Population Growth• 1780 = 13 states with 2.7 millionpeople• 1830 = 24 states with 12 millionpeople• 90% of population increasecomes from childbirth notimmigration
Manifest Destiny• Americans began to believe that democracywas a superior (the best) form ofgovernment.• Many Americans felt that it was the destinyof our nation to spread from the Atlantic tothe Pacific Ocean.
Unfortunately, Manifest Destiny also led toracist beliefs. Many felt that Mexicans andIndians were inferior to whites and had noclaim to the area.
The nations were theUnited States, GreatBritain, Spain, &RussiaBy 1818, the U.S. andGreat Britain reachedan agreement in whicheach nations’ settlerswould occupy Oregonjointly and have equalrights. Because Spainand Russia had so fewsettlers, they droppedtheir claims.
The first real Americans& Europeans to settlein Oregon werehunters and trappersknown as MountainMen.Mountain Men wereusually young, ruggedmen who lived off theland. Their lives werefilled with danger
By the 1830’strapping died outdue to the overhunting of furbearing animals.Now, theMountain Menbegan using theirskills to guidesettlers into theOregon Country.
Thousand’s left to make the 2,000 milejourney. On foot, most would try to timethe journey so they would arrive byOctober.
There were many dangers along the trail including rivercrossings, blistering heat, and snow storms. The biggestthreat were diseases like cholera which was known to wipeout entire wagon trains. Germs spread easily due to theclose contact of travelers.
• Pioneers would often trade with friendly Indiansand rarely have problems with them.• About 50,000 people made the journey between1840-1860.• Wagon tracks can still be found today• By the 1840’s, Americans greatly outnumberedthe British and many wanted the territory tobelong to the US alone!
The vast majority of the southwest was owned by MexicoThe New Mexico Territory included Arizona, New Mexico. Nevada,Utah and parts of Colorado.
Santé Fe was a huge trading post in New Mexico. The Mexicangovernment began allowing Americans there after Mexico gainedindependence. William Becknell was the first American to makethe journey with other traders of cloth and tools. The Mexicanswere eager customers, so others followed along what becameknown as the Santé Fe Trail.
James K. Polk Henry ClayThe Election of1844• Manifest Destinybecame the key issueof the 1844 election.The Whigs nominatedHenry ClayThe Democratsnominated James K.Polk
• Polk was unknown by most but he became wellknown after stating that Texas and Oregon mustbecome part of the Union. He stated that ourborder should extend from the latitude 54º-40º.Americans agreed and elected Polk narrowly!
Joseph SmithThe largest group ofsettlers to theMexican cessionwere a religiousgroup known asMormons (TheChurch of JesusChrist of Latter-day Saints) . It wasfounded by JosephSmith in 1830
• The Mormons werepersecuted for theirbeliefs includingcollectivism andpolygamy.• After moving fromNew York, theMormons settled inIllinois where theyprospered
Because of theanti-Mormonsentiment,many decidedto leave Illinoisand headtoward theGreat SaltLake betweenthe RockyMountains.
Brigham YoungThey were led by Brigham Young whoplanned the journey of 15,000 Mormonsto the Great Salt Lake. Scores ofsettlers moved in and Young helpedestablish a thriving territory
MORMON TRAIL!!!Remember- the journey was made to escapereligious persecution and live in harmony.
In 1848, a man by the name of James Marshall found gold atSutter’s Mill.Word spread quickly and by 1849, more than 80,000 people madethe trek to California, increasing its population astronomically.
Those who settled inCalifornia as a result of theGold Rush were known as“forty-niners”.Most, however, found onlyenough gold to barely paytheir daily expenses. TheCalifornia Gold Rush isgenerally considered tohave ended in 1858, whenthe New Mexican GoldRush began.Most did not find a fortune,and often went broke andfound other jobs.
California realizedthat it needed agovernment anddrafted a stateconstitution in1849. The USdebated whetheror not they wouldallow CA tobecome a state.The primaryissue- slavery!Ultimately, itbecame a free-state in 1850 .
SSUSH8 The student willexplain the relationshipbetween growing north-southdivisions and westwardexpansion.e. Explain the Compromise of1850
Stephen DouglasThe Compromise of 1850• Illinois Senator named StephenDouglas drafted a compromise thatwould allow California to enter theUnion.• Douglas worked tirelesslyfor the passage of theCompromise of 1850.
