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Discourse strategies

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Presentation that exposes the topic of discourse strategies and types of speech.

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Discourse strategies

  1. 1. Openings and closingsFeedback in conversationCross-cultural variation Gender differences
  2. 2. Culturally and contextually dependent Formal and informal Pre-closings Greetings and leave-takings Conversation starters
  3. 3. Gardner’s types of listener’s contributions:•Continuers: mmhm, uh, huh•Acknowledgments: mm, yeah•Assessments: how awful, wonderful•News markers: really?, is it?•Questions: (Ask for details, repairmisunderstandings)•Collaborative completions: (finish or repeatanother’s utterance)•Non-verbal vocalizations: (laughter, sighs)
  4. 4. Types of speechTALK AS INTERACTIONTALK AS TRANSACTIONTALK AS PERFORMANCE
  5. 5. TALK AS INTERACTIONMAIN FEATURES: Has a primarily social function. Reflects role relationships. Reflects speaker’s identity. May be formal or casual. Uses conversational conventions. Reflect degrees of politeness. Employs many generic words. Uses conversational register. Is jointly constructed.
  6. 6. TALK AS INTERACTIONSKILLS INVOLVED: Opening and closing conversations. Choosing topics. Making small talk. Recounting personal incidents and experiences. Turn-taking Using adjacency pairs. Interrupting. Reacting to others.
  7. 7. TALK AS INTERACTIONExamples: Chatting with someone on the bus, train, plane. Chatting with friends, classmates, etc. Telling someone an experience lived. Sharing anecdotes, gossips, etc.
  8. 8. TALK AS TRANSACTIONExamples: Classroom group discussions and problem solving activities. Discussing needed repairs to a computer with a technician. Making a telephone call to obtain information. Asking someone for directions on the street. Buying something in a shop. Ordering food in a restaurant.
  9. 9. TALK AS TRANSACTIONFeatures: It has a primarily information focus. The main focus is the message and not the participants. Participants use communication strategies to make themselves understood. There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks. There may be negotiation and digression. Linguistic accuracy is not always important.
  10. 10. TALK AS TRANSACTIONSkills involved: Explaining a need or intention. Describing something. Asking questioning. Confirming information. Justifying an opinion. Making suggestions. Clarifying understanding. Making comparisons. Agreeing and disagreeing.
  11. 11. TALK AS PERFORMANCEExamples: Giving a class report about something. Conducting a class debate. Giving a speech of welcome. Making a presentation. Giving a lecture/speech.
  12. 12. TALK AS PERFORMANCEMain features: There is a focus on both message and audience. It reflects organization and sequencing. Form and accuracy are important. Language is more like written language. It is often monologic.
  13. 13. TALK AS PERFORMANCESkills involved: Using an appropriate format. Presenting information in an appropriate sequence. Maintaining audience engagement. Using correct pronunciation and grammar. Creating an effect on the audience. Using appropriate vocabulary. Using appropriate opening and closing.

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