Openings and closingsFeedback in conversationCross-cultural variation Gender differences
Culturally and contextually dependent Formal and informal Pre-closings Greetings and leave-takings Conversation starters
Gardner’s types of listener’s contributions:•Continuers: mmhm, uh, huh•Acknowledgments: mm, yeah•Assessments: how awful, wonderful•News markers: really?, is it?•Questions: (Ask for details, repairmisunderstandings)•Collaborative completions: (finish or repeatanother’s utterance)•Non-verbal vocalizations: (laughter, sighs)
Types of speechTALK AS INTERACTIONTALK AS TRANSACTIONTALK AS PERFORMANCE
TALK AS INTERACTIONMAIN FEATURES: Has a primarily social function. Reflects role relationships. Reflects speaker’s identity. May be formal or casual. Uses conversational conventions. Reflect degrees of politeness. Employs many generic words. Uses conversational register. Is jointly constructed.
TALK AS INTERACTIONSKILLS INVOLVED: Opening and closing conversations. Choosing topics. Making small talk. Recounting personal incidents and experiences. Turn-taking Using adjacency pairs. Interrupting. Reacting to others.
TALK AS INTERACTIONExamples: Chatting with someone on the bus, train, plane. Chatting with friends, classmates, etc. Telling someone an experience lived. Sharing anecdotes, gossips, etc.
TALK AS TRANSACTIONExamples: Classroom group discussions and problem solving activities. Discussing needed repairs to a computer with a technician. Making a telephone call to obtain information. Asking someone for directions on the street. Buying something in a shop. Ordering food in a restaurant.
TALK AS TRANSACTIONFeatures: It has a primarily information focus. The main focus is the message and not the participants. Participants use communication strategies to make themselves understood. There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks. There may be negotiation and digression. Linguistic accuracy is not always important.
TALK AS TRANSACTIONSkills involved: Explaining a need or intention. Describing something. Asking questioning. Confirming information. Justifying an opinion. Making suggestions. Clarifying understanding. Making comparisons. Agreeing and disagreeing.
TALK AS PERFORMANCEExamples: Giving a class report about something. Conducting a class debate. Giving a speech of welcome. Making a presentation. Giving a lecture/speech.
TALK AS PERFORMANCEMain features: There is a focus on both message and audience. It reflects organization and sequencing. Form and accuracy are important. Language is more like written language. It is often monologic.
TALK AS PERFORMANCESkills involved: Using an appropriate format. Presenting information in an appropriate sequence. Maintaining audience engagement. Using correct pronunciation and grammar. Creating an effect on the audience. Using appropriate vocabulary. Using appropriate opening and closing.