The Compromise of 1850 had 4parts:1. California enters the Union as a FREE state.2. The Mexican Cession was divided into twoterritories (Utah and New Mexico). Eachwould determine on their own whether to befree or slave states.3. The slave trade in Washington, DC ends.4. A strict fugitive slave law is passed.* A compromise was established, but both sides wereunhappy. The Fugitive Slave Law Upset manyNortherners.
The new Fugitive Slave Lawof 1850 required citizensto catch runaway slaves.Those who let slaves getaway could be fined$1,000 and spend 6months in jail.A new court was set up tohear cases regardingrunaway slaves. If aslave was returned, thepresiding judge wouldget $10. If the judge didnot send a slave to thesouth, he only earned $5.
Thousands of freeblacks fled to Canadain fear of beingkidnapped.The fugitive slave lawpleased southerners,but northerners hatedit! They now felt partof the slave system!But the law didconvince many morenortherners tobecome more activein the abolitionistmovement!
California Culture• Native Americans- Manywere driven off their landand died as a result ofdisease and murder. In1850, there were 100,000Indians. By 1870, there were17,000,• Mexican Americans- Manylost their land claims towhite settlers, but foughthard to get it back. Theyoften worked as day laborersand were banned frommining.
African Americans-Thousandsrushed to CA for gold likemuch of America. Some didwell, but they faced awfuldiscrimination. Some arrived asslaves but found enough gold tobuy the freedom for themselvesand family members.Chinese Americans- Beganarriving in 1848 and werewelcomed until they stakedclaims in gold fields, and thenwere banned from mining.There were 25,000 of them inCalifornia by 1852. ManyChinese took jobs building theTranscontinental Railroad.
SSUSH8 The student willexplain the relationshipbetween growing north-southdivisions and westwardexpansion.b. Explain the Missouri Compromise andthe issue of slavery in western states andterritories.
Missouri Compromise• In 1818, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slavestate.• Many Americans objected because the number ofslave and free states were evenly split. If Missourientered the Union, the South would have theadvantage in the Senate.• Maine had also asked to join the Union around thesame time. Henry Clay came up with a compromise.Clay’s Missouri Compromisewould admit Missouri as aslave state and Maine asa free state.
The Missouri Compromise also drew a line along thesouthern border of Missouri. Slavery was permitted in thepart of the Louisiana Purchase south of that line, and allareas (except Missouri) north of that line could not haveslavery!
Slaves in the Mexican Cession?After the Mexican War, the North wanted toinsure that none of the new territory wouldallow slaves.
SSUSH8 The student willexplain the relationshipbetween growing north-southdivisions and westwardexpansion.d. Describe war with Mexico andthe Wilmot Proviso.
In 1821, Spain,gave MosesAustin a landgrant in Texas.He died shortlyafter so his sonStephen tookover the job ofsettling theland.Moses Austin
The same year, Mexico won itsindependence from Spain. TheMexican decided to allow Austinand other American settlers intoTexas under three conditions:
1. They becomeloyal Mexicancitizens2. They would obeythe laws and speakSpanish3. They wouldbecome members ofthe Roman CatholicChurch
Stephen Austin carefullypicked 300 families tosettle in Texas with him in1821. By 1830, there were20,000 settlers.Many of the new Americanin Texas refused to convertto Catholicism and thisangered the Mexicangovernment. In 1830, theyforbade the immigration ofany more Americans.Stephen F. Austin
The Mexican government began enforcing its lawsmore strictly and banned slavery and outlawed thepractice of any religion but Catholicism.
In 1832, Mexico hada new leader,General AntonioLopez de SantaAnna.The Tejanos(Mexicans living inTX) hated SantaAnna and workedwith the Americansettlers towardindependence.Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
In 1832, Texans clashed with Mexican troops in Gonzalesand defeated them. Two months later, Texans took SanAntonio. Santa Anna was angered and sent in his troops toretake the city. Most of the Texans had scattered, but theremaining 200 retreated to the Alamo.
On March 2, 1836, Texans met atWashington-on-the-Brazos and declared theirindependence and established the Republic of Texas.
On April 21, 1836, Sam Houston organized his troopsto attack Santa Anna who was with his troops inSan Jacinto.The Battle lasted 18 minutes with 630 Mexicans killedand 700 captured.
Santa Anna was forced to sign a treatygranting Texas its independence.Republic of Texas Flag 1836-1845
The Republic ofTexas still hadproblems:1. Mexico didnot acceptSanta Anna’streaty2. Texas wasnearlybankruptMost Texans wantedthe US to annex (addon) Texas to theUnionReenactment of a“Texas Annexation Rally”
Most US southernerswanted Texas to beannexed, but mostnortherners did NOTwant to add anotherpro-slavery state tothe Union.President AndrewJackson wanted toavoid war withMexico so he decidednot to annex Texas.
Polk easily gained Oregon for the nation bypeacefully negotiating with the British(Treaty of Oregon in 1846 ). Border was set at 49º.Unfortunately, gaining Texas was more difficult.It would require war!
Sam Houston, Presidentof Texas, signed a treatyof annexation with theUS.The Congress fearedwar with Mexico andrefused to ratify it.Houston tricked theCongress into believingthat Texas was alliedwith Britain. It workedand in 1845, Texas wasadmitted into the Unionover the objection ofMexico. Sam Houston
Mexico never acceptedthe independence of Texasand were furious aboutthe US annexation. SantaAnna suggested thatannexation was,“equivalent to adeclaration of war againstthe Mexican Republic.”President Polk offeredMexico $30 million forCalifornia and NM, butMexico refused to loseanymore land.
President Polk orderedGeneral Zachary Taylorto cross the Nueces River(into disputed territory)and set up posts along theRio GrandePolk hoped the Mexicanswould attack, sparking awarThe Mexican army didattack in April of 1846Resulting in both US andMexican fatalitiesGeneral Zachary Taylor
Since the USclaimed the land (asdid Mexico),President Polkclaimed thatMexico had “shedAmerican blood onAmerican soil.”He urged Congressto declare war, butthe North opposedit because it saw itas a plot to increasethe number of slavestates in the nation.
Ultimately, a declaration of war was approvedand many Americans heeded the call to jointhe military. The Mexican War had begun!
General Zachary Taylor continued his assaultinto northern Mexico and won several victories.In 1847, he defeated Santa Anna’s 14,000soldiers with only 5,000 American troops in theBattle of Buena Vista, but was unable to capturethe leader as he retreated.
General WinfieldScott landed 12,000troops3 miles southeast ofthe Mexican port ofVera CruzScott’s mensurrounded the townand after 12 days offighting, theMexicanssurrendered
A third armyled by Gen.StephenKearnycaptured SantaFe, New Mexicoand thendarted westand securedSouthernCalifornia. General Stephen Kearny
On September 13, 1847,the United States Marinesand soldiers attacked theCastle at Chapultepec(Halls of Montezuma)During the siege of thecastle, which served as aMexican military academy,young Mexican soldiersand cadets fought to thedeath, while the marinesand soldiers lost 90% of itsofficers and Non-Commissioned Officers
Ultimately the fortress was taken, but ithas gone down in history as the“Mexican’s Alamo”.
Americans in California,led by John C. Fremont,had begun fighting theMexicans before the UStroops arrived.On June 6, 1846, theydefeated the Mexicans anddeclared California aRepublic, but Fremont soonjoined forces with theUS Army.John C. Fremont
In 1848, the Mexicanssurrendered andsigned the Treaty ofGuadalupe-Hidalgounder which theyceded all ofCalifornia and NewMexico to the US for$15 million.The lands becameknown as theMexican Cession.
A Congressman fromPennsylvania named David Wilmotcalled on Congress to outlawslavery in any of the land takenfrom Mexico. This became knownas theWilmot Proviso.Southerners were outraged and argued that thegovernment had no right to ban slavery in anyterritory. Although the Wilmot Proviso passed inthe House, it failed in the Senate.David WilmotWilmot Proviso.
In 1853, 5 years after the Mexican War, the US purchased partsof present day southern Arizona and New Mexico for $10million. This was known as the Gadsden Purchase.Manifest Destiny was complete!