Key Territories and Purchases
1803 – The Louisiana Purchase
1819 – The Florida Purchase
1846 – The Oregon Territory
1845 – The Annexation of Texas
1853 – The Gadsden Purchase
• The “fate” of America to expand its borders
from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans.
• A Christian belief that America was chosen to
• For the safety of its borders.
• To increase opportunities for economic
Political, Economic, and Social
• Expanding Democracy – Belief in God-given mission to
extend democracy and to set an example to the world.
• Security- will discourage threats from rival powers .
• Future Prosperity – gaining land and wealth. Gold
rush of California.
• Pioneering Spirit- Admiration for American
individualism , those brave enough and strong enough
to settle in new areas.
• Romanticizing the West – Paintings, literature, popular
prints….as an ideal of nature. (beautiful lands and
The Oregon Trail
• Thousands caught “Oregon Fever”wanting to go to the lands farthest west.
• 2,000 miles long.
• Crossed deserts, rivers, the Rocky
• 20,000 people died making the journey.
Why would there be forts along the way? Why would so many people make this
journey? Trace this trail on your map beginning in Independence, MO.
Describe the terrain of the Oregon trail. What were some of the difficulties the pioneers
would have to face if they were going to make such a long journey?
When they could not
afford wagons, they
would build or buy
hand carts , pulling
and walking the entire
The “Mormon” Trail
• A religious group of people.
• Running from persecution about their beliefs.
• Founder of the Church, Joseph Smith was killed by a
• Wanting to settle in the west to ensure their safety.
• New Leader, Brigham Young leads them to the Salt
Lake Valley where they settle.
• A desolate, barren land is turned into productive farm
land through irrigation.
• By 1877, 125,000 Mormons lived in the valley.
Joseph Smith Jr. – founder
and leader of the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-DaySaints, also known as the
Brigham Young leads the
members of the church to the
Salt Lake Valley in the Great
Basin after Smith’s death.
The Mormon Trail: Trace it on your map beginning in Nauvoo, Illnois
The Annexation of TEXAS
• 1820- American settlers begin settling in
Texas, which was Mexican territory.
• 1830 – Mexican government passes law
denying anymore American settlers to settle
in Texas. Mexico is afraid of losing control of
• 1834 – more than 30,000 Americans in Texas
compared to 8,000 Mexicans.
Trace the area
Texas on your
• Americans held conventions to try and get the
• Fighting erupts when an attempt to seize a
cannon from the Americans in Gonzales.
• 1836-Mexican general and dictator, Santa
Anna marches his troops and slaughters
Texans at the Alamo and Goliad.
• Texans win their independence from Mexico.
“Remember the Alamo” became the motto for independence.
• 11th president- Democratic- one term
• Promised Annexation of Texas if elected and
to obtain the Oregon Territory to its northern
• Compromised with the British to control the
• 1845- Congress approves annexation of Texas.
• US feared that if Texas remained free it would
block westward expansion.
Texas and the Missouri Compromise
• New States north of the compromise line will
be “Free States”.
• New States south of the compromise line will
be “Slave States”.
• Texas is a “Slave State”.
• Boundary disputes in Texas may lead to war
US-Mexican War (1846-1848)
• President Polk declares war to expand US
• US troops land in Mexico and march to Mexico
• Mexico is defeated and forced to give up
California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, parts of
Colorado and New Mexico.
• Treaty of Guadalupe- US will pay Mexico $15
million dollars for these territories.
• Known as the “Mexican Cession”.