logical sequence of
basic grammatical structures, but such a sequence
may be more a factor or frequency and usefulness
then of clearly identified degrees of linguistic
• Beyond those basic structures, a few permutations
here and there will make little difference in the
eventual success of students, as long as language is
being learned in the context of communicative
A “Word” About Vocabulary Teaching
• These are some guidelines for the
communicative treatment of vocabulary
• Allocate specific class time to vocabulary
• Help students to learn vocabulary in context
• Play down the role of bilinguals dictionaries
• Encourage students to develop strategies for
determining the meaning of words.
• Engage in “unplanned” vocabulary teaching