French Revolution• Why? absolutism, hunger, debts and philosophers• Who? King Louis XVI & “Madame Deﬁcit”, USA!,Robespierre, peasants & middle class
French Rev.: Effects/Signiﬁcance• new form of gov. (temporarily)• ends feudalism; people gain rights• bloodshed! Great Fear and Reign of Terror• serves as an example for other nations• changes balance of power in Europe
Mexican Revolution 1910-20• Why? Dictator Diaz and land• Who? Madero, Zapata, andVilla• “tierra y libertad”
Effects/Signiﬁcance• big move towards democracy• rights for the masses• land reform• change in relationship w/ the United States
• Why? “Peace, Land and Bread”• Who? Nicholas II, Bolsheviks, Lenin, and StalinRussian Revolution
Effects/Signiﬁcance• Communism• ﬁve year plans• WW II• Cold War
Chinese Revolutions• Why? emperor, nationalism, lack of landownership, and concentration of wealth• Who? SunYat-sen, Mao Zedong, Red Guard, andpeasants
Effects/Signiﬁcance• communism!• socioeconomic reforms• Great Leap Forward• Cultural Revolution• Korean War• death of millions!!!
Indian Revolution• Why? British imperialism and desire to protectculture and resources• Who? Gandhi, Nehru and the Indian NationalCongress
Effects/Signiﬁcance• Beginning of the end of British Imperialism• India regains independence• leads to the creation of Pakistan & Bangladesh
Cuban Revolution• Why? Dictator Fulgencio Batista and the U.S. gov.• HUGE gap between the rich and poor• Who? Fidel Castro, Ernesto “Che” Guevara andpeasants
Effect/Signiﬁcance• Communism• fear of ”another Cuba”• revolutionary icons• C.I.A. operations• Cuban Missile Crisis!
South Africa• Cause: apartheid, self-rule, individual politicaland economic rights, int’l pressure• Who? Nelson Mandela, ANC, F.W. deKlerk• violent and nonviolent protests
Effects/Signiﬁcance• End of the legacy of imperialism in S.Africa• everyone can vote!• equality!• Nobel Peace Prizes• no retribution
What Causes Revolutions?• land (Russia, Mexico, Cuba, France)• hunger (Russia, China, Mexico, France)• end of dictators/monarchy (Russia, Cuba, China,Mexico, France)• self rule/determination (Cuba, India, S.Africa)• ideology (Russia, China, Cuba, France, S.Africa)• desire for peace (Russia